Discovery of Acadia (1604).—Foundation of Port Royal (1605).— Brief
Summary of the Colony’s History under the French Regime until its
Cession to England in 1710.
Surrender of Port Royal, Oct. 13tli, 1710—Articles of the
capitulation—Cession of Port Royal with the territory “within
cannon-shot”—Vetch named governor of the place—Five inhabitants of
Port Royal made prisoners—The garrison decimated by sickness —Saint
Castin comes with 42 Abenakis to direct operations against the
fort—Battle of “Bloody Creek—Port Royal besieged—The Acadians of the
ceded territory withdraw—The garrison is reinforced and the
projected siege is abandoned.
Treaty of Utrecht—Cession of Acadia—Clauses of the treaty and letter
ot Queen Anne—Lieutenant-Governor Vetch opposes the departure of the
Acadians—Arrival of Governor Nicholson—MM', de la Ronde and Pinsens
at Port Royal to remove obstacles to their departure—Referred to the
Queen—Subterfuges—Character of Nicholson and of Vetch—Compilation ot
the archives of Nova Scotia—Artifices of the Compiler, his
partiality, etc., etc.
Lieutenant-Governor Caulfield—He sends Peter Oapoon and Thomas
Button to have the Acadians take the oath of allegiance—Answers of
the Acadians—Omissions of the Compiler— Lieutenant-Governor John
Doucette—New injunction to take the oath—They consent to remain in
the country on certain conditions with regard to the oath—Other
Administration of Philipps (1730-1722)—Taking the required oath of
allegiance or departure within four months without carrying away
anything—Decision to depart—Disappointment of Philipps—New omissions
of the Compiler—The Acadians undertake to open a road in. order to
effectuate their departure —Pailipiis orders the suspension of the
works—Prolongation of the delay—Cajoleries to keep back the
Acadians—Important letter of the Secretary of State Craggs—Parkman.
Departure of Philipps (1722)—Doucette reassumes his functions as
lieutenant-governor, which he exercises till 1725—Total absence in
the volume of the Archives of documents for this period—Armstrong'
succeeds him—His character—Taking of the oath at Annapolis—Captain
Bennett and Philipps make the tour of tlie province for the same
purpose—Their failure—Armstrong confides the same mission to Officer
Worth—Incomplete success— His report.
Return of Philipps—All the Acadians of the peninsula take the
oath—Nature of this oath—It was entitled “Oath of fealty," (“Serment
de Fidelite”), and the Acadians were called “French Neutrals”—What
the Compiler thinks of this—Parkman.
Philipps returns to England 1731—Armstrong resumes the
administration of the province—His character, his difficulties with
Major Cosby, Biinn, Winniett, etc.—His relations with Maugeant—The
Compiler, his omissions, his artifices—Suicide of Armstrong, Dec.
Armstrong's difficulties with the clergy - he case of Abbe de
Breslav, Abbe Isidore, and Messrs Chauvreulx and de St. Poncy—
Painful situation of the clergy—Their attitude.
Major Paul Mascarene succeeds Armstrong—His character—His skill—His
War declared between France and England—Acadia invaded fey the
French under the command of Duvivier and De Ganne— Efforts to stir
up the Acadians to revolt—The expedition withdraws—New expedition by
Marin and later by Ramesay—Battle of Grand Pre —Fidelity of the
Acadians—Testimonies of Mascarene, etc., etc,—The Compiler—Parkman.
Other events of the war (1744-1748)—Iniquitous projects of Shirley
against the Acadians—Their alarms—Letter of Shirley repudiating the
supposed projects—It is not judged satisfactory— Shirley procures
the authorization of the Secretary of State and issues a
proclamation to the Acadians—His correspondence with the Duke of
Newcastle—Proclamations of the French commander to the Acadians
—Firmness of the Acadians.
Signing of the treaty of Aix-la-ChapelIe—Cape Breton restored to
France—The French remain in their positions on the north side of the
Bay of Fundy—Founding of Halifax, June, 1749—Proclamation of the new
governor, Edward Cornwallis—Oath without restriction exacted or
departure within three months— Refusal of the whole
population—Embarrassment of Cornwallis— Temporizing—Founding of
Beausejour by the French—Their efforts to attract the Acadians.
Cornwallis’s proclamation is followed by the departure of some
families—The emigration threatens to become general—In the beginning
of May, 1730, the Acadian deputies, assembled at Halifax, ask leave
to quit the country—Cornwallis, frightened, changes his tone— He
avoids giving an answer; will give it when they have done their
sowing—Seed-time over, the deputies return to Halifax—Fresh
Doings of the French—The Abbe Le Loutre—His character-Parkrnan's
Murder of Edward Howe—What Parkman says of it—He accuses Le Loutre—His
partiality and his ruses—"Les Memoires sur le Canada”—Pichon—What he
Intrigues of the French to urge the Indians to hostilities—Letter of
La -Tonquiere to the Minister—Indian warfare against the
English—Hostilities between English and French—Le Loutre’s methods
against the Acadians—He is blamed by the Bishop of Quebec—Divers
acts of cruelty against the Indians of Maine.
Treaty of peace concluded between the English and the Indians of
Acadia during the autumn of 1753—An infamous deed com mitted by
Conner and Grace, two inhabitants of Halifax, puts an end to the
treaty—Revenge of the Indians—Captivity of Anthony Casteel,
messenger of the Council—His journal—Mistakes of historians with
regard to these two incidents.
Peace-making—Peregrine Thomas Hopson succeeds Cornwallis in 1752—His
conciliatory spirit—He inspires great confidence and secures happy
results—After fifteen months his health obliges him to return to
General Considerations—England and France.
Major Charles Lawrence, President of the Council, acts as
administrator in expectation of Hopson’s return—His character— His
behavior towards the English colonists, the Germans and the
Acadians, causes great dissatisfaction.
Lawrence becomes Lieutenant-Governor—His accusations against the
Acadians—Project of expulsion—The Lords of Trade.
Lawrence's persecution—Its effect—Complaints to justify the
deportation collected in the Archives—Order not to quit the province
under pain of military execution for the families of delinquents.
Situation of the Acadians at Beausejour—Venality of Vergor and the
French officers—Le Loutre.
Pichon’s letter provokes an expedition against Beausejour—Preparations
in New England—Monkton, assisted by Lieutenant-Colonels Winslow and
Scott, arrives at Fort Lawrence with 2,000 men. June 2nd,
1755—Consternation of the French and weakness of the
garrison—Assistance impossible—Siege of Beausejour—The Acadians
refuse help—Three hundred are forced to take up arms—Capitulation—Le
Loutre’s flight—Pichon claims his reward—What England owes to the
June 6th, Lawrence, by a trick, confiscates 400 muskets—He orders
the Acadians to give up the remainder of their arms—June 10th,
Petition of the Acadians of Grand Pre and Pigiguit begging Lawrence
not to oblige them to give up their arms—This Petition is not
considered till July 3d; meanwhile, the arms are surrendered—The
Petition is deemed insolent—New Petition—Lawrence’s grievances—The
Acadian delegates at first refuse the oath —The next day they offer
to take it—Lawrence’s refusal—They are put in prison.
June 28th Lawrence announces to the Lords of Trade the taking of
Beausejour—He says he has ordered Monckton to expel the Acadians
from Beausejour—July 15th Lawrence gets Boscawen to approve the
expulsion—Which had long since been decided upon—Proofs—Morris’s
report—Lawrence seeks pretexts—His letter of July 18th to the Lords
of Trade—He disguises his designs—July 25th one hundred Acadian
delegates appear before Lawrence—Refusal of the oath—They are
Imprisoned—The priests carried off—Letter from Daudin.
July 31st—Lawrence’s instructions to Monckton, Winslow, Murray and
Handfielil about the deportation—Proofs of his cruelty.
Winslow goes from Beausejour to Grand Pre to execute Lawrence’s
orders—Proclamation—His Journal—Winslow's state of mind—Murray—Prebble.
Memorable day, September 9th, at Grand Pre—Four hundred and fifteen
adults gathered in the church—Reading the edict of
deportation—Usurped powers—Despatch of the Secretary of State, Sir
Thomas Robinson, to Lawrence, dated August 13th, in reply to his
letter of June 28th—The Secretary of State greatly alarmed at
Lawrence’s disguised projects—Either this despatch came too late or
Lawrence feigns not to have received it in time—October 18th, he
briefly announces the deportation to the Lords of Trade without
replying to the despatch of August 13th, to which he replies only on
November 30th and then briefly— Letter of March 25th, 1756—The very
important despatch of August 13th is passed over in silence by
almost all writers— Brown and Parkman.
How the convocation and arrest of the Acadians succeeded in other
places.—A few vessels arrive at Grand Pre.—Winslow decides to put
all young men on board—They resist but finally obey. —Scenes of woe
and distress—Correspondence between Murray, Winslow and Prebble
showing their state of mind—Seven more vessels arrive four weeks
later—Departure of the fleet on the 31st of October—Other
incidents—Computations about the cattle of the Acadians.
Lawrence’s administration reviewed—Facts linked together showing his
early design to deport the Acadians. his interested motives and his
clever tactics to bring it about without endangering his ambitious
projects—How he deceived the Home authorities —Repeated charges
against him by Halifax people—Their truth finally admitted by the
Secretary of State—His timely death saves him from disgrace.
Character sketch of Parkman—His ideas and ways—Murdoch, Haliburton,
Campbell, Brown, Longfellow, the compiler—Brook Watson, Moses de les
Comments on Lawrence’s letter to the Governors—On Parkman's
insinuations anent the separation of families—More on Parkman's
The Acadians in Exile.
The Acadians in Pennsylvania, in the Carolinas, at Boston and in
The Acadians in South Carolina, Georgia, etc.
The Acadians at Boston; in Virginia: these latter are not allowed to
land: they are sent to England—Frightful mortality—One of the ships
destined for Philadelphia is lost at sea; two others are driven by
storm on the island of San Domingo: a fourth is saved by the
Acadians and stranded near St. John River—Inhabitants of Cape Sable
Capture of Louisburg—New deportations—Four thousand Acadians of
Prince Edward Island are deported to England and France—One or two
vessels founder—Three hundred Acadians perish in one shipwreck.
Fate of a party of 200 Acadians coming from Quebec—The Acadians on
the Gulf coast send delegates to Colonel Frye—Their submission and
fate—The Compiler—New persecutions—Motives of the local
authorities—Belcher’s administration—1761-1763)— General Amherst
four times refuses to allow him to deport the Acadians— He applies
to the Lords of Trade and is refused—He deports the Acadians to
Boston without orders—They are refused a landing there and are taken
back to Halifax—Severe blame from the Home authorities—Belcher is
replaced by Colonel Montague "Wilmot—The Compiler.
Colonel Montague Wilmot’s administration, 1764-1766—The Lords of
Trade’s earnest endeavor to procure a settlement for the Acadians in
the Province or neighboring colonies thwarted by Wilmot— He is
afraid they will come back, and wants them to be sent to tropical
climates—He forces them to that course through persecutions and
disgust—His object made clear by his own letters—His death at
Michael Franklin's long and fruitful administration (1766-1776)— He
does all in his power to carry out the wishes of the Home
Authorities and to alleviate the distress of the Acadians—They
settle wherever they please, at Prospect, Chezetcook, Isle Madame,
Memramcook and other places—The d’Entremonts are restored to their
former lands at Cape Sable—A party of 800 gather at Boston and
settle mostly at Baie St. Marie.
The war of Independence—The Loyalists—Condition of the
Acadians—Their last disabilities removed.
The Acadians in England, France, Guiana, San Domingo, Hispaniola,
Louisiana. Canada—Their many transmigrations — Awful rate of