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History of the Lumber Industry of America
Chapter V. Canada—Forestry and Forest Reserves


As will be seen in later chapters, forest management has almost from the beginning of European occupation attracted the attention of the law-making authorities of what is now the Dominion of Canada. Royal authority was exercised to preserve to the uses of the Crown certain classes of timber and to introduce, in a partial and inadequate way, something like forest management. But so vast were the timber resources of Canada that until comparatively recent years very little public interest was taken in the subject of forest preservation. The earlier efforts of Canadian authorities toward a rational protection of their forest assets are recounted in the chapters devoted to the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario, and in those chapters relating to other provinces these forestry matters find their proper place; but in 1900 was established the Canadian Forestry Association, which since that time has by its educational work among the people and by cooperation with the Government done so much to promote these interests of the Dominion that the organization is deserving of especial attention.

The primeval forests of Canada have been noted for their extent and richness ever since the first explorations were made; and this natural endowment of public wealth has been the source of a large and constant revenue to the Crown and to the Provincial governments, greatly lightening taxation, and in some sections almost obviating the necessity of taxation of any other form. The total value of the export of forest products for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, was $36,724,445, while the census of 1901 placed the total value of forest products for the preceding year at $51,000,000. The annual revenue received from the forests of Quebec and Ontario runs well up toward $1,250,000. In 1893 the revenue from this source in New Brunswick totaled $196,500, while in British Columbia an estimate made in 1905 for the year not then completed placed this revenue at $250,000. Thus it will be seen that timber and timber products are of the highest importance not only to the individual operators, but to the welfare of the Dominion as a whole and to the Central and Provincial governments as well. Yet, as in other new countries favored by a heavy natural forest growth, the Canadians, for a long time, considered their timber supply practically inexhaustible.

One of the most important dates in connection with the Canadian movement for intelligent forest control is 1882, in which year was organized, at Montreal, the American Forest Congress. At this forestry congress was present a large number of prominent representatives of lumber interests of Canada as well as of the United States. Many of them had prepared papers which they read and which led to discussions that attracted a large measure of public attention.

In itself this congress did not accomplish much for the cause of forestry, but it opened the way for a quickening of interest in the subject and helped to make further progress less difficult. Until that time, and indeed later, forestry had to contend with the idea that the forests were inexhaustible and, further, had to defend itself against a widespread charge of faddism. The majority of people totally discredited the idea that the supply of timber would ever be inadequate to the demand, and of those who considered that such a condition was a possibility, there were but few who were not content to let the future take care of itself, believing that if the time ever should come when lumber would be difficult to obtain because the supply of timber had been unduly diminished, that day was so far away from them and their needs that they were not called upon to take any action to prevent its coming.

Operating lumbermen also were to a certain extent offended and alienated from the cause by the radical utterances by most of the few persistent champions of forest preservation. Yet, in the light of later events, it is seen that these radicals, who successively pleaded with, threatened and abused those who did not agree with them, were doing the work of agitation which history has proved to be the forerunner of almost every reform. They stimulated the people to think along forestry lines, so that when facts in their support came to the surface they could be and were assigned to their logical place. And so annually the cause of forestry gained ground, until early in 1900 was organized the Canadian Forestry Association.

To Mr. E. Stewart, Dominion Superintendent of Forestry, more than to any other one man, is due the credit for the formation of the Canadian Forestry Association, for it was he who, on February 15, 1900, called the meeting at which the organization was recommended and as a result of which the organization actually was effected on March 8,1900, in the City of Ottawa. The following officers were duly elected:

Honorary president, His Excellency, the Governor General; president, Hon. Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere; vice president, William Little; secretary, E. Stewart; assistant secretary and treasurer, R. H. Campbell. Board of directors: Hiram Robinson, Thomas Southworth, Professor John Macoun, Doctor William Saunders, Hon. G. W. Allan, E. W. Rathbun.

Of the above the president, Hon. Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, was Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia; E. Stewart, Dominion Superintendent of Forestry; Hiram Robinson, president of the Hawkes-bury Lumber Company and president of the Canadian Forestry Association in 1903; Thomas Southworth, director of Forestry for the Province of Ontario ; Professor John Macoun, of the Dominion Geological Survey, and E. W. Rathbun, member of the Ontario Forestry Commission.

The objects sought to be obtained by the association, as set forth in a statement signed by R. H. Campbell, of the Department of the Interior, were as follows:

“The preservation of the forests for their influence on climate, fertility and water supply; the exploration of the public domain and the reservation for timber production of lands unsuited for agriculture; the promotion of judicious methods in dealing with forests and woodlands; reafforestation where advisable; tree planting on the plains and on the streets and highways; the collection and dissemination of information bearing on the forestry problem in general.”

From the beginning the Canadian Forestry Association has been closely in touch with the Dominion and Provincial governments and especially with the Dominion Forestry Branch. The association might almost be said to be a department of the Government, so strong has been its influence upon governmental policies and legislation.

The organization of the American Forest Congress has been spoken of. Following the congress there was distinct advancement, both in the understanding of the necessities of the case and in the advocacy of remedial measures applicable to admitted evils.

The history of the forest had shown that fire was an enemy even more disastrous than the operations of lumbermen and the destruction wrought by settlers, wasteful as both had been, and every system of forestry has of necessity incorporated provisions for protection against this very serious menace. Beginning with Ontario, in 1885, all the Canadian provinces, except British Columbia and Prince Edward Island, have adopted laws regarding this hazard and have established special fire ranging service. Experience has demonstrated this system to be effective in proportion to the thoroughness with which it has been operated. Before the installation of these fire warden measures hardly a summer passed that the air of the cities in eastern Canada was not fouled by smoke from vast forest fires, which destroyed an almost incalculable amount of valuable timber; but since this system has been followed fires have been comparatively infrequent and isolated. It is not claimed by anyone that perfection has been reached in guarding the forests from their greatest enemy, but certainly enough has been accomplished to make the position taken by those advocating this method of protection, unassailable. Ontario, which expends the greatest amount upon this service, spent in 1903 only $31,237 in this manner, while the revenue derived from the Ontario woods in the same year was $2,307,356. Thus, less than one and one-half percent of the forest revenue was expended for protecting the entire source of that revenue, which certainly is a low rate of insurance.

The growing recognition of the desirability of extending the Canadian forests resulted in the adoption, in the ’80’s, of the Tree Culture Claim Act. In 1889 experimental farms were established throughout the western country and experiments in tree growing began. From 1889 also dates the inauguration of the Dominion Forestry Branch which gave an added impetus to the forestry movement.

In all of these directions the Canadian Forestry Association has been helpful and influential. It has supplemented the work of public investigators, has upheld the hands of administrators and not only stimulated the Dominion and Provincial authorities, but inspired the people themselves to a quicker and more intelligent interest in the work. Since the organization of the association the protective force employed against fire has been increased and improved methods of management have been put in force. Rangers have been detailed in many sections where previously there were none. The forest reserves have been enlarged and increased in number. Through the medium of the agricultural college a plan has been put into operation in Ontario for aiding farmers to set out wood lots, the work of the experimental farms has been aided and all over the Dominion an interest has been aroused which has resulted in demonstrated benefits.

While the association does not claim that all these things have been done solely through its efforts, it should have part of the credit for them, inasmuch as it has lent its active support to each and every movement for the furtherance of practical forestry work. The meetings of the associations are held early in each year in the leading cities of the Dominion. The officers for 1905 are as follows:

Patron, His Excellency, The Governor General; honorary president, Aubrey White, Toronto, Ontario > president, E. G. Joly de Lotbintere, Quebec, Quebec,* vice president, E. Stewart, Ottawa, Ontario; secretary-treasurer, R. H. Campbell, Ottawa, Ontario.

Vice presidents for the provinces: Rev. A. E. Burke, Alberton, Prince Edward Island; Hon. J. W. Longley, Halifax, Nova Scotia; His Honor, J. B. Snowball, Chatham, New Brunswick; Hon. S. N. Parent, Quebec, Quebec; Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba; His Honor, A. E. Forget, Regina, Assiniboia; William Pearce, Calgary, Alberta; F. D. Wilson, Fort Vermilion, Athabaska; fton. H. Bostock, Monte Creek, British Columbia; Hon. J. H. Agnew, Winnipeg, Manitoba; Hon. Nelson Monteith, Ontario.

Board of directors: J. R. Booth, Ottawa, Ontario; Hiram Robinson, Ottawa, Ontario; Monseigneur Laflamme, Quebec, Quebec; William Saunders, LL.D., Ottawa, Ontario; Thomas Southworth, Toronto, Ontario; H. M. Price, Quebec, Quebec; Doctor Robert Bell, Ottawa, Ontario.

Education in forestry has not in Canada, as yet, taken the form of distinctive forestry schools, but, nevertheless, a good deal is being done along that line. Queen’s University, at Kingston, Ontario, has of recent years supported a series of lectures on forestry, while the Mount Allison University, of Sackville, has had a course of lectures on forestry incorporated into its curriculum. The project of establishing schools of forestry has been under consideration by the University of Toronto and Queen’s University. Perhaps the most practical work has been done by the Ontario Agricultural College, at Guelph, Ontario. Since about 1884 forestry has been taught in that school, there being open a special course in connection with the fourth year. This is a degree course, authorizing the graduates to entitle themselves foresters. The importance of schools devoted especially to forestry was recognized by the Canadian Forestry Association at its 1904 meeting, when the following resolution was adopted:

“Resolved, That the Ontario government be, and is hereby, requested to make a proper grant for the operation of a school or schools of forestry.”

Perhaps the most practical work has been done in connection with experimental farms and stations. At Guelph, in 1904, was begun nursery work by growing deciduous varieties of trees from the seed. At Ottawa, Ontario, is an experimental farm and arboretum under the auspices of the Dominion government. The first planting of forest trees at this experimental farm was made in 1887. About twenty-one acres have been devoted to the planting of forest trees in belts and clumps and sixty-five acres additional have been used for the arboretum and the botanical gardens.

The Federal government has charge of the forests on Dominion lands proper. These embrace the Province of Manitoba, the Northwest Territories and also that part of British Columbia known as the railway belt, consisting of a stretch of country forty miles wide—twenty miles on each side of the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway—containing altogether about 20,000 square miles. It is estimated that the area of forest lands thus under the Dominion control, not including Indian reserves and the old provinces, is 742,578 square miles, while that under the control of the Provincial governments is 506,220 square miles.

The Dominion Department of Agriculture has a well arranged series of experimental farms, a feature of each of which is the study of tree growth. The central farm is at Ottawa, Ontario. The branches are at Nappan, Nova Scotia; Brandon, Manitoba; Indian Head, Assiniboia, and Agassiz, British Columbia. The most important experiments in some respects have been made at Indian Head. A shelter belt 100 feet wide has been planted along the western and northern boundaries of the farm, extending nearly two miles, while blocks of trees of from two to five acres each have been established. This experiment demonstrated the value of tree planting as a protection to crops and fruit trees and also as to what can be done in the way of growing trees on the open prairie in a comparatively dry climate. Furthermore, from the experiment farms are distributed tree seeds, seedlings and cuttings. The work of distribution to settlers was begun from Indian Head in 1899 and that is the headquarters for general distribution to settlers in the Northwest Territories, while the experimental farm at Brandon supplies those in Manitoba. The distributions up to 1904 to settlers in the northwest have been, from Ottawa, 600,000 seedlings and cuttings; from Indian Head, 290,000, and from Brandon, 610,000.

The Province of Ontario and the Dominion have each established a forestry office as a branch of the public service. The Dominion office was started in 1899. The officers consist of the superintendent, assistant superintendent, inspector, several supervisors of tree planting and a number of forest fire rangers. Any land owner desiring to avail himself of the cooperation of the Government applies to its forestry branch. The land of the applicant is visited by one of the supervisors the following summer, when a plan of the proposed plantation is made. The next season seedling trees are sent by express from the government nurseries free of charge. The settler enters into an agreement to set aside a certain portion of the land as a permanent tree plantation; to prepare his soil carefully according to the directions of the supervisor; to plant the trees on their arrival and to cultivate them and keep the ground clean until the trees are of sufficient size no longer to need such attention. As stated above, seedling trees have been grown on the various government farms, but in 1904 the policy was inaugurated of centralizing the work, and 160 acres of land were obtained for a forest nursery station near Indian Head and buildings were being erected and preparations were made by which the supply for the whole northwest country would be grown at that place and distributed from thence.

CANADIAN FOREST RESERVES.

Notwithstanding the original immense forest wealth of Canada and the fact that that wealth still remains untouched in many sections, the saw and the ax have so well fulfilled their destructive mission—and that practically within so short a period as a century—that the Canadian government has recognized the necessity of setting apart national parks and forest reserves for the purpose of conserving its forestal wealth.

The denuding of the forests is not only not harmful but is absolutely ecgnomic in those sections where the soil is suitable for agriculture and where settlement is desirable; but there are large tracts in Canada, particularly in Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia, that are totally unfit for agriculture, and upon these tracts the timber will reproduce itself if given the opportunity. Therefore by restricting lumbering and permitting the young trees to attain full growth, an almost perpetual supply of timber may be insured. To this end Ontario and Quebec have established provincial reserves, and the Federal government has established national parks and reserves in Manitoba, in the Northwest Territories and in what is known as the forty-mile belt along the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway in British Columbia. This belt was ceded by the Province of British Columbia to the Federal government of Canada as a contribution toward the building of the

Canadian Pacific railway. With the exception of that in these provinces and territories and the Indian reserves all the timber in Canada belongs to the several provinces in which it is located.

The Federal reserves in British Columbia are Long Lake Timber Reserve, Yoho Park and Glacier Forest Park. Long Lake Timber Reserve occupies the central part (considering the east and west direction only) or dry belt of British Columbia, being eight miles southwest of the town of Kamloops, which is situated on the Canadian Pacific railway and the Thompson River. The mountains included in this reserve form a watershed for the numerous small streams which irrigate the farming lands of the surrounding valleys. This reserve contains a good growth of Douglas fir and black pine. It was set apart by order of the Minister of the Interior August 15, 1902, and has an area of 76,800 acres.

Yoho Park is the natural continuation of the Rocky Mountains National Park, in the Northwest Territories, but being on the British Columbia side of the interprovincial boundary, that is, on the western slope of the Rockies, it has a distinctive name. Its area is 530,240 acres. It was set apart December 14, 1901, by order in council.

Glacier Forest Park, a small reservation of 18,720 acres, set apart by order in council October 11, 1888, is located in the Selkirk Mountains, British Columbia, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway. Glacier station, a favorite resting place of tourists, is located on this reserve.

The Federal reserves in the Northwest Territories are as follows: Rocky Mountains Park, Foothills Timber Reserve, Waterton Lakes Forest Park, Cooking Lake Timber Reserve, Moose Mountain Timber Reserve and Beaver Hills Timber Reserve.

Rocky Mountains Park is situated along the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, north of the Foothills Reserve, the southern end being about 120 miles north of the international boundary. This park is in the shape of a triangle, each side of which is about 100 miles in length, with the town of Banff, a well known mountain resort on the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway, in the center. The Bow River runs through the middle of the triangle. When first set apart by special act of the Dominion Parliament in 1887 this park was only twenty-six miles long and ten miles wide; but it was extended by act of 1902 and now contains approximately 2,880,000 acres. Together with Yoho Park, on the western -slope of the mountains in British Columbia, this reservation forms one of the most magnificent forest parks in the world, the combined area being 3,410,240 acres, or over 5,328 square miles.

The Foothills Timber Reserve, containing 2,350,000 acres, set apart by the Minister of the Interior February 21, 1899, embraces the foothills on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, in the southwest corner of Alberta, between the international boundary and Rocky Mountains Park. It stretches northward, from the South Kootenay Pass on the boundary, about 140 miles. The use of this reserve as a watershed is of much more importance than its use for the production of timber.

A foot or projection of 34,000 acres on the southern end of the Foothills Reserve is formed by the Waterton Lakes Forest Park, which was set apart May 30, 1895, as a tourist park, previous to the setting apart of the Foothills Reserve. It forms a square, one side of which, is the international boundary.

Twenty miles southeast of Edmonton, northern Alberta, is the Cooking Lake Timber Reserve, having an area of 109,000 acres, and having been set apart June 6, 1899, by the Minister of the Interior.

Still following an eastward course, Moose Mountain Timber Reserve is the next in order. This is a small reservation in southeastern Assiniboia, about fifty miles due north of the town of Portal, which is on the “Soo” railroad at the point where it crosses the international boundary. Moose Mountain Reserve has an area of 103,000 acres, set apart under the same authority as the Foothills Timber Reserve.

In northeast Assiniboia, twenty miles west of the town of Yorkton on the northwestern branch of the Canadian Pacific railway, and about forty-five miles north of Indian Head on the main line of the Canadian Pacific, is the Beaver Hills Timber Reserve, which was set apart August 20, 1901. Its acreage is 170,000.

The Province of Manitoba possesses six timber reserves, namely, Turtle Mountain, Spruce Woods, Riding Mountain, Duck Mountain, Lake Manitoba and Porcupine Mountain.

Turtle Mountain Timber Reserve lies in the southwestern part of the Province, extending about twenty miles along the international boundary, at a distance of twelve miles north of the town of Bottineau, North Dakota, and fifteen miles southeast of Deloraine, Manitoba. It was set apart as a reserve July 13, 1895. Its area is 75,000 acres.

In the central part of the Province, lying for about twenty-five miles along the south side of the Canadian Pacific main line, between the city of Brandon and the town of McGregor, is the Spruce Woods Timbei Reserve, of 190,000 acres. It was set apart January 8, 1898, under the same authority as the Foothills Timber Reserve.

Riding Mountain Reserve is of irregular shape and extends about ninety miles from northwest to southeast, lying southwest of Lake Dauphin and in the fork formed by the main lines of the Canadian Pacific and Canadian Northern railways. It has an area of 1,215,000 acres, and was set apart July 13, 1895.

Directly north of the Riding Mountain Reserve, west of Lake Win-nipegosis and lying parallel with the Swan River branch of the Canadian Northern railway, is the Duck Mountain Timber Reserve. It has a length of fifty miles from north to south and contains 840,000 acres. On February 5, 1902, it was set apart as a reserve.

A small reserve of 159,460 acres on the west side of Lake Manitoba is known as Lake Manitoba Timber Reserve. It is situated a couple of miles due west of the Hudson Bay Company’s post, Manitoba House, at the narrows of Lake Manitoba, and a few miles northeast of the village of Laurier, which is the nearest railway station and is located on the Canadian Northern railway.

Porcupine Mountain Timber Reserve occupies the extreme northwestern angle of the Province of Manitoba, forming a parallelogram, the adjacent sides of which are about forty and sixty miles, between Lake Winnipegosis and the northwest corner of the Province. On August 24, 1900, it was reserved from settlement only, timber licenses being permitted to be granted. Included within this reserve are 1,382,400 acres.

The national parks above described have been set apart on the lines of the United States national parks for the purpose of preserving the natural beauties intact, no cutting of timber being permitted. The reserves on the watersheds, as Long Lake Timber Reserve, the Foothills Timber Reserve and Waterton Lakes Forest Park, and some of the others to a lesser extent, have been set apart in order to preserve the forest-floor so that the water falling on the mountains may be fed gradually to the rivers below to give them a regular water supply as far as possible the year around. The remaining reserves have been set apart with two objects: First, to keep settlers out of broken and other lands unsuitable for farming, and, second, to preserve a supply of timber for the settlers who will occupy the adjacent prairie lands.

With these objects in view and partly owing to the short time since they have been set apart, no commercial lumbering has been allowed in them and consequently no regulations therefor made. The only existing regulations are those permitting settlers to secure licenses to cut a limited supply of timber for fuel and building purposes. Some of these reserves have been more or less burned and worked over, and the object of the reservation and the employment of fire rangers is to give the timber a chance to start growing again.

Outside of these reservations the Federal government of Canada has large areas of timber in Manitoba, the Territories and British Columbia, which are leased to lumbermen on the usual plan of a bonus and ground rent. The ground rent is $5 a square mile for a year except for lands west of Yale, British Columbia, where the ground rent is five cents an acre. The Crown dues are, on sawed lumber, 50 cents a thousand feet board measure; railway ties, 1% cents each; shingle bolts, 25 cents a cord, and five percent on the sales of all other products of the berth.

The Provincial governments of Ontario and Quebec have also set apart parks and reserves for the preservation of their forests, the regulations regarding which are made by the Provincial governments.

Sibley Reserve is in the northwestern part of Ontario, on the north shore of Lake Superior, and includes Thunder Cape and a portion of the township of Sibley. It contains about 45,000 acres, and was set apart in 1900 by order in council.

Situated in the district north of Lake Nipissing, Ontario, is Algonquin Park, on the height of land between the Ottawa River and its tributaries and the Georgian Bay waters. This park, having an area of 1,109,383 acres, was created by special Act of Legislature in 1893. It is not, in the strictest sense, a forest reserve, as it was primarily designed for a game preserve and much of its area is under license; but as no settlement is permitted within its limits it largely partakes of the character of a forest reserve. Permission is given to fish in this park, but hunters are absolutely forbidden, the rules in this respect being so strict that no man is even permitted to carry a gun in the park. At the time when this park was set aside game within its area was very scarce, but now it is fast becoming filled with fur-bearing and game animals.

One of Ontario’s reserves more recently set aside is Mississaga Reserve, created in 1904. It lies to the north of Lake Huron and com-jprises an area of 3,000 square miles, or 1,920,000 acres. The policy of the Government in regard to the administration of this and Temagami Reserve is that timber shall be disposed of by the thousand on the stump and cut under supervision of officials of the Government.

Temagami Reserve, containing 1,408,000 acres, was set apart January 11, 1901. Within its boundaries is a beautiful lake of the same name. Most of this reserve is still covered with virgin pine of great value. On .December 16, 1903, an addition of 3,700 square miles was made to the north and west, giving the reserve a total of 5,900 square miles, or 3,776,000 acres.

North of the City of Kingston, Ontario, is the Eastern Forest Reserve, which was formed under the Forest Reserve Act in 1899 and which contains 80,000 acres. This area was lumbered over and afterward burned, but now has a heavy growth of young pine.

The Laurentides National Park, of Quebec, was created by Act of Legislature January 12, 1895, and contains 2,650 square miles, or 1,696,000 acres, lying to the north of the City of Quebec. Its northern boundary is the 48th parallel; its eastern, the St. Urbain road; its southern and southeastern, the rear line of the Seigniory of Beaupr6 and ranges XI and XII of Stoneham and Tewkesbury; its western, the Fief Hubert and an imaginary line running to a point west of Grand Lake Batiscan, thence skirting the Quebec & Lake St. John railway a few miles east thereof to the intersection of the 48th parallel. This park was formed for the purposes of protecting the forests, fish and game; of maintaining the water supply, and of encouraging the study and culture of forest trees. Over a dozen large rivers rise in this park, and it has been described as being “peppered” with lakes, the waters of which are teeming with fish. A large portion of the timber of this reservation is under license, some of the limits being operated at present. Game is found here in abundance, and hunting is permitted in certain sections, also fishing, both under regulations.

On April 10, 1902, the legislative assembly of New Brunswick passed an act authorizing the setting aside of “a tract of land in some portion of the Province covered with forest, not exceeding 900 square miles in extent,” to be known as the Provincial Park of New Brunswick. However, no action has as yet been taken establishing this forest reservation.

The following table contains a complete list of both Dominion and Provincial reserves, whether timber reserves proper or parks, with their respective areas, as they existed at the beginning of 1905:

ADDENDUM.

Since this chapter was prepared a new forest reserve has been set apart by the government of the Province of Ontario in the western part of that Province, called the Nipigon Forest Reserve. It is thus described: "Commencing at the southeast angle of the Township of Ledger, east of the Nipigon River in the district of Thunder Bay, thence due east astronomically twenty-two miles, thence due north astronomically ninety-eight miles, thence due west astronomically seventy-three miles, thence due south astronomically ninety-eight miles, thence dne east astronomically to the southwest angle of the Township of Purdom, thence due east astronomically along the sonth boundary of the Township of Purdom, and along the south boundary of the Township of Ledger, a distance of fifty-one miles In all, to the place of beginning, containing by admeasurement seven thousand one hundred and fifty-four square miles.” According to this description the southern boundary of the reserve is eight miles north of Nipigon station, on the Canadian Pacific railway, and Lake Nipigon is inclnded in its area. There are the nsual exceptions of lands already patented, Indian reserves, etc. The total area of the reserve, inclnding water, is 4,578,560 acres, making a total reserved area In Ontario of 11,508,943 acres, including the exceptions and the water area contained in the Nipigon Reserve, and increasing the total acreage of forest reserves in Canada to 23,338,563 acres. The land in this new reserve is not especially adapted to agriculture, with the exception of a few tracts situated in the river valleys of the western part of the reserve, but is of value as a timber preserve. Spruce, tamarack, jack pine and birch are the principal trees. Large areas have been devastated by fire, but are being covered by a second growth, which will, in time, be valuable not only as pulpwood but as material for railway ties, which will donbtless be in demand in this section in the near future. On the Ombabika River, which, roughly speaking, bisects the northeastern angle of the reserve, there is still good timber, the pulpwood being estimated at 1,484,000 acres. In the vicinity of this river are to be found birch, spruce, poplar, jack pine, balsam and tamarack.

Nnmerous rivers flow into Lake Nipigon, which occupies the central part of the reserve, and will furnish power for manufacturing purposes when needed. So also, in larger measure, will the Nipigon River, which has a fall of about 250 feet within the reserve.

Large game is not plentiful in the reserve, owing to the hunting of the Indians and also to the fact that much of the country has been swept by fire. Small fur-bearing animals, such as the mink, beaver, otter, marten, muskrat and fox, are found in abundance.

Also, a reserve, containing about 2,500 square miles, has been set aside by the Province of Quebec in the Gasp€ Peninsula.


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