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An overview of the Agricultural market 2014
From Statistics Canada


This 2014 report provides an economic overview of the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system with the latest comprehensive annual data from 2012. It is meant to be a multi-purpose reference document to provide:

  • a snapshot of the structure and performance of the system including the changes that are occurring in response to challenges, opportunities and market developments; and

  • background data and information to inform public discussions on these challenges and opportunities.

The report describes the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system as a modern, highly complex, integrated, internationally competitive and growing part of the Canadian economy. It is a resilient system, continuously responding to the challenges and opportunities it faces by restructuring and adapting to changing consumer demands, advancing technology and globalization.

Charts and tables with brief accompanying text are used to summarize information and to provide base indicators of structure and performance.

The report provides a general picture of the economic contribution of the agriculture and agri-food system to the Canadian economy, as measured by its share of gross domestic product (GDP) and employment, and concludes with a review of government expenditures in support of agriculture and agri-food, including international comparisons of government measures of support.


Importance of the System to the Canadian Economy

  • The Canadian agriculture and agri-food system (AAFS) is a complex and integrated supply chain which includes input and service suppliers, primary producers, food and beverage processors, food retailers and wholesalers, and foodservice providers. The activities along this supply chain generate significant economic benefits at both the federal and provincial levels.

  • In 2012, the AAFS generated $103.5 billion, accounting for 6.7% of Canada's GDP. Of this, the food retail and wholesale industry accounted for the largest share (1.8%), followed by the food, beverage and tobacco (FBT) processing industry (1.7%). 

  • The agriculture and agri-food sector's contribution to the Canadian GDP has increased annually since 2007, the exception being during the economic recession of 2009. 

  • Employment in most industries in the AAFS continued on an upward trend. In 2012, the AAFS provided one in eight jobs in Canada, employing over 2.1 million people. The foodservice industry was the largest employer in the AAFS, accounting for 5.2% of all Canadian jobs in 2012.

Global Context

  • The performance of the agriculture and agri-food industries depends on their ability to compete both in domestic and international markets over the long-term. Canada continues to remain relatively competitive in such markets.

  • Canadian export sales grew by 8.1% in 2012. While the U.S. remains Canada's most important agriculture and agri-food export destination, Canadian exports to China increased by 84.2% in 2012 to $5.0 billion, and accounted for much of the export growth in non-U.S. markets. With export sales of $43.6 billion, Canada overtook Argentina to become the world's fifth-largest exporter, accounting for 3.5% of the total value of world agriculture and agri-food exports.

  • While the U.S. continues to be Canada's most important trading partner, China surpassed Japan in 2012 to become Canada's second-largest agriculture and agri-food export destination. Of the total value of Canadian agriculture and agri-food exports, the U.S. accounted for 48.4% and China, 11.4%.

  • With import sales of $32.3 billion in 2012—an increase of 4.2% over the previous year—Canada remained the world's sixth-largest importer, accounting for 2.7% of the total value of world agriculture and agri-food imports. The U.S. accounted for 61.2% of the value of all Canadian agriculture and agri-food imports.

  • It is estimated that approximately half of the value of primary agriculture production in Canada is exported, either as primary commodities or processed food and beverage products. The processed foods industry is particularly export-dependent and Canadian exports of processed food products increased by 6.0% to $21.7 billion in 2012.

Components of the Agriculture and Agri-Food System

In response to challenges, opportunities and changing market conditions, the agriculture and agri-food system continues to transform and restructure.

Primary Agriculture

  • Favourable market conditions have enabled the sector to grow and allowed a number of farms to diversify their production to include non-traditional crops. In particular, drought in the U.S. in the summer of 2012 drove up grain and oilseed prices. Grain and oilseed receipts increased by $13.1 billion between 2002 and 2012, and accounted for the largest share (41.3%) of the total value of all farm market receipts in 2012. Overall, market receipts increased in value by 55.9% between 2002 and 2012. Those from the sale of special crops have more than doubled in that time. Receipts from red meat sales, however, have fallen over this period.

  • Farm performance, as measured by farm income and net worth, continued to remain strong overall. Net cash income among Canadian farms in 2012 was $13.3 billion—48.7% above the 2007-2011 average, and 17.6% above the 2011 net cash income. The net value added is estimated to have reached $16.2 billion in 2012—46.4% higher than the 2002-2011 average, and 1.8% above the previous record high in 2008. Canada-wide, the average net worth per farm was $1.7 million in 2011, an increase of 9.5% over 2010.

  • The composition of farm operators is also changing. An increasing proportion of farms are being operated solely by young operators (those 18 to 39 years of age), despite an aging population. These young farmers have an average of 11 years of farming experience.

Food and Beverage Processing

  • The food and beverage processing industry produces goods using both primary and processed products as inputs. It is important for the growth of the primary agricultural industry as primary commodities accounted for about 46% of the total value of material inputs used by the food processing industry in 2009.

  • The food and beverage processing industry is the largest of all manufacturing industries in Canada, accounting for the largest share (15.9%) of the total manufacturing sector's GDP in 2012. It also accounted for the largest share (16.7%) of the jobs in the manufacturing sector. The industry continues to grow and the value of shipments more than doubled since 1992, reaching $93.7 billion in 2012.


  • Canadians spent $183.9 billion on food, beverages and tobacco products in 2012. This represented the second largest household expenditure category after shelter, accounting for 18.6% of all Canadian household spending in 2012.

  • Food expenditures accounted for a smaller share of total household expenditures on goods and services in Canada than in several other OECD countries. For example, food accounted for 10.6% of total household expenditures in Canada, and 13.0% in the U.S.

Government Expenditures in Support of the Sector

  • Expressed in dollar terms, government expenditures (federal and provincial) in support of the agriculture and agri-food sector are expected to increase to $6.8 billion in 2012-13. However, as a share of the agriculture GDP, government expenditures are estimated to be 22.1% in 2012-13.

  • Research and inspection expenditures and program payments at the federal level make up the largest portion of government support to the agriculture and agri-food sector. 

  • Public investments in research and development (R&D) in the agriculture and agri-food sector represent a critical source of innovation and productivity growth. R&D expenditures, of which the majority are incurred by the federal government, are estimated to rise to $602 million in 2012-13.

To request an electronic copy of the full report, please contact:

Departmental Publications Service

Types of Farming in Canada
A Co-operative Study by the Economics Division Marketing Service and the Census Division Dominion Bureau of Statistics

Farming Facts 2002
An interesting overview of Agriculture in Canada in pdf format.
The Real Dirt on Farming 2011
An excellent pdf publication giving a very good overview on the farming industry.
Julie Plamondon
Corporate Communications, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
Virtual Farm Tours
You'll meet the farmers who put food on our tables 365 days each year; you'll see the animals that live on many of these farms and you'll learn about the work that goes into growing a wide variety of crops. Enjoy!
Canadian Farmers
A look at some of Canadian Farming businesses
While the number of farmers has dwindled, our productivity has soared. Where our grandparents or great grandparents could produce enough food for 10 people, today's farmer can feed well over 120. At the same time, we're using fewer resources, less land and newer, better technologies to produce high quality, Canadian products. This will be especially important as Canadian farmers strive to do their part to feed a growing world population.
History of Farming in Ontario
By C. C. James (1914).
First Lessons on Agriculture for Canadian Farmers and their Families
by Egerton Ryerson, 2nd Edition (1871) (pdf)
A Farm Home in Ontario
A publication of the Minister of Agriculture of Ontario
Potato Growing in Canada
By the Canadian Department of Agriculture
Oats in Canada
By the Canadian Department of Agriculture
Sheep Husbandry in Canada
By the Canadian Department of Agriculture
Sheep Farming in Canada
Taken from the Colonial Advocate, Thursday, June 3, 1824. Published by W. L. Mackenzie, Bookseller, Queenston, Upper Canada.
Swine Husbandry in Canada
By the Canadian Department of Agriculture
Wheat Growing in Canada
By William Saunders
Salmon Farming in Canada

A success story and a link to learn more.
Pulse Industry
Pea, lentil, bean, chickpea, mustard, sunflower, canary seed and buckwheat.
Strawberry Crop
Looking at the Strawberry industry in Canada.
Sheep Raising in British Columbia
An interesting booklet from the Department of Agriculture (pdf)
Deep Furrows
Which Tells of Pioneer trails along which the Farmers of Western Canada fought their way to Great Achievements in Co-Operation by Hopkins Moorhouse (1918) (pdf)
Dry Farming in Western Canada
By John Bracken (1921) (pdf)
Scotch Tenant-Farmers
On the Agricultural Resources of Canada. The Reports of Mr. John Steven, Purroch Farm, Hurlford, Ayrshire; and Mr. Alex. Fraser, Balloch of Culloden, Inverness, on their visit to Canada in 1893. (pdf)
Fruit Farming in Ontario
Studies of Plant Life in Canada
Wild Flowers, Flowering Shrubs, and Grasses by Mrs. C. P. Traill (1906) (pdf)
EatRight Ontario
Talk to a registered Dietitian for free.
The Agricultural Gazette of Canada
Editor: J. B. Spencer, B.S.A. (1918) (pdf)
Fruit Growing in Canada
By John Craig (pdf)
We are the best
Agriculture videos of Canada [external link]
Hunger for tomatoes turns Canada into greenhouse superpower

Science at DFO
The video that you are about to see is designed to give you a bit of a snapshot overview of our Sector, its depth, its breadth, its incredible scope, you’ll get a chance to get a feel for the wide, wide array of work that we do from coast to coast to coast, at sea, on land and occasionally even in the air. [external link]
Romance of the Grain Growers of Saskatchewan, History, Aims and Objects. (pdf)
Bulletins from Ontario Agricutural College and Department of Agriculture
Nos. 181 to 208 (1913) (pdf)
Seafood Fraud and Mislabelling Across Canada

By Oceania Canada (pdf)
The Canadian Horticulturist
Published by the Fruit Growers Association of Ontario
Farming in Canada
Or Life in the Back Woods by Frank Lynn, F.R.C.S. (pdf)
The Historical Overview of Canadian Agriculture
One of the publications in the 1996 Census of Agriculture series of products (pdf)
Canadian Vegetables for Every Day
By Edith L. Elliot (1936) (pdf)
Canadian Dairying
By Henry H. Dean (1903) (pdf)
Buying and storing Canadian Foods for foodservice industry
By Agriculture Canada (1981) (pdf)
Real Farm Lives
A series of videos showing the working life of farms in Canada
State of Canada's Birds
The 2019 summary (pdf)
Canada: Geographical, Agricultural, and Mineralogical Sketch
Published by authority of the Bureau of Agriculture (1865) (pdf)
Cannabis Cultivation

How to own a farm in Western Canada (pdf)
Little Mountain Ranch
A vlog of a ranch in Northern BC on YouTube. [External Link]
Highland Society of New Brunswick at Miramichi
Incorporated 11th Day of April 1846. Report of proceedings for 1876 (pdf)
Silhouettes of the West
From The Globe of September 4th, 1909 (pdf)
The great Canadian North-west, finest farming lands in the world
By Canadian Pacific Limited (1892) (pdf)
Farming in Alberta (1957) (pdf)
Better Farming, Better Air
A scientific analysis of farming practice and greenhouse gases in Canada March 2008 (pdf)
Farming, Ranching and Social Conditions in Western Canada
A series of articles written by practical men on subjects of interest to those looking to better their present condition. Fifth Edition, April, 1911 (pdf)
Farming in the North-West of Canada
Actual Results. The following extracts are taken at random in books and newspapers as they came at hand. They embrace a period of nearly thirty years and apply to various localities in the prairie country. which extends from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains, a distance of more than a thousand miles. They show in the most conclusive manner that farming in the North West of Canada offers advantages which can be found in no other parts of the world. When the immigrant arrives in that "paradise of fertility," all that he has to do is to plough, sow and reap. Ditching, draining and similar operations, so laborious and expensive in other farming countries, are unknown and useless in the prairies of the North-West, and still the average yield of wheat is about thirty bushels per acre. (pdf)
Farming Opportunities in Ontario
Printed by Order of The Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario (1911) (pdf)
Fox Farming in Canada
By Agriculture Canada (1979) (pdf)
Fur-Farming in Canada
By J. Walter Jones. B.S.A. (1913) (pdf)
Stock Farming in Canada
Correspondence Reprinted from the "Canadian News" (1864) (pdf)
Successful Farming
A Ready Reference on All Phases of Agriculture for Farmers of the United States and Canada including Soils, Manures, Fertilizers, Lime, Drainage, Irrigation, Tillage, Field Crops, Crop Rotations, Plant Improvement, Meadows and Pastures, Weeds — Vegetables, Vegetable Forcing, Mushroom Culture, Medicinal Plants — Orcharding, Small Fruits, Nut Culture, Farm Woodlot, Floriculture—Livestock, Dairying, Feeds and Feeding, Animal Diseases — Farm Management, Records and Accounts, Markets and Marketing, Land Rental, Labor — Farm Buildings, Fences, Engines, Tractors, Machinery, Sanitation — Plant Diseases, Insects, Fungicides, Insecticides — Domestic Economy, Housing, Clothing, Education, Information — Useful Tables, Composition of Products, Feeding Standards, Weights, Measures. By Frank D. Gardner (1916) (pdf)
The Canadian Farmer's Manual of Agriculture
The Principals and Pratice of Mixed Husbandry as adapted to Canadian Soils and Climate comprising: The Field; Produce of the Farm; Stock: raising and management; Manufactures of the Farm; Dairy; Diseases of Horses, Cattle, Sheep, Pigs; Farm Buildings; Modern Machinery and Implements; Counsel to the Immigrsant Settler, etc. by Charles Edward Whitcombe of the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, England, and a Practical Farmer in Ontario. With numerous wood-cut illustrations, Tables, and Forms of Simple Farm Account Keeping, prepared expressly for the Work, and an Introduction by Professor H. McCandless, Principal of the Ontario School of Agriculture, Guelph. (1874)
Beautifying the Farm Home
By the Manitoba Agricultural College (1917) (pdf)
The Herds and Flocks of Ontario
Report of William Brown, Professor of Agriculture, Guelph (1883) (pdf)
Places of Last Resort
The Expansion of the Farm Frontier into the Boreal Forest in Canada, c.1910-1940 By J. David Wood. Montreal and Kingston (2006) (pdf)
A study of pioneer farming in the fringe areas of the Peace River, Alberta, 1942
By Acton, B. K; and Spence, C. C. (1947) (pdf)
The Farmer's and Emigrant's Hand Book
Being a Full and Complete Guide for the Farmer and Emigrant comprising the clearing of Forest and Prairie land, Gardening, Farming Generally, Farriery, Cookery, and Prevention and Cure of Diseases with copious hints, recipes and tables by Josiah T. Marshall (1852) (pdf)
Canadian scientists are trying to make your tomatoes tasty again
As palates have evolved, so have approaches to agriculture. Ann Hui reports on the Canadian quest for a flavour-forward tomato. [External link]
Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples
Nutrition, Botany and Use by Harriet V. Kuhnlein School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition McGill University, Montreal, Quebec and Nancy J. Turner Environmental Studies Program,  University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (1996)
Agri-Lmi - Labour Market Information
Agriculture 2025: How the Sector’s Labour Challenges Will Shape Its Future (pdf)
Ontario Apple Growers
Annual Report for Year Ending October 31, 2019
Directions for Taking and Curing Herrings
And for curing Cod, Ling, Tusk, and Hake by Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, Bart., Secretary to the honourable the Board of British Fisheries reprinted and circulated by Command of His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick (1850) (pdf)
Canada Agriculture
Malting barley production in Canada (1985) (pdf)
Agriculture in Canada
To provide a concise account of the agricultural industry of Canada, a representative of the Minister of Agriculture for each province consented to deal with his respective province in a descriptive article for The Agricultural Gazette. The series, which began in the May number for 1916 and continued to the end of the volume, dealt with the area and character of the agricultural lands, the history and development of the farming industry and the outlook for its future growth. By the authority of The Honourable Martin Burrell, Minister of Agriculture, the series is here reprinted as Pamphlet No.5 of The Publications Branch. (1917) (pdf)
Helping Canadians Grow
By Agriculture Canada (1988) (pdf)
Canada Statistical Abstract and Record for the year 1888
Published by the Department of Agriculture (pdf)
The Grain Growers Guide
Livestock & Building Number February 25, 1920 (pdf)
Dufferin Farm Tour
A video on this area of Ontario
The Farmer
The Scot and his Draft Horse. Dean Rutherford claims for Scottish breeders the discovery of the relationship between form and function in draft horse — In all breeding undertakings Scottish breeders have combined beauty and utility in rare degree (pdf)
Canada as seen through Scottish Eyes
Being an account of a trip taken across the Dominion by the Scottish Agricultural Commission in the Autumn of 1908 published by the Authority of the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, Canada (1909) (pdf)
The Pioneer Farm and the Wabigoon Country
Rainy River District, A new section opened for settlement - Information as to the Country and its capabilities - A account of the farm established there by the Ontario government (1896) (pdf)
Fruits of Ontario
Printed by the Ontario Department of Agriculture 1906 (pdf)
Ontario Department of Agriculture
This department produced many bulletins on the agriculture of Ontario which helped many farmers and here we are listing some of these that we've found in our research.
In Search of Plenty
The first century of the Agriculture Canada research arm
Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental Farm
Grasses of Ontario by F. C. Harrison and G. E. Day (1896) (pdf)
Farming in Vancouver Island
A Land and Climate unequalled for Mixed Farming, Dairying, Fruit Growing, Poultry Raising and Outdoor Life by the Vancouver Island Fruit Lands, Limited (1911) (pdf)
Practical suggestions as to instruction in Farming in the United States and Canada
A Self-supporting Occupation and Opening in Life for Gentlemen's Sons and a prudent way of starting for any who desire to engage in agriculture in America (1882) (pdf)
Diversified Farming is Safe Farming
By J. G. Haney (1929) (pdf)
Fruit Farming
In the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia by the Land & Agricultural Co. of Canada (1912) (pdf)
Fruit Farming in Ontario, Canada
Prepared by direction of the Hon. James S. Duff, Minister of Agriculture for the Province of Ontario, 1911 (pdf)
Paris Foundary and Agricultural Works
Established 1859 (pdf)
Rennie's Agriculture in Canada
Modern principles of agriculture applicable to Canadian farming to yield greater profit by Wm. Rennie, Sr., Late of the O.A.C., Guelph (1916) (pdf)
Notes made during a visit to the United States and Canada in 1831
By Mr Fergusson of Woodhill from the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, No. XVI. (pdf)
Profitable Poultry Farming
New Edition, Bulletin No. 7, Published by direction of the Hon. Sydney A. Fisher, Minister of Agriculture, Ottawa, May 1905 (pdf)
A Study of Pioneer Farming in the Fringe Areas of the Peace River, Alberta, 1942
By B. K. Acton and C. C Spence (1947) (pdf)
A practical farm root cellar
by Dept. of Agriculture, Canada (1940) (pdf)
Domestic Rabbits
Raising for meat and fur (pdf)
Bush Fruits of Eastern Canada
By D. S. Blair (1950) (pdf)
Canadian Forests
Forest Trees, Timber and Forest Products by H. B. Small (1884) (pdf)
Canadian Timber Trees
Their Distribution and Preservation by A. T. Drummond (1879) (pdf)
Twenty Canadian Trees
By the Canadian Forestry Association (pdf)
Survivors of the Forest in Toronto
A Paper read before the Canadian Institute, November 25th, 1893, by the Rev. Henry Scadding, D.D. (pdf)
The Geographical Distribution of Forest Trees in Canada
By Dr. Robert Bell, F.R.S. (1897) (pdf)
Letters of Agricola
On the Principles of Vegetation and Tillage, written for Nova Scotia, and published first in "The Acadian Recorder", by John Young, Secretary of the Provincial Agricultural Board, and Honorary Member of the Massachusetts and Montreal Agricultural Societies. (1822) (pdf)
History of the Grange in Canada
By Members of the Dominion Grange (1876) (pdf)
OAC Review
June 1927 Colonization and Immigration By W. J. Black, and other articles (pdf)
Native Trees of Canada
By B. R. Morton, B.Sc.F., With notes on nomenclature and utilization by R. G. Lewis B.Sc.F. (1921) (pdf)
Fisheries Statistics 1920
Prepared in collaboration with Dominion and Provincial Fisheries Departments (pdf)
A. brief outline of her Geographical position, productions, climate, capabilities, education and municipal institutions, &c., &c., &c. This Pamphlet has received the approval of the Bureau of Agriculture, and is intended for extensive circulation in Great Britain and Ireland and the Continent of Europe, in the hope that "Canada” as a distinct and important portion of “North America” may thus become better known. (1857) (pdf)

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