Ten Thousand Miles Through Canada
The Natural Resources, Commercial Industries, Fish and Game, Sports and Pastimes of the Great Dominion by Joseph Adams.


WHERE to go and what to see is one of the difficulties that face the visitor on arriving in Canada. It is the embarrassment of vastness and superabundance. A glance at the map shows that, despite the extensive inroads made by the railways, the Dominion is still a terra incognita and is likely to remain so to all except the occasional intrepid explorer. To use limited time to the best advantage —so as to get away from the beaten path—is scarcely possible single-handed.

It would not have been practicable for me, at least, to have travelled the distance that I did, and to have compiled the information contained in the following pages, without the knowledge and experience of others. In many respects such information was invaluable, and in all cases enhanced by the kindness which distinguishes Canadians in their bearings towards visitors, particularly those from the Mother Country.

To the following gentlemen I gratefully acknowledge my sense of obligation: Mr. C. C. James, Deputy Minister of Agriculture; Colonel Matthison, Treasurer; Mr. N. B. Colcock, Agent-General, and Mr. Arthur C. Pratt, M.P.P. of the Ontario Government.

The Heads of Government departments kindly p laced at my disposal maps and returns on Mining, Agriculture and Natural History.

Mr. H. R. Charlton, Mr. G. T. Bell, Mr. W. T. Robson, of Montreal; and Mr. R. L. Thompson, Mr. J. D. Macdonald and Mr. Arthur Hawke, of Toronto, afforded me specialist information on rivers and lakes, which, as an angler, I found most valuable.

Whilst Canada is unique in the magnificent photographic subjects it offers, the climate itself during the bright, hot summer months presents serious difficulties in the way of obtaining first-class pictures. One is limited to the early morning or evening to get good results. There is little twilight, and with rapid travelling it is not easy personally to procure sufficient representative views. I am greatly indebted for a large proportion of the illustrations and the preparation of the sketch-map in this work, to the kindness and courtesy of Mr. J. M. Gibbon of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Mr. Fred C. Salter of the Grand Trunk System, and Mr. W. Haydon of the Canadian Northern Railway, also to Mr. Byron Harmon of Banff, B.C. Without such hearty co-operation it would have been impossible to have included in the work the variety of illustrations it contains.

The natural history of coarse and game fish in Canada needs revising. I am of opinion that it would be possible to reduce the classification of trout and salmon to far fewer species, but we must take things as we find them, and in the treatment of the subject I acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Star Jordan’s valuable work on “Food and Game Fish.” Also Mr. E. Thompson Seton’s recent work on “Life Histories of Northern Animals,” which I have compared with Indian information and my own knowledge of big game. In referring to an older and not less valuable work, “The Big Game of North America,” published by Messrs. Sampson, Low, Marston & Co., I have found there is little change of view on this subject.

I have consulted Francis Parkman’s comprehensive work on the Jesuits and North American Indians, and Sir J. G. Bourinot for Canadian general history.

J. A.

CONTENTS

Chapter I
Departure—Lieut.-Gen. Sir R. S. S. Baden Powell—Boy Scouts —The effect of a breeze—The trek wagon—Lady Suffragists —Bride-elect passengers—Remedy for breaking windows— The concert, how not to do it—The ice region—Marconi cablegram—Straits of Belle Isle—Demons’ Islands—The hapless Marguerite — Early pioneers — Champlain and Brebceuf—French colonization — King Frost—The St. Lawrence river—Hardships of Champlain—The touch of spring.

Chapter II
Quebec—Strategic position—Historic associations—Wolfe and Montcalm—Church of Notre Dame des Victoires—Site of Champlain’s Fort—The Hotel Dieu—Landing of early Jesuit missionaries—Relics of Breboeuf and Lalemant—Falls of Montmorency—Where Wolfe failed—Kent House— Historical outline—Parliament—Denominational schools— Effects of confederation — Montreal — The situation — The Hochelaga of Cartier—Montreal of to-day—Institutions and schools — St. Anne de Bellevue—Macdonald College— Lachine rapids—Champlain’s exploration of the Ottawa— Amongst the Indians—Defeats and conquests.

Chapter III
Ottawa Government and Toronto—Industries—Institutions and factories — Adoption of English customs — Aggressive commercialism—Fruit growing—Through Norfolk County —Comparison with English fruit growing—Fruit preserving —Cost of labour—Bees—Poultry—Cheese—Bass fishing on Lake Erie—Rods and tackle—Niagara Falls—Gifts to Manitou—A great national utility—The mines of Ontario —Official returns — Sudbury, Cobalt, and Porcupine — Encouragement and warnings.

Chapter IV
Algonquin National Park—Simcoc Lake—Barrie—Muskoka Lake —The Great Forest—Primeval conditions—Cache Lake—The hand of the spoiler—Conservators’ report—Animal life —Trout fishing on Cranberry Lake—Scientific and unscientific angling—Camping out—The Indian canoe—The Corkscrew River—My guide—Beavers’ dams—The beaver’s house—Co-operative labour—The romance of a monogamist —Canoe Lake—The Thunderstorm—Fishing lakes—Down the Muskoka River—Battling with the rapids—Whisky Falls —Deer and their habits—The Dolly Varden trout—Wet and dry fly fishing—Fresh fish for supper—Lumbering, and injury to trout streams—Befriending drowned-out campers—The howling of wolves—The rush through the forest—A wary quarry.

Chapter V
En route for French River—Pickerel Landing—The house on the rock—Primitive simplicity—The fate of the skunk—The Ojibwa Indian guide—Reversion to original type—Whisky and deterioration—French River—Recollections of Champlain—Trolling for bass and pike—A master of the knife—A fight with the “tiger of the river”—Gaff versus rifle—The indefatigable guide—The might have been—In camp—The note of the whipoorwill—“The fretful porcupine”.

Chapter VI
Lake of bays—Fairy Lake—A honeymoon island—A smothered waterway—Mary Lake—The searchlight—Wawa Hotel—The “Joe” pleasure tug—Memories of Bigwin—A triplet of graces—Savage Den and its “chief”—Auld lang syne— Hollow Lake—Trout-fishing on Raven Lake—North Bay and Temagami; Facilities for colonization, The Forest Reserve, Angling rivers and lakes, The Land of Hiawatha.

Chapter VII
“Westward Ho”—Orangeville—Owen Sound—Through the Great Lakes — Associations of Lake Huron — BreboeuPs mission to the Indians—Feast of the dead—The wigwam life—Indian superstitions—Folklore—Diabolical tortures— Honour—Indian creeds—Loyola and his followers—Heroism of the Jesuits—Painted devils—Joques—Massacre of Brebceuf and Lalemant—Failure of Jesuit mission—The passing of the Iroquois—Lake Superior — Picturesque rapids — The largest lock in the world—Saulte Ste. Marie—Lake trout— Fishing resorts—An inland sea—The Rideau River—Nipigon and its trout—Patrol stations—Traffic on Lake Superior— Thunder Bay—Port Arthur and Fort William—Change of the clock—En route for Winnipeg—The opening page of the book of the prairies.

Chapter VIII
The province of Manitoba—The realization of “Sea Dreams”—Civic and agricultural growth—Winnipeg—Railway enterprise—The Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk Railways— System of Government—Schools—Public Park—Prices of produce—“Ralph Connor”—The Canadian Northern Railway—Winnipeg to Edmonton—The chance of a millionaire-ship — Edmonton — The lady and the “gentleman” bus conductor—Colleges and schools—Churches and drinking saloons — Vegetable products — Edmonton to Calgary — Flourishing agriculture.

Chapter IX
Through prairies to Rockies—Portage le Prairie—Regina— Government offices and mounted police—Climate—Growth of railways—Saskatchewan Province—Census returns of industries — Moose Jaw—Alberta Province — Uncultivated millions—Picturesque forests and streams—The home of the buffalo—Four great rivers—Misconceptions of climate—The heat line—The “chinook”—Wild grasses—Cattle rearing— Cereal productions—Exhibition medal awards — Wheat returns—Clover—Sheep and wolves—Horse breeding— Champions at the World’s Fair—Calgary—Democratic principles—Ranching and lumbering—The Bow and Kananaskas Rivers.

Chapter X
Prairie conflagrations—Outposts of the Rockies—Drab flats and purple crags—In the glacier track—Geological action—The Three Sisters — Between Canmore and Bankhead — The National Park—Surviving specimens of big game—Rundlc Mountains—Minnewauka Lakes — Laggan — Lakes in the Clouds—The glacier region and its rivers—Hector monument —The Kicking Horse River—A great engineering feat— Douglas pines—Victims of forest fires—The Selkirks—The tiack of the avalanche—The Eagle River—The Fraser and Thompson—The Pacific—The flora of prairie and mountains —Vancouver—Shipping and trading.

Chapter XI
British Columbia—Mineral products—Dr. Dawson’s report— Development—Gold—Vicissitudes of mining—Copper and zinc—Percentages—The “Lucky Jim”—Marble quarries— Portland cement—Petroleum—Demand for a government— Constitution — The Kootenay district — Lumbering — Vale district — Railway extension — Lillooet — The climatc — Through the Yellow Head Pass—The Athabasca River—Brule Lake—Roche Miettc and Rochc Suette—Sulphur springs— Pyramid Mountains—Geikie—Moose River—Selwyn and Rainbow Mountains—The premier of the Rockies—Lake Helena—A steamboat on the rapids—The Naas Valley—The Skeena Valley—Vancouver Island—Comox district— Minerals and timber—Sawmills—Homesteads—Land Clearing and Irrigation Companies—Gold medal award—Fruit.

Chapter XII
Growth of trade—Official returns—Great Britain—Canada— United States—France and Germany—Imports and exports —Attractions for settlers—Capital brought into the Dominion —Increased cost of living—Government inquiry—Causes of the increase—“ Plain living and high thinking”—Emigration Amendment Bill—Protests and criticisms—Lord Crewe’s protest—Modifications of the Bill—Tariff and Reciprocity— Petition to the Government—The statement of the case by experts—Sir Wilfrid Laurier’s reply—A counterblast—The general election.

Chapter XIII
Women’s organizations—Christian Temperance Union—National Council of Women—A suffragette echo of Westminster—The recognition of women in the State—Clubs and societies —Socialism in the Dominion—“Seizing the reins of power”—The unfurling of the red flag—The safety valve of democracy.

Chapter XIV
Game fish—Variableness of the season—Primitive methods of angling—Salmon species—A thousand miles’ swim—The cohoc—The sockeye—The humpback—The dog salmon— Trout pecies — The common trout — The steel-head—The Kamloops—The Great Lake trout—The Dolly Varden—Brook trout—Distribution of salmon and trout—Angling reaches—Death of salmon after spawning—Theories—Fly and spoon-bait—Fishing rods—The course of the Fraser River—The Coquihalla and Hope Rivers—Angling on the Harrison River—My Indian guide—Sccpticism and faith—A fight with a twenty-five pounder—The Harrison described —A second .captive—Invoking Adjidaumo—Ilis blessing on a twenty-six pounder—A visit to the Harrison Rapids—The conoe run.

Chapter XV
Going West—Stave River—Minnow and spoon-bait—Coquitlam River—Vancouver angling—Scarcity of gillies—Off to the Narrows—Angling in the Pacific—Playing a salmon in a swift tide—Dame Fortune’s amends—Off Vancouver Island —The Campbell River—The Cowichan River—Advocacy of the fly—The best months—Trout fishing—The fly season—The fry season—A visit to Seymour Creek—A lonely forest —Track of the grizzly—In search of a trail—The Vedder River—A charming retreat—Wading for Dolly Vardens— Capture with the fly—A magic evening scene—The North Thompson River—The Columbia River—Kootenay and Okanagan—The course of the Columbia River—Great trout lakes.

Chapter XVI
Salmon and trout supply—The falling off—Government Fisheries Commission report—Proposed remedies—Minority report—The United States difficulty—Mr. Babcock’s comments— Opinions of Steveston fishermen—Deadly salmon traps in Puget Sound — The lesson of British Isles fisheries — Creation of hatcheries—Future guardianship of fisheries—Mr. Willmot’s report—Mr. Kelly Evans on revenue from fisheries — Wholesale destruction of whitefish — Depleted lakes — Suggested remedies — Angling as a recreation — Playing the game.

Chapter XVII
Wild fowl—Duck and their habitat—French River—Temagami —Outskirts of Algonquin Park—Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta provinces—Wood duck—Pintail—Canvas-back, etc. — Game—The Canadian rough grouse — The sooty, Oregon, and grey-ruffed species—Ptarmigan classification— Prairie chicken—Black-game and capercailzie—Pheasants, partridges, quail—Game characteristics—High mountain and wood species—The sporting quail.

Chapter XVIII
Big game—Guides—Natural History—Wapiti—When Greek meets Greek—Defence of young—The mule deer—Plentiful west of Rockies—The old doe leader—Destruction of species —The Virginian deer—Its keen sight—Giving the alarm— Simulation of the young—The moose—Feeding on mountain ranges—Antlers’ growth—Calling the moose—Its mettle— Yarding—Dispersion—The Caribou—Speed and swimming powers — Telegraphic' communications and pungency — Dispersion — The black bear — Habits — Mating season —Insect food—The captain’s midnight encounter—Stealing the beans—The grizzly bear—Widely distributed—Hibernation—Rolling like a ball—Trapping—Charged with manslaughter—The buffalo—The penned monarch—Causes of extermination—Illegal and legalized trade—The big-horn sheep—The sentinel—Falling on its horns—The mountain goat—Dispersion—The value of the fleece—Wariness and aloofness—Guides—Outfit—Big game excursions.

Chapter XIX
Reflections—Conditions of success—Social environment—The lonely life—Minimizing temptation—The liquor laws— Local option—Native sports—The domination of commerce —Belated literature and art—Canadian writers—Historians, poets, and novelists—Religious zeal—Commercial expansion Insular sentiment—Cosmopolitan practice—Transatlantic steam service—Returning through the St. Lawrence—The closed and opened book—Changed times and manners— Reading the riddle—Canadian Boat Song—Symbols in the western sky—The last glimpse of the Golden West.

Appendix


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