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Acadia - Missing Links of a Lost Chapter in American History
By Edouard Richard (1895)


Volume I

Introductory Remarks
Chapter I
Discovery of Acadia (1604).—Foundation of Port Royal (1605).— Brief Summary of the Colony’s History under the French Regime until its Cession to England in 1710.
Chapter II
Surrender of Port Royal, Oct. 13tli, 1710—Articles of the capitulation—Cession of Port Royal with the territory “within cannon-shot”—Vetch named governor of the place—Five inhabitants of Port Royal made prisoners—The garrison decimated by sickness —Saint Castin comes with 42 Abenakis to direct operations against the fort—Battle of “Bloody Creek—Port Royal besieged—The Acadians of the ceded territory withdraw—The garrison is reinforced and the projected siege is abandoned.
Chapter III
Treaty of Utrecht—Cession of Acadia—Clauses of the treaty and letter ot Queen Anne—Lieutenant-Governor Vetch opposes the departure of the Acadians—Arrival of Governor Nicholson—MM', de la Ronde and Pinsens at Port Royal to remove obstacles to their departure—Referred to the Queen—Subterfuges—Character of Nicholson and of Vetch—Compilation ot the archives of Nova Scotia—Artifices of the Compiler, his partiality, etc., etc.
Chapter IV
Lieutenant-Governor Caulfield—He sends Peter Oapoon and Thomas Button to have the Acadians take the oath of allegiance—Answers of the Acadians—Omissions of the Compiler— Lieutenant-Governor John Doucette—New injunction to take the oath—They consent to remain in the country on certain conditions with regard to the oath—Other omissions.
Chapter V
Administration of Philipps (1730-1722)—Taking the required oath of allegiance or departure within four months without carrying away anything—Decision to depart—Disappointment of Philipps—New omissions of the Compiler—The Acadians undertake to open a road in. order to effectuate their departure —Pailipiis orders the suspension of the works—Prolongation of the delay—Cajoleries to keep back the Acadians—Important letter of the Secretary of State Craggs—Parkman.
Chapter VI
Departure of Philipps (1722)—Doucette reassumes his functions as lieutenant-governor, which he exercises till 1725—Total absence in the volume of the Archives of documents for this period—Armstrong' succeeds him—His character—Taking of the oath at Annapolis—Captain Bennett and Philipps make the tour of tlie province for the same purpose—Their failure—Armstrong confides the same mission to Officer Worth—Incomplete success— His report.
Chapter VII
Return of Philipps—All the Acadians of the peninsula take the oath—Nature of this oath—It was entitled “Oath of fealty," (“Serment de Fidelite”), and the Acadians were called “French Neutrals”—What the Compiler thinks of this—Parkman.
Chapter VIII
Philipps returns to England 1731—Armstrong resumes the administration of the province—His character, his difficulties with Major Cosby, Biinn, Winniett, etc.—His relations with Maugeant—The Compiler, his omissions, his artifices—Suicide of Armstrong, Dec. 6tli, 1739.
Chapter IX
Armstrong's difficulties with the clergy - he case of Abbe de Breslav, Abbe Isidore, and Messrs Chauvreulx and de St. Poncy— Painful situation of the clergy—Their attitude.
Chapter X
Major Paul Mascarene succeeds Armstrong—His character—His skill—His success—(1740-1744).
Chapter XI
War declared between France and England—Acadia invaded fey the French under the command of Duvivier and De Ganne— Efforts to stir up the Acadians to revolt—The expedition withdraws—New expedition by Marin and later by Ramesay—Battle of Grand Pre —Fidelity of the Acadians—Testimonies of Mascarene, etc., etc,—The Compiler—Parkman.
Chapter XII
Other events of the war (1744-1748)—Iniquitous projects of Shirley against the Acadians—Their alarms—Letter of Shirley repudiating the supposed projects—It is not judged satisfactory— Shirley procures the authorization of the Secretary of State and issues a proclamation to the Acadians—His correspondence with the Duke of Newcastle—Proclamations of the French commander to the Acadians —Firmness of the Acadians.
Chapter XIII
Signing of the treaty of Aix-la-ChapelIe—Cape Breton restored to France—The French remain in their positions on the north side of the Bay of Fundy—Founding of Halifax, June, 1749—Proclamation of the new governor, Edward Cornwallis—Oath without restriction exacted or departure within three months— Refusal of the whole population—Embarrassment of Cornwallis— Temporizing—Founding of Beausejour by the French—Their efforts to attract the Acadians.
Chapter XIV
Cornwallis’s proclamation is followed by the departure of some families—The emigration threatens to become general—In the beginning of May, 1730, the Acadian deputies, assembled at Halifax, ask leave to quit the country—Cornwallis, frightened, changes his tone— He avoids giving an answer; will give it when they have done their sowing—Seed-time over, the deputies return to Halifax—Fresh subterfuge.
Chapter XV
Doings of the French—The Abbe Le Loutre—His character-Parkrnan's opinion.
Chapter XVI
Murder of Edward Howe—What Parkman says of it—He accuses Le Loutre—His partiality and his ruses—"Les Memoires sur le Canada”—Pichon—What he was.
Chapter XVII
Intrigues of the French to urge the Indians to hostilities—Letter of La -Tonquiere to the Minister—Indian warfare against the English—Hostilities between English and French—Le Loutre’s methods against the Acadians—He is blamed by the Bishop of Quebec—Divers acts of cruelty against the Indians of Maine.
Chapter XVIII
Treaty of peace concluded between the English and the Indians of Acadia during the autumn of 1753—An infamous deed com mitted by Conner and Grace, two inhabitants of Halifax, puts an end to the treaty—Revenge of the Indians—Captivity of Anthony Casteel, messenger of the Council—His journal—Mistakes of historians with regard to these two incidents.
Chapter XIX
Peace-making—Peregrine Thomas Hopson succeeds Cornwallis in 1752—His conciliatory spirit—He inspires great confidence and secures happy results—After fifteen months his health obliges him to return to England.
Chapter XX
General Considerations—England and France.
Chapter XXI
Major Charles Lawrence, President of the Council, acts as administrator in expectation of Hopson’s return—His character— His behavior towards the English colonists, the Germans and the Acadians, causes great dissatisfaction.
Chapter XXII
Lawrence becomes Lieutenant-Governor—His accusations against the Acadians—Project of expulsion—The Lords of Trade.
Chapter XXIII
Lawrence's persecution—Its effect—Complaints to justify the deportation collected in the Archives—Order not to quit the province under pain of military execution for the families of delinquents.
Chapter XXIV
Situation of the Acadians at Beausejour—Venality of Vergor and the French officers—Le Loutre.
Chapter XXV
Pichon’s letter provokes an expedition against Beausejour—Preparations in New England—Monkton, assisted by Lieutenant-Colonels Winslow and Scott, arrives at Fort Lawrence with 2,000 men. June 2nd, 1755—Consternation of the French and weakness of the garrison—Assistance impossible—Siege of Beausejour—The Acadians refuse help—Three hundred are forced to take up arms—Capitulation—Le Loutre’s flight—Pichon claims his reward—What England owes to the Acadians.

Volume II

Chapter XXVI
June 6th, Lawrence, by a trick, confiscates 400 muskets—He orders the Acadians to give up the remainder of their arms—June 10th, Petition of the Acadians of Grand Pre and Pigiguit begging Lawrence not to oblige them to give up their arms—This Petition is not considered till July 3d; meanwhile, the arms are surrendered—The Petition is deemed insolent—New Petition—Lawrence’s grievances—The Acadian delegates at first refuse the oath —The next day they offer to take it—Lawrence’s refusal—They are put in prison.
Chapter XXVII
June 28th Lawrence announces to the Lords of Trade the taking of Beausejour—He says he has ordered Monckton to expel the Acadians from Beausejour—July 15th Lawrence gets Boscawen to approve the expulsion—Which had long since been decided upon—Proofs—Morris’s report—Lawrence seeks pretexts—His letter of July 18th to the Lords of Trade—He disguises his designs—July 25th one hundred Acadian delegates appear before Lawrence—Refusal of the oath—They are Imprisoned—The priests carried off—Letter from Daudin.
Chapter XXVIII
July 31st—Lawrence’s instructions to Monckton, Winslow, Murray and Handfielil about the deportation—Proofs of his cruelty.
Chapter XXIX
Winslow goes from Beausejour to Grand Pre to execute Lawrence’s orders—Proclamation—His Journal—Winslow's state of mind—Murray—Prebble.
Chapter XXX
Memorable day, September 9th, at Grand Pre—Four hundred and fifteen adults gathered in the church—Reading the edict of deportation—Usurped powers—Despatch of the Secretary of State, Sir Thomas Robinson, to Lawrence, dated August 13th, in reply to his letter of June 28th—The Secretary of State greatly alarmed at Lawrence’s disguised projects—Either this despatch came too late or Lawrence feigns not to have received it in time—October 18th, he briefly announces the deportation to the Lords of Trade without replying to the despatch of August 13th, to which he replies only on November 30th and then briefly— Letter of March 25th, 1756—The very important despatch of August 13th is passed over in silence by almost all writers— Brown and Parkman.
Chapter XXXI
How the convocation and arrest of the Acadians succeeded in other places.—A few vessels arrive at Grand Pre.—Winslow decides to put all young men on board—They resist but finally obey. —Scenes of woe and distress—Correspondence between Murray, Winslow and Prebble showing their state of mind—Seven more vessels arrive four weeks later—Departure of the fleet on the 31st of October—Other incidents—Computations about the cattle of the Acadians.
Chapter XXXII
Lawrence’s administration reviewed—Facts linked together showing his early design to deport the Acadians. his interested motives and his clever tactics to bring it about without endangering his ambitious projects—How he deceived the Home authorities —Repeated charges against him by Halifax people—Their truth finally admitted by the Secretary of State—His timely death saves him from disgrace.
Chapter XXXIII
Character sketch of Parkman—His ideas and ways—Murdoch, Haliburton, Campbell, Brown, Longfellow, the compiler—Brook Watson, Moses de les Derniers.
Chapter XXXIV
Comments on Lawrence’s letter to the Governors—On Parkman's insinuations anent the separation of families—More on Parkman's ways.
Chapter XXXV
The Acadians in Exile.
Chapter XXXVI
The Acadians in Pennsylvania, in the Carolinas, at Boston and in Maryland.
Chapter XXXVII
The Acadians in South Carolina, Georgia, etc.
Chapter XXXVIII
The Acadians at Boston; in Virginia: these latter are not allowed to land: they are sent to England—Frightful mortality—One of the ships destined for Philadelphia is lost at sea; two others are driven by storm on the island of San Domingo: a fourth is saved by the Acadians and stranded near St. John River—Inhabitants of Cape Sable attacked.
Chapter XXXIX
Capture of Louisburg—New deportations—Four thousand Acadians of Prince Edward Island are deported to England and France—One or two vessels founder—Three hundred Acadians perish in one shipwreck.
Chapter XL
Fate of a party of 200 Acadians coming from Quebec—The Acadians on the Gulf coast send delegates to Colonel Frye—Their submission and fate—The Compiler—New persecutions—Motives of the local authorities—Belcher’s administration—1761-1763)— General Amherst four times refuses to allow him to deport the Acadians— He applies to the Lords of Trade and is refused—He deports the Acadians to Boston without orders—They are refused a landing there and are taken back to Halifax—Severe blame from the Home authorities—Belcher is replaced by Colonel Montague "Wilmot—The Compiler.
Chapter XLI
Colonel Montague Wilmot’s administration, 1764-1766—The Lords of Trade’s earnest endeavor to procure a settlement for the Acadians in the Province or neighboring colonies thwarted by Wilmot— He is afraid they will come back, and wants them to be sent to tropical climates—He forces them to that course through persecutions and disgust—His object made clear by his own letters—His death at Halifax.
Chapter XLII
Michael Franklin's long and fruitful administration (1766-1776)— He does all in his power to carry out the wishes of the Home Authorities and to alleviate the distress of the Acadians—They settle wherever they please, at Prospect, Chezetcook, Isle Madame, Memramcook and other places—The d’Entremonts are restored to their former lands at Cape Sable—A party of 800 gather at Boston and settle mostly at Baie St. Marie.
Chapter XLIII
The war of Independence—The Loyalists—Condition of the Acadians—Their last disabilities removed.
Chapter LXIV
The Acadians in England, France, Guiana, San Domingo, Hispaniola, Louisiana. Canada—Their many transmigrations — Awful rate of mortality—General Statistics.
Chapter LXV
Concluding Remarks
Appendix


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