WHERE to go and what to see is one of the difficulties that face the
visitor on arriving in Canada. It is the embarrassment of vastness and
superabundance. A glance at the map shows that, despite the extensive
inroads made by the railways, the Dominion is still a
and is likely to remain so to all except the occasional intrepid
explorer. To use limited time to the best advantage —so as to get away
from the beaten path—is scarcely possible single-handed.
would not have been practicable for me, at least, to have travelled the
distance that I did, and to have compiled the information contained in
the following pages, without the knowledge and experience of others. In
many respects such information was invaluable, and in all cases enhanced
by the kindness which distinguishes Canadians in their bearings towards
visitors, particularly those from the Mother Country.
the following gentlemen I gratefully acknowledge my sense of obligation:
Mr. C. C. James, Deputy Minister of Agriculture; Colonel Matthison,
Treasurer; Mr. N. B. Colcock, Agent-General, and Mr. Arthur C. Pratt,
M.P.P. of the Ontario Government.
Heads of Government departments kindly p laced at my disposal maps and
returns on Mining, Agriculture and Natural History.
H. R. Charlton, Mr. G. T. Bell, Mr. W. T. Robson, of Montreal; and Mr.
R. L. Thompson, Mr. J. D. Macdonald and Mr. Arthur Hawke, of Toronto,
afforded me specialist information on rivers and lakes, which, as an
angler, I found most valuable.
Whilst Canada is unique in the magnificent photographic subjects it
offers, the climate itself during the bright, hot summer months presents
serious difficulties in the way of obtaining first-class pictures. One
is limited to the early morning or evening to get good results. There is
little twilight, and with rapid travelling it is not easy personally to
procure sufficient representative views. I am greatly indebted for a
large proportion of the illustrations and the preparation of the
sketch-map in this work, to the kindness and courtesy of Mr. J. M.
Gibbon of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Mr. Fred C. Salter of the Grand
Trunk System, and Mr. W. Haydon of the Canadian Northern Railway, also
to Mr. Byron Harmon of Banff, B.C. Without such hearty co-operation it
would have been impossible to have included in the work the variety of
illustrations it contains.
natural history of coarse and game fish in Canada needs revising. I am
of opinion that it would be possible to reduce the classification of
trout and salmon to far fewer species, but we must take things as we
find them, and in the treatment of the subject I acknowledge my
indebtedness to Mr. Star Jordan’s valuable work on “Food and Game Fish.”
Also Mr. E. Thompson Seton’s recent work on “Life Histories of Northern
Animals,” which I have compared with Indian information and my own
knowledge of big game. In referring to an older and not less valuable
work, “The Big Game of North America,” published by Messrs. Sampson,
Low, Marston & Co., I have found there is little change of view on this
have consulted Francis Parkman’s comprehensive work on the Jesuits and
North American Indians, and Sir J. G. Bourinot for Canadian general
Departure—Lieut.-Gen. Sir R. S. S. Baden Powell—Boy Scouts —The effect
of a breeze—The trek wagon—Lady Suffragists —Bride-elect
passengers—Remedy for breaking windows— The concert, how not to do
it—The ice region—Marconi cablegram—Straits of Belle Isle—Demons’
Islands—The hapless Marguerite — Early pioneers — Champlain and Brebceuf—French
colonization — King Frost—The St. Lawrence river—Hardships of
Champlain—The touch of spring.
Quebec—Strategic position—Historic associations—Wolfe and
Montcalm—Church of Notre Dame des Victoires—Site of Champlain’s Fort—The
Hotel Dieu—Landing of early Jesuit missionaries—Relics of Breboeuf and
Lalemant—Falls of Montmorency—Where Wolfe failed—Kent House— Historical
outline—Parliament—Denominational schools— Effects of confederation —
Montreal — The situation — The Hochelaga of Cartier—Montreal of
to-day—Institutions and schools — St. Anne de Bellevue—Macdonald
College— Lachine rapids—Champlain’s exploration of the Ottawa— Amongst
the Indians—Defeats and conquests.
Ottawa Government and Toronto—Industries—Institutions and factories —
Adoption of English customs — Aggressive commercialism—Fruit
growing—Through Norfolk County —Comparison with English fruit
growing—Fruit preserving —Cost of labour—Bees—Poultry—Cheese—Bass
fishing on Lake Erie—Rods and tackle—Niagara Falls—Gifts to Manitou—A
great national utility—The mines of Ontario —Official returns — Sudbury,
Cobalt, and Porcupine — Encouragement and warnings.
Algonquin National Park—Simcoc Lake—Barrie—Muskoka Lake —The Great
Forest—Primeval conditions—Cache Lake—The hand of the
spoiler—Conservators’ report—Animal life —Trout fishing on Cranberry
Lake—Scientific and unscientific angling—Camping out—The Indian
canoe—The Corkscrew River—My guide—Beavers’ dams—The beaver’s
house—Co-operative labour—The romance of a monogamist —Canoe Lake—The
Thunderstorm—Fishing lakes—Down the Muskoka River—Battling with the
rapids—Whisky Falls —Deer and their habits—The Dolly Varden trout—Wet
and dry fly fishing—Fresh fish for supper—Lumbering, and injury to trout
streams—Befriending drowned-out campers—The howling of wolves—The rush
through the forest—A wary quarry.
En route for French River—Pickerel Landing—The house on the
rock—Primitive simplicity—The fate of the skunk—The Ojibwa Indian
guide—Reversion to original type—Whisky and deterioration—French
River—Recollections of Champlain—Trolling for bass and pike—A master of
the knife—A fight with the “tiger of the river”—Gaff versus rifle—The
indefatigable guide—The might have been—In camp—The note of the
whipoorwill—“The fretful porcupine”.
Lake of bays—Fairy Lake—A honeymoon island—A smothered waterway—Mary
Lake—The searchlight—Wawa Hotel—The “Joe” pleasure tug—Memories of
Bigwin—A triplet of graces—Savage Den and its “chief”—Auld lang syne—
Hollow Lake—Trout-fishing on Raven Lake—North Bay and Temagami;
Facilities for colonization, The Forest Reserve, Angling rivers and
lakes, The Land of Hiawatha.
“Westward Ho”—Orangeville—Owen Sound—Through the Great Lakes —
Associations of Lake Huron — BreboeuPs mission to the Indians—Feast of
the dead—The wigwam life—Indian superstitions—Folklore—Diabolical
tortures— Honour—Indian creeds—Loyola and his followers—Heroism of the
Jesuits—Painted devils—Joques—Massacre of Brebceuf and Lalemant—Failure
of Jesuit mission—The passing of the Iroquois—Lake Superior —
Picturesque rapids — The largest lock in the world—Saulte Ste.
Marie—Lake trout— Fishing resorts—An inland sea—The Rideau River—Nipigon
and its trout—Patrol stations—Traffic on Lake Superior— Thunder Bay—Port
Arthur and Fort William—Change of the clock—En route for Winnipeg—The
opening page of the book of the prairies.
The province of Manitoba—The realization of “Sea Dreams”—Civic and
agricultural growth—Winnipeg—Railway enterprise—The Canadian Pacific and
Grand Trunk Railways— System of Government—Schools—Public Park—Prices of
produce—“Ralph Connor”—The Canadian Northern Railway—Winnipeg to
Edmonton—The chance of a millionaire-ship — Edmonton — The lady and the
“gentleman” bus conductor—Colleges and schools—Churches and drinking
saloons — Vegetable products — Edmonton to Calgary — Flourishing
Through prairies to Rockies—Portage le Prairie—Regina— Government
offices and mounted police—Climate—Growth of railways—Saskatchewan
Province—Census returns of industries — Moose Jaw—Alberta Province —
Uncultivated millions—Picturesque forests and streams—The home of the
buffalo—Four great rivers—Misconceptions of climate—The heat line—The
“chinook”—Wild grasses—Cattle rearing— Cereal productions—Exhibition
medal awards — Wheat returns—Clover—Sheep and wolves—Horse breeding—
Champions at the World’s Fair—Calgary—Democratic principles—Ranching and
lumbering—The Bow and Kananaskas Rivers.
Prairie conflagrations—Outposts of the Rockies—Drab flats and purple
crags—In the glacier track—Geological action—The Three Sisters — Between
Canmore and Bankhead — The National Park—Surviving specimens of big
game—Rundlc Mountains—Minnewauka Lakes — Laggan — Lakes in the
Clouds—The glacier region and its rivers—Hector monument —The Kicking
Horse River—A great engineering feat— Douglas pines—Victims of forest
fires—The Selkirks—The tiack of the avalanche—The Eagle River—The Fraser
and Thompson—The Pacific—The flora of prairie and mountains
—Vancouver—Shipping and trading.
British Columbia—Mineral products—Dr. Dawson’s report—
Development—Gold—Vicissitudes of mining—Copper and zinc—Percentages—The
“Lucky Jim”—Marble quarries— Portland cement—Petroleum—Demand for a
government— Constitution — The Kootenay district — Lumbering — Vale
district — Railway extension — Lillooet — The climatc — Through the
Yellow Head Pass—The Athabasca River—Brule Lake—Roche Miettc and Rochc
Suette—Sulphur springs— Pyramid Mountains—Geikie—Moose River—Selwyn and
Rainbow Mountains—The premier of the Rockies—Lake Helena—A steamboat on
the rapids—The Naas Valley—The Skeena Valley—Vancouver Island—Comox
district— Minerals and timber—Sawmills—Homesteads—Land Clearing and
Irrigation Companies—Gold medal award—Fruit.
Growth of trade—Official returns—Great Britain—Canada— United
States—France and Germany—Imports and exports —Attractions for
settlers—Capital brought into the Dominion —Increased cost of
living—Government inquiry—Causes of the increase—“ Plain living and high
thinking”—Emigration Amendment Bill—Protests and criticisms—Lord Crewe’s
protest—Modifications of the Bill—Tariff and Reciprocity— Petition to
the Government—The statement of the case by experts—Sir Wilfrid
Laurier’s reply—A counterblast—The general election.
Women’s organizations—Christian Temperance Union—National Council of
Women—A suffragette echo of Westminster—The recognition of women in the
State—Clubs and societies —Socialism in the Dominion—“Seizing the reins
of power”—The unfurling of the red flag—The safety valve of democracy.
Game fish—Variableness of the season—Primitive methods of angling—Salmon
species—A thousand miles’ swim—The cohoc—The sockeye—The humpback—The
dog salmon— Trout pecies — The common trout — The steel-head—The
Kamloops—The Great Lake trout—The Dolly Varden—Brook trout—Distribution
of salmon and trout—Angling reaches—Death of salmon after
spawning—Theories—Fly and spoon-bait—Fishing rods—The course of the
Fraser River—The Coquihalla and Hope Rivers—Angling on the Harrison
River—My Indian guide—Sccpticism and faith—A fight with a twenty-five
pounder—The Harrison described —A second .captive—Invoking Adjidaumo—Ilis
blessing on a twenty-six pounder—A visit to the Harrison Rapids—The
Going West—Stave River—Minnow and spoon-bait—Coquitlam River—Vancouver
angling—Scarcity of gillies—Off to the Narrows—Angling in the
Pacific—Playing a salmon in a swift tide—Dame Fortune’s amends—Off
Vancouver Island —The Campbell River—The Cowichan River—Advocacy of the
fly—The best months—Trout fishing—The fly season—The fry season—A visit
to Seymour Creek—A lonely forest —Track of the grizzly—In search of a
trail—The Vedder River—A charming retreat—Wading for Dolly Vardens—
Capture with the fly—A magic evening scene—The North Thompson River—The
Columbia River—Kootenay and Okanagan—The course of the Columbia
River—Great trout lakes.
Salmon and trout supply—The falling off—Government Fisheries Commission
report—Proposed remedies—Minority report—The United States
difficulty—Mr. Babcock’s comments— Opinions of Steveston
fishermen—Deadly salmon traps in Puget Sound — The lesson of British
Isles fisheries — Creation of hatcheries—Future guardianship of
fisheries—Mr. Willmot’s report—Mr. Kelly Evans on revenue from fisheries
— Wholesale destruction of whitefish — Depleted lakes — Suggested
remedies — Angling as a recreation — Playing the game.
Wild fowl—Duck and their habitat—French River—Temagami —Outskirts of
Algonquin Park—Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta provinces—Wood
duck—Pintail—Canvas-back, etc. — Game—The Canadian rough grouse — The
sooty, Oregon, and grey-ruffed species—Ptarmigan classification— Prairie
chicken—Black-game and capercailzie—Pheasants, partridges, quail—Game
characteristics—High mountain and wood species—The sporting quail.
Big game—Guides—Natural History—Wapiti—When Greek meets Greek—Defence of
young—The mule deer—Plentiful west of Rockies—The old doe
leader—Destruction of species —The Virginian deer—Its keen sight—Giving
the alarm— Simulation of the young—The moose—Feeding on mountain
ranges—Antlers’ growth—Calling the moose—Its mettle— Yarding—Dispersion—The
Caribou—Speed and swimming powers — Telegraphic' communications and
pungency — Dispersion — The black bear — Habits — Mating season —Insect
food—The captain’s midnight encounter—Stealing the beans—The grizzly
bear—Widely distributed—Hibernation—Rolling like a ball—Trapping—Charged
with manslaughter—The buffalo—The penned monarch—Causes of
extermination—Illegal and legalized trade—The big-horn sheep—The
sentinel—Falling on its horns—The mountain goat—Dispersion—The value of
the fleece—Wariness and aloofness—Guides—Outfit—Big game excursions.
Reflections—Conditions of success—Social environment—The lonely
life—Minimizing temptation—The liquor laws— Local option—Native
sports—The domination of commerce —Belated literature and art—Canadian
writers—Historians, poets, and novelists—Religious zeal—Commercial
expansion Insular sentiment—Cosmopolitan practice—Transatlantic steam
service—Returning through the St. Lawrence—The closed and opened
book—Changed times and manners— Reading the riddle—Canadian Boat
Song—Symbols in the western sky—The last glimpse of the Golden West.