Canadian Confederation and its Leaders
By M. O. Hammond


 

PREFACE

THE Dominion of Canada is no longer an experiment. The union now so prosperous and solidified was adopted in the face of much opposition, and without directly consulting the people except in New Brunswick. For many years the lack of progress under the new constitution was accompanied by doubt and resentment. Conditions have changed and the party strife of that era has passed with the death of the last of the Fathers of Confederation. It seems timely, therefore, to examine the part played by the leaders of that day in the various provinces in bringing about the union. In this volume an attempt is made to present this service in proper perspective. Most of the men described were favorable to union, others were opposed and fought it until the final decision. An arbitrary selection for such a series may be open to criticism, but it will be found that each of those sketched in the following pages was an important factor and leader of opinion.

The writer is under obligation to the contents of many existing volumes of history and biography, to official reports and documents, to surviving contemporaries of the Confederation leaders, and to a host of friends who have aided with counsel and material at their disposal. Among the latter special gratitude is due to Hon. W. S. Fielding, Mr. Duncan Campbell Scott, Senator L. G. Power, Mr. E. J. Hathaway, Mr. William Houston, Mr. John Lewis, Mr. John Boyd, Mr. C. W. Young, Mr. Reuben Macdonald, Mr. A. F. Macdonald, Mr. C. W. Jefferys, Miss Katherine Hughes, Hon. Andrew Broder, and to the staff of the Toronto Reference Library.    '

M. O. H.
Toronto, May, 1917.

The Fathers of Confederation
Delegates to the Quebec Conference, October, 1864.

From Canada:

Sir Etienne P. Tache, (1795-1865), Premier, Receiver-General and Minister of Militia.
John A. Macdonald, (1815-1891), Attorney-General for Upper Canada.
George E. Cartier, (1814-1873), Attorney-General for Lower Canada.
George Brown, (1818-1880), President of the Executive Council.
Oliver Mowat, (1820-1903), Postmaster-General.
Alexander T. Galt, (1817-1893), Minister of Finance.
William McDougall, (1822-1905), Provincial Secretary.
T. D’Arcy McGee, (1825-1868), Minister of Agriculture.
Alexander Campbell, (1821-1892), Commissioner of Crown Lands.
J. C. Chapais, (1812-1885), Commissioner of Public Works.
Hector L. Langevin, (1826-1906), Solicitor-General for Lower Canada.
James Cockbum, (1819-1883), Solicitor-General for Upper Canada.

From Nova Scotia:

Charles Tupper, (1821-1915), Premier and Provincial Secretary.
William A. Henry, (1816-1888), Attorney-General.
R. B. Dickey, (1811-1903), Member of the Legislative Council.
Jonathan McCully, (1809-1877), Member of the Legislative Council.
Adams G. Archibald, (1814-1892), Member of the Legislative Assembly.

From New Brunswick:

Samuel Leonard Tilley, (1818-1896), Premier and Provincial Secretary.
William H. Steeves, (1814-1873), Minister without portfolio.
J. M. Johnson, (1818-1868), Attorney-General.
Peter Mitchell, (1824-1899), Minister without portfolio.
E. B. Chandler, (1800-1880), Member of the Legislative Council.
John Hamilton Gray, (1814-1889), Member of the Legislative Assembly.
Charles Fisher, (1808-1880), Member of the Legislative Assembly.

From Prince Edward Island:

Colonel John Hamilton Gray, (1812-1887), President of the Council.
Edward Palmer, (1809-1899), Attorney-General.
William H. Pope, (1825-1879), Colonial Secretary.
A. A. Macdonald, (1829-1912), Member of the Legislative Council.
George Coles, (1810-1875), Member of the Legislative Assembly.
T. Heath Haviland, (1822-1895), Member of the Legislative Assembly.
Edward Whelan, (1824-1867), Member of the Legislative Assembly.

From Newfoundland:

F. B. T. Carter, (1819-1900), Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.
Ambrose Shea, (1818-1905).

CONTENTS

Before Confederation

Upper Canada:
  Sir John A. Macdonald
  George Brown
  Sir Oliver Mowat
  William McDougall
  John Sandfield Macdonald

Lower Canada:
  Sir George E. Cartier
  Sir Alexander T. Galt
  Thomas D’Arcy McGee
  Sir Antoine A. Dorion
  Christopher Dunkin

New Brunswick:
  Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley
  Peter Mitchell
  Sir Albert J. Smith

Nova Scotia:
  Sir Charles Tupper
  Joseph Howe
  William Annand

Prince Edward Island:
  David Laird

Rounding Out Confederation
Bibliography


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