Economic Minerals and Mining Industry of Canada
Metallic Minerals



.Dawson, Yukon Territory.

Aluminium.

Bauxite the commercial ore of aluminium has not yet been found in Canada but, the metal aluminium is produced from ores imported from France, Germany, and the United States, in extensive reduction works situated at Shawenegan Falls, Quebec. The plant is operated by the Northern Aluminium Company, a subsidiary of the Aluminium Company of America. A portion of the bauxite used at these works is mined from the Company's mines in the States of Arkansas and Georgia, and refined at East St. Louis, U.S.A.

The Shawenegan plant covers an area of about 10 acres and includes reduction buildings and a wire mill. The Company employs the Hall, or Heroult electric reduction process for the manufacture of aluminium. The furnaces, or cells as they are locally termed, are rectangular in shape, the bottom of the cells forming one electrode, while a number of carbons suspended over the cells form the other electrode. These cells work continuously, the reduced metallic aluminium collecting at the bottom, whence it is tapped off from time to time, and moulded into bars. There are 340 cells in operation, each producing, on an average, 150 pounds of aluminium, of 99-4% fine per day.

The Company owns and operates a water power plant developing about 40,000 horse-power.

There are numerous occurrences of feldspar in Canada, some of which are very pure, and it is possible that with improved processes of manufacture, these may become important sources of aluminium in the future.

The exports of aluminium in ingots, bars, etc., from Canada during 1912 were 9,143 tons, valued at $2,002,303, besides manufactures of aluminium valued at 110,898.

Antimony.

Ores of antimony consisting mainly of stibnite or sulphide of antimony have been found and worked in a number of localities in eastern Canada, chief among which are the mines at West Gore in Hants county, Nova Scotia, and in the Parish of Prince William, York county, New Brunswick. In both cases mining operations have been intermittent in character, and the total shipments of ore and concentrates during 25 years does not seem to have exceeded 7,000 tons. The ore at West Gore is auriferous, although the presence of gold was not recognized in the earlier shipments which consisted of high grade ore carrying 50 per cent and upwards of antimony. A mill for treating low grade ore wras built in 1907 and 190S. No ore was mined or milled in 1912. Native antimony and stibnite occur at Prince William, New Brunswick, and the deposits have been worked at various times since 1S63. A small smelting plant was erected many years ago with a reputed production of a ton of metal per week. The Canadian Antimony Company erected a new plant in 1909 consisting of stack furnaces and a reverberatory furnace for reducing the antimony oxide, the latter furnace having a capacity of from two to three tons of metal per 24 hours. This plant is also idle at the present time.

In addition to the above there is an occasional recovery of the metal in the lead smelting and refining plant at Trail, B.C., antimony being a minor constituent of some of the silver-Ieacl ores of southern British Columbia.

The occurrence of antimony minerals has also been noted at South Ham, in Wolfe county, province of Quebec.

In British Columbia, stibnite has been reported at Watkinsons about 23 miles above Lytton, on the Fraser river; on Cadwalladar creek, Lillooet district; on the Alps and Alturus claims, north fork of Carpenter creek, Slocan district, and in the Atlin district on the west shore of Taku Arm, about 10 miles north of Golden Gate. Occurrences have also been noted in the Yukon district on a small stream flowing into the Stewart river about 5 miles above Gordon Landing, while more recently important antimony-silver veins have been found on Carbon and Chieftain hills in the Wheaton River district, northwest of Lake Bennett in the southern Yukon.

Arsenic.

Arsenopyrite or mispickel ores are found abundantly in eastern Ontario, particularly in the county of Hastings. These deposits are usually auriferous and the Deloro mine in Marmora township was worked for many years for the recovery of both gold and white arsenic.

In northern Ontario, mispickel has also been found in quantity on the shores of Net lake near Lake Timagami; in Davis township, Nipissing district; near Schreiber on the Canadian Pacific railway, and also in the Rainy River district.

For a number of years a small quantity of mispickel concentrate was produced at the gold mine operated at Goklboro, Nova Scotia. The arsenical concentrate was produced from the residue of the mill concentrates after the gold had been extracted by bromo-cyanicle.

The present production of white arsenic in Canada is being derived altogether from the silver-cobalt-nickel-arsenic ores of the Cobalt district in Ontario, the arsenic being recovered as a by-product in the several smelting works situated at Thorold, Deloro, Orillia, and Copper Cliff, the latter plant having been recently closed clown. The annual production of white arsenic during the past five years has been from 1000 to 2000 tons, the greater part of which is exported.

Cobalt.

Previous to the discovery of the now famous ore deposits of the Cobalt district of northern Ontario, the metal cobalt had already been noted as a constituent of the Sudbury nickcl-coppcr deposits, in fact a small recovery therefrom was reported 1892 to 1894.

The silver-cobalt-nickel ores of the Cobalt district are discussed under the article on silver, since these ores, with one or two exceptions, are mined primarily for their silver contents, the cobalt being a by-product for which the mine owners now receive no return whatever. This fact is rather curious, when it is remembered that these ores have displaced nearly all others in supplying the world's demand for cobalt. Although most of the ore producing veins of this camp are chiefly silver bearing, a number have been found in which the silver values are negligible.


Daly Reduction Co.'s mill, Hedley, B. C.

Cobalt is being recovered, in the form of cobalt oxide and eobaltic material containing nickel or nickel oxide and a little silver, in Canadian smelters situated at Copper Cliff, Deloro, Thorold, Orillia, and North Bay respectively. It is quite possible also that recovery is being made in other smelters, outside of Canada, to which a considerable tonnage of these ores has been shipped. The production has been sufficient to cause a falling off in the price of cobalt oxide from 82.50 a pound in 11)07 to less than a dollar a pound in 191.1 and 1912. It is estimated that in 1911 about S52 tons of metallic cobalt were contained in the ores shipped from the Cobalt camp. About 21-5 tons of metals were recovered in Canadian smelters contained in cobalt oxide, and 119 tons contained in " crude cobalt material."

Copper.

Native copper occurs in Canada in a number of different localities; it has been found in the Maritime Provinces in the trap sheets which occur on both sides of the Bay of Funcly; it is known to occur in Ontario, in certain copper-bearing amygdaloids of the Keweenawan series which occur along the east coast of Lake Superior; it has been found in central British Columbia; and recent explorations have confirmed information obtained nearly a century and a half ago, that very important copper-bearing amygdaloids occur along the arctic coasts of Canada, near Coronation gulf and in Victoria land. None of these deposits are being exploited commercially. The small amount of exploration work performed in the more easily accessible areas has not disclosed concentrations of native copper at these points in sufficient quantity to make it practical to operate them commercially by present methods, the content being usually one per cent or less. The areas of copper-bearing rocks around Coronation gulf have not been investigated commercially as yet. The preliminary reports available seem to indicate the occurrence in this vicinity of copper ranges which cover an area greater than the well-known copper-bearing rocks of the State of Michigan.

Minerals containing copper as an essential constituent occur in many places throughout Canada. Those commercially important are the sulphides; carbonates and oxides also occur, usually in association with sulphide deposits, but they are relatively of minor importance. The two sulphides, chal-copvrite and bornite, are the most important ; locally chalcocite is also found occasionally. In Nova Scotia copper sulphide minerals have been found at a number of points, but no important producing mines have1 been developed. The better known localities are: Cheticamp, Lochaber, and Coxheath. In New Brunswick, also, no ore bodies of known commercial importance have been discovered, although small deposits have been found in a number of localities in the southern part of the province.

In Quebec, particularly in the district known as the Eastern Townships, numerous occurrences of the sulphide minerals have been discovered during the last seventy-five years. Some of these discoveries were important enough to warrant explorations and commercial development, and many small mines have been in operation for varying periods of time. The types of ores which occur in this province may be classified on the basis of their composition as follows:—

Pvrite and chalcopvrite, nearly pure sulphides, the copper content varying from a mere trace to more than 12 per cent, as at Eustis, Capelton, and elsewhere.

Pvrite and chalcopyrite disseminated through a highly siliceous gangue, as at the Suffield mine.

Chalcop) rite and bornite disseminated through a calcareo-magnesian limestone, as at Actonvale and vicinity.

Bornite in a siliceous gangue, usually quartz, as at Harvey hill.

Pyrrhotite, containing a small amount of chalcopyrite, as at the Memphrc-magog mine.

Chalcopyrite and pvrite with quartz, and associated with a basic igneous rock, as at the old mines near St. Flavien.

Chalcocitc, in small amount, associated with quartz, and, more rarely, with serpentine, occurring in several localities, but relatively unimportant.

The most important producing district occurs in the vicinity of Sher-brooke, Quebec. At the present time there are two active mines in this district, one of which has been in continuous operation for about 30 years. There are also a number of properties that are worthy of further investigation. The ores from the active mines are almost pure pyrites, containing some chalcopyrite, and occasionally a little chalcocite. The sulphur content of the ore, which runs over 40%, is utilized for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, and the copper is then recovered from the cinder residues obtained at the acid works, by blast furnace smelting, with other ores. The Quebec sulphide ores of copper nearly all contain small amounts of gold and silver.

In Ontario, in addition to the occurrences of native copper, to which reference has already been made, there are four different districts in which copper-bearing minerals occur. These, in order from east to wrcst, are:—

North Hastings district, where some chalcopyrite occurs in association with pyrites deposits.

Parry Sound district, where some rich pockets of bornite and chalcopv-rites were found.

Sudbury district, where copper sulphides, chiefly chalcopyrite, occur in association with nickel sulphides in the well known deposits of nickeliferous pyrrhotite of that region.

North shore of Lake Huron, comprising the area westward from the Sudbury district to Lake Superior, and extending northward for at least 40 miles. In numerous localities throughout this area quartz veins, sometimes of considerable width and lineal extent, are found. Many of these veins contain small flakes and masses of chalcopyrite, occasionally of considerable size. The number of recorded claims is large; prospecting has been carried on in many localities and in some few instances extensive development work has succeeded prospecting. Some of the earliest discoveries of copper ores in Ontario were in this district-—at the old Wallace mine, now long since abandoned, and at the well known Bruce mines. Ore shipments have been made intermittently from a number of localities in this district, but none of the properties have been operated continuously for any length of time. These ores are all highly siliceous. It has long been known that occurrences of copper minerals are widespread in this district, and many prospects have been discovered which contain low grade ores. They have rarely been sufficiently explored to demonstrate their extent. The difficulty of recovering the copper content economically has not been surmounted. Without some adequate method of concentration, it has not been possible to exploit the prospects for any length of time in any locality.

In northern Ontario at the Alexo mine, near Matheson, chalcopyrite associated with a nickeliferous pyrrhotite occurs in serpentine. Mining operations are in progress and a small tonnage of copper-nickel ore has already been produced.

Copper sulphides have also been found in the district west of Port Arthur, where a little prospecting has been done, and in a number of localities.


Blast furnace plant at Sydney

In the Timiskaming and Timagami districts. A small amount of copper is recovered annually from some of the silver ores of Cobalt and vicinity.

Ontario's production of metallic copper in 1012 was 22,232,00(3 pounds, valued at 83,070,518, on the basis of the New York average market price for the year. Nearly the whole of this was obtained .from the pvrrhotites of the Sudbury district. In this locality two large smelting plants are in active operation, treating ores obtained from their own mines by blast furnace .smelting. A third company has been exploring other properties during the last few years, and another large smelting plant will probably be erected in the near future. The ores are all nickeliferous copper-bearing pyrrhotites and they also contain small amounts of the precious metals. .A more complete description of the ore bodies of the Sudbury district is included in the paragraphs dealing with the metal nickel.

British Columbia is at present the principal copper-producing province of the Dominion of Canada, copper-bearing minerals being found in numerous localities in various parts of the province. The important minerals are usually •chalcopyrite or bornite, or both. These may occur alone, but usually they are found in association with other minerals, the commonest of which are pyrrhotite, magnetite, pyrite, mispickel, and, occasionally, blende and galena. The known occurrences arc too numerous to be considered individually in a review of this character. The principal districts in which important discoveries have been made are in southern British Columbia, in the West Kootenay and Kamloops districts, and in the Coast district at a number of points along the mainland and on some of the coastal islands. The most important active producing mines are at Rossland, at Phoenix and at Mother-lode in the interior, and at Britannia or Howe sound, Texada island, and Granby bay on the coast. Prospecting exploratory work and development is also being carried on at a number of points, both in the interior of southern British Coulmbia and at several coastal points.

The ore deposits of Rossland occur in fissure veins and in lodes or shear zones, the ore forming a network of veinlets in the fractures, and also replacing more or less completely the intervening fragments of country rock, sometimes also partially replacing the wall rock. The ores may be classified, according to Brock, on the basis of their mineral contents, as follows:—

a. Pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite, with some pyrites and occasionally a little arsenopyrite, massive or mixed with gangue and rock matter. Free gold occurs, though but rarely visible. Rarely, molybdenite and magnetite are found, and, on a few occasions, blende and galena have been seen. This ore is the typical ore of the district, and, at times, the pyrrhotite contains 0'05% nickel and 0'59% cobalt.

b. Pyrrhotite, coarse textured and massive, containing very little copper and little gold.

e. Veins of pyrite and marcasite with arsenopyrite and some blend and galena. Such veins occasionally contain silver as an important constituent.

d. Impregnations of arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, molybdenite, a little chalcopyrite, bismuthinite, and native gold. These occur particularly in and around small pegmatitic or aplitic alkali syenite dykes.

e. Gold-bearing quartz veins.

The gangue associated with the Rossland ores is usually more or less altered country rock, with which is associated some quartz, and, in places, •calcite. The principal valuable constituent recovered from the ores is gold, so that strictly the ores should be classed as gold ores containing a little copper. The ores, however, are treated by blast furnace smelting and the gold is afterwards recovered from the copper matte. The gold content of the ore varies from 0"4 t-o afcou* 1'5 ounces per t»r tl^silver varies from 0-3 to 2'5 ounce* per ton; the copper from 0'7% to about 3-5 %. Ores containing higher values in gold, or more copper, have been found occasionally.

The ore deposit* of the Boundary district are. at. present, the most important deposits of copper-bearing ores in Canada. The ore bodies occur in mineralized zones in altered limestones. They lie at different horizons in this zone, but generally occur in the lower or outer portions. They range in size from small lenses, less than 20 feet in thickness and 100 feet in length, to huge ore bodies, such as that at the Knob Hill-Ironside mine at Phoenix, which has a thickness of 125 feet, a known width of 000 feet and a length of about 2,500 feet. The ore throughout is remarkably uniform and is almost self-fluxing. It consists of finely disseminated chalcopyrite with pyrites and hematite, in a gangue composed essentially of epidote, garnet, quartz, calcite and chlorite. Magnetite occurs in distinct masses, or lense-like bodies, both in and along the borders of the main ore bodies. The chalcopyrite carries all the copper, gold, and silver, the average ore containing from 1'2 to 1'0% of copper, with about SI in gold and silver per ton. The important producing mines are located in or near the town of Phoenix, and at Deadwood, about 4 miles from Greenwood, B.C. The ores are smelted in water-jacketed blast furnaces, producing a matte that is afterwards treated in bessemer converters.

The ore deposits of the Coast district are of three distinct types. The Britannia mines, on Howe sound, are producing chalcopyrite ores, containing small quantities of gold and silver. These ores occur in a mineralized shear zone of considerable extent, and are highly siliceous. The development work is very extensive, and there is reason to believe that the deposits will prove to be very large. The ores are concentrated and shipped to the United States for treatment. Several mines on Texada island produce bornite, with which is associated more or less chalcopyrite. The ore bodies occur as a series of lenses in limestones, but usually more or less closely associated with certain igneous intrusions. Very important deposits of pyrites, with which is associated chalcopyrite, have been found less than a mile from tide water, near Granby bay, and about 110 miles from Prince Rupert. Extensive development work, performed during the last three years, has shown that these deposits are very large and preparations are under way to mine these ores and to treat them in blast furnaces.

Copper sulphides, chiefly chalcopyrite and bornite, occur at many points along the Pacific coast and on the adjacent islands. Some prospecting and some development work have been done at a few points and the future will probably witness the development of other important producing mines.

There arc three copper smelting plants in operation in southern British Columbia. One at Trail treats the ores of the Rossland camp, producing? a copper matte in which the precious metals contained in the Rossland ores are collected. This matte is shipped to the United States for refining. A very extensive plant, at Grand Forks, B.C., treats ores derived from Phoenix, in the Boundary district, and another at Greenwood smelts ores from the Motherlode, and some other mines belonging to the operating company. Both of these plants are equipped with water-jacketed blast furnaces, and with bessemer converters for making blister copper. On the coast there is a fully-equipped smelting plant, at Ladvsmith, on the east side of Vancouver island, about 05 miles north of Victoria. This is a custom plant, and at present it is not being operated. A new plant is also under construction at Anyox, on Granby bay, and it is expected that it will be in operation in December, 1913.

All smelting companies in British Columbia smelt custom ores in addition to treating ores from their own mines, and it is probable that the new smelter at Anvox will also accept custom work.

The total copper production of British Columbia, in 1912, is estimated at 50,520,056 pounds, valued at §8,256,561, Newr York market average prices for the year.

Ores containing copper have been discovered at a number of points in the Yukon Territory, and one mine, the Pueblo, at Whitehorse, gives promise of becoming an increasingly important producer.

Gold.

Gold, with its mystic influence on man, is usually the first sought mineral in a new country. In Canada, as elsewhere, we find the quest of gold one of the earliest of our industries. In Nova Scotia, in Ontario, and in British Columbia, mining may be said to have commenced in earnest at nearly the same time, about 1860, largely due to the influence of the discoveries in California. From this beginning the industry has growrn until the gold production of Canada in 1912 was valued at $12,648,794, of which §6,106,677 was recovered from alluvial deposits.

For a few years, 1898 to 1904, due to the Klondike placer output, the production was higher, but otherwise the growth of output has been uniform.

Gold was discovered in Nova Scotia in 1858, but 1862 really marks the beginning of gold mining. Since that date the production has been fairly steady, averaging about $400,000 per annum. The gold bearing rocks of the province form a belt varying in width from 10 to 70 miles and extend some 260 miles in length along the Atlantic coast. In this area the gold occurs in the free state in saddle-shaped quartz veins in many respects similar to those of Bendigo, Australia. At West Gore there is an occurrence of auriferous stibnite. This deposit was worked for some time for the antimony before the presence of the gold was recognized, but in later years it was a fairly steady producer of gold.

The occurrence of alluvial gold in southern-Quebec has long been known, the first recorded discovery being in 1824 on the Gilbert river, a tributary of the Chaudiere, at a point about 50 miles southeast of Quebec city. Mining commenced in 1847 and operations have been carried on intermittently since. Alluvial gold has been found and worked along the valley of the Chaudiere and many of its tributaries from a point some distance below the mouth of the Gilbert river eastward almost to the International Boundary.

A small amount of gold also comes from the ores of the Eastern Townships where pyrites ami chalcopyrite are found in lenses replacing country rock. These are mined for their copper and sulphur content, and the gold is recovered as a by-product.

Though gold has not yet been discovered in paying quantities in northern Quebec, it is by no means improbable that deposits similar to those of Porcupine may be found there.

Amongst the various gold bearing districts of Ontario may be mentioned the eastern Ontario gold belt in Hastings and neighbouring counties, Parry Sound district, the Porcupine and Larder Lake areas, Wanapitei lake, the district north of Lake Huron, Michipicoten, Shebandowan lake, Sturgeon lake, and Lake of the Woods.

The eastern Ontario gold belt was first exploited in 1866. This district comprises the southeastern part of Peterborough county and passes through the northern parts of Hastings, Lennox and Addington, and Fronte-nac counties. The gold deposits occur in the older rocks of the Hastings-

Granville series generally near granite intrusions. There are many small mines in this area which have been intermittently worked since discovery.

The Porcupine gold area is situated in northern Ontario, about 1")0 miles north of Toronto and 120 miles north of the Cobalt silver district. The most important developments have taken place in the township of Tisdale, but promising discoveries have also been made in other townships in the vicinity including Whitney, Ogden, Shaw, Deloro, and Langmuir. There are also producing properties in Munro and Guibord near Matheson, in Otto at Swastika, and in the vicinity of Larder lake. The occurrence of gold bearing quartz has been known in this district for a number of years, but it was not until the summer of 1909 that discoveries of importance were made and interest aroused. Early in 1910 a rush started and around the original discoveries lots were staked for miles regardless of the values they contained. The best looking finds were tested during 1910 and early in 1911 the construction of several mills was well under way. Although the first mil only started in Julv 1912, the gold production from the district for that year was about Si,700,000.

The rocks of the Porcupine area may well be classed as Pre-Cambrian, and are similar to the older formations occurring at Cobalt. The gold is associated with quartz in irregular fissures running through both the Keewatin and Timiskaming series.

Gold as well as others of the rarer metals is recovered in the refining of the mattes from the Sudbury copper-nickel ores.

The mines of western Ontario embrace a number of classes, but all are located in Keewatin rocks or in intrusive granites or gneisses. Many properties have been worked intermittently though few continuously.

In Manitoba some attention is at present being paid to the area lying southeast of Lake Winnipeg and along the Ontario boundary where some discoveries have recently been made.

Alluvial gold has been found in many of the rivers of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and the North West Territories, though actual production has been limited to a small recovery from the Saskatchewan river immediately above and below Edmonton.

About the time Simon Eraser, in the first years of the nineteenth century, crossed the Rockies to the head of the river now bearing his name, the early settlers of Vancouver island had begun to realize the wealth of British Columbia, and had sailed away from Moresby island, one of the Queen Charlottes, with a cargo of rich gold ore which paid them well for their enterprise, but for some reason they did not repeat the venture. Practically, therefore, the first mineral development is that due to the Fraser River gold rush in 1S5S and succeeding years, when the Cariboo and Quesnel districts were discovered, followed in 1S74 by the discovery of gold in Cassiar.

Lode gold mining may be said to have commenced in 1S90 with the staking of the Rossland gold-copper camp, followed by the discovery of the large low grade copper-gold ore bodies of the Boundary. These ores, though one of the main sources of the province's gold production, are complex gold-silver-copper ores and are mentioned under the head of copper. Practically all the copper ores of the province are auriferous to a greater or less extent. The Nickel Plate mine at Hedley in the Similkameen is the premier gold mine of the province and its 40 ski nip mill has been a steady producer for a number of years, its 1911 output being valued at S079,000.

The ore here is an auriferous mispickel with varying amounts of copper and iron pyrites occurring in bodies replacing country rock along or near the contact of igneous rocks.


Helen iron mine, Michipicolen, Ont,


Blast furnace and ore docks, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.

In the Nelson district there are several gold properties working, some shipping ore to the smelters, but the larger number stamp milling and shipping the concentrates. Amongst these are the Granite, near Nelson, the Dundee, Wilcox, and Yankee Girl at Ymir, the Mother Lode and Queen, on Sheep creek, and the Second Relief at Erie. Besides this district, there are a few gold mines operating in the Lardeau; at Paulson and Carmi, in the Boundary; 011 Bridge river west of Lillooet; Princess Royal island; Moresby island: and on Taku Arm, Atlin lake.

There is still a very considerable production of gold from the placer and hydraulic properties of the province, the chief centres being the Cariboo district, Quesnel, the Omineca and Atlin, and there is yet much country which is comparatively unexplored. The gold is either in the original pre-glacial gravels, or in more recent deposits derived from these.

As earh' as 1878 miners began to enter the Yukon and finds were made in various parts of the district from year to year. Discoveries were made on Fortymile creek, on the Lewes river, and Upper Pellv and Stewart rivers, tributaries of the Yukon, but it was not until 1894 that gold was found on Quartz creek, a tributary of the Indian river, which enters the Yukon above the Klondike river at whose mouth Dawson City nowT stands. Discoveries followed on Hunker and Bonanza creeks, the latter being especially rich. The news of this discovery resulted in the historic rush of 1897-8, a stampede which is probably unparallelled in the history of mining. The building of the Whitehorse and Yukon railway from Skagway to the foot of the White-horse rapids greatlv aided the development of the district. The population in 1900 reached 30,000 and the gold production amounted to §22,275,000. From that year it decreased annually, having fallen by 1907 to 83,150,000. Since that date, owing to the introduction of improved methods and machinery, chiefly large electrically operated gold dredges, the production has again increased until in 1912 it was 85,549,290.

The gold production of the Yukon from 1885 to December 31, 1912, amounted to 7,0S7,141 fine ounces, valued at 8140,503,749. The principal sources of production of the Klondike River area were Upper and Lower Bonanza, Eldorado, and Hunker creeks, while on the Indian River slope are Dominion, Gold Run, Sulphur, and Quartz. These creeks are estimated bv Mr. R. G. McConnell to have produced a total of 8119,000,000 in gold up to 1907, while he estimated a future production from the Klondike basin alone of 853,000,000

Gold is also recovered at the head waters of the Sixtymile river, south of Dawson, and in the Kluane district in the southwestern part of the Yukon, as well as being widely distributed throughout the territory. Further prospecting will probably reveal other gold bearing creeks, some possibly as rich as previous discoveries.

Within the last few years increasing attention has been paid to the quartz properties of the district and one mill is now operating near Dawson. The development of lode mines is yet in its infancy but promises well for the future.

Iron.

Although iron ores are widely distributed in Canada, the present extensive metallurgical industry in iron and steel has been developed to a very large extent on the basis of imported ores, chiefly the conveniently situated and comparatively cheaply mined ores of Bell island, Newfoundland, and ores from the iron ranges on the south shore of Lake Superior. There are. nevertheless, a number of important iron ore deposits that have already contributed considerable outputs in the past, and there are numerous occur-rcnces which in the future may constitute valuable sources of supply for this metal.

In tlw province of Nova Scotia the principal iron ore deposits are those at Clement-Sport, Nictaux, and Torbrook in Annapolis county; Brookfield and Londonderry in Colchester county; the Pictou iron range in Pictou county; and Whycocomagh in Inverness county. A wide variety of ore is found including hematites, magnetite, bog ore, limonitc, and carbonates.

The Nictaux and Torbrook field is practically the only one being actively exploited at the present time. Formerly this, together with the Londonderry and Pictou deposits, produced considerable quantities of ore which were smelted at Londonderry, Pictou, and New Glasgow. For a number of years past blast furnace operations have been transferred entirely to Sydney and North Sydney, Cape Breton, where large and extensive plants have been erected by the Dominion Iron and Steel Company and the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Co.

These two plants include blast furnaces with a total daily capacity of about 1700 tons. Coking plants with by-product recoveries, Bessemer convertors and open hearth furnaces, steel finishing mills for billets, rails, rods, wire nails, bolts and nuts, etc. The Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Co. has an extensive steel plant at New Glasgow. Both companies own or control their own collieries near Sydney and limestone quarries conveniently situated. They own and operate their iron mines on Bell island, Newfoundland, the ore from which not only supplies all demands at Sydney, but is shipped to the United States and Europe.

Iron ores are found in the province of New Brunswick in Carleton county near Woodstock. These ores were utilized in blast furnace operations at Woodstock begun in 1848, and carried on at intervals for 20 years thereafter. Other occurrences of iron have been noted at West Beach and Black river on the Bay of Fundy, near St. John, and also in Charlotte county, near Lepreau. The most important deposits, however, yet found in this province are those in the township of Bathurst, county of Gloucester. One of these, the Nipisiguit deposit consisting chiefly of magnetite, was discovered in 1902, and has since been actively developed. Shipments of ore have been made to the United States and to Great Britain. It seems reasonable to expect that in the future other deposits of iron ore may be located over a considerable extent of territory in this district.

Along the north shore of the St. Lawrence river in the province of Quebec, beds of magnetite have been reported at many points. The ore is found in two forms, viz., as massive deposits interstratified with the gneiss and limestone of Laurentian or as beds of iron sands along the beaches often in considerable thickness and of great extent. These ores, while carrying a large percentage of magnetic oxide of iron also frequently contain a considerable amount of titanic acid, in fact during the past few years several thousand tons have been shipped for the titanium content.

Deposits of ilmenite or titanifcrous iron ore also occur north of Montreal at St. Jerome, St. Lin, Ivry, and other points.

In the townships of Leeds, Inverness, South Ham, and Ascot, several small deposits of magnetite are known to occur, but they have not as yet been proved to be of commercial importance.

Limonitc or bog iron ores have been mined for ISO years in the St. Francis River district, east of the St. Lawrence, and the St. Maurice river to the west-Small furnaces have been in fairly continuous operation at Drummondville and Radnor Forges and the product has been an excellent quality of charcoal pig iron.

Magnetite ores have also been found in the townships of Grenville, Templeton, Hull, and Bristol, some of which have been worked to a considerable extent in past years.

As early as the year 1800 attempts were made to smelt iron ores in Ontario and between that date and 1883 several enterprises were started only one of which was successful. This was the furnace at Xormandale in Norfolk county, now long since abandoned, where the bog ores of the vicinity were smelted with charcoal as fuel.

In eastern Ontario, chiefly in the counties of Hastings, Frontenac, and Renfrew, and served by the Central Ontario railway and the Kingston and Pembroke railway, numerous deposits of iron ore, both hematites and magnetites, are found. Some of these such as those in the township of Mayo , are of considerable extent. Many have been opened up and several hundred thousand tons were shipped to smelters in the United States and Canada.

In the northern portion of the province active mining operations are at present being carried on at Moose mountain, 20 miles north of Subdury, at the Helen mine near Michipicoten, northwest of Sault Ste. Marie, and at the Atikokan range west of Port Arthur. The Moose Mountain deposit situated in the township of Hutton is a large and important deposit of magnetite, there are in fact several deposits constituting what is known as the Moose Mountain range. Shipments are being made by way of the Canadian Northern railway and Key harbour on Georgian bay.

The Helen mine in the Michipicoten range is the largest iron ore producer in Canada, the output approaching 1,000 tons per day. The deposit is some 1,400 feet long with an average width of 400 feet. The ore produced is of three grades, hematite—hard and compact, containing 60 per cent or over, hard brown limonite and hematite, 57 to 55 per cent iron, and soft brown limonite containing 53 to 54 per cent iron. The ore is shipped by rail to Michipicoten harbour and thence by boat to the smelters at Sault Ste. Marie, Midland, Hamilton, or the United States market. A number of other deposits in the same vicinity are being developed.

The Atikokan range is situated along the Atikokan river, 140 miles west of Port Arthur on the Canadian Northern railway. Outcrops have been traced for a distance of nearly 12 miles but prospecting has been carried on chiefly in the vicinity of Sabawe lake. The ore from this range is used in the blast furnace at Port Arthur.

In addition to the iron deposits being actively operated, there are in northern Ontario a number of known iron ranges some of which may prove to be valuable ore reserves. About 26 miles east of Port Arthur in the vicinity of Loon lake, is an iron range which has already attracted considerable attention. The ore consists mainly of hematite but is mixed with a great deal of lean material. The Mattawin range is situated in the district of Thunder Bay about 48 miles west of Port Arthur and follows the Mattawin river for a distance of about 4 miles. The ore consists of alternate bands of jasper and magnetite, and is low grade and siliceous and would require concentrating.

East of Lake Nipigon is an iron formation known as the Lake Nipigon range. The iron bearing rocks are here divisible into three ranges called the Northern, Southern, and Middle ranges. The ore is magnetite or hematite associated with jasper. No commercial ore bodies have been found as yet.

In the district of Nipissing the Timagami and other ranges, have attracted considerable attention but remain practically unexplored.

These arc but a few of the known occurrences of iron in Ontario. In a review of the iron ores of this Province' A. B. Willniott records about 50 separate occurrences of iron ore in the northern and western portions, and not including the deposits in Hastings, Frontcnac, and other counties in the eastern part of the province.

The smelting industry has grown to large proportions in this province, furnaces have been installed at Deseronto, Hamilton, Midland, and Sault Ste. Marie, the present capacity of which is about 2,000 tons per day. In addition to these a new furnace is under construction at Port Colborne, and the United States Steel Corporation is making preparations for the erection of a large plant near Sandwich. At Hamilton and Sault Ste. Marie there are large and well equipped steel plants and rolling mills producing bars, steel rails, and other steel products.

The prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have as yet furnished no production of iron, but there are a number of known occurrences of hematite, limonite, and clay iron stone.

In the province of British Columbia, some iron ore has been mined on Texada island and shipped to the smelter at Irondalc, Wash., but beyond this the iron industry of the province may be said to be as yet undeveloped. A number of occurrences of iron ore, chiefly magnetite have been noted on Vancouver island. These, so far as observed, on the coast, are usually found on the end or flank of a ridge following roughly the contours of the hills and occur almost always along and adjacent to the contact of limestone and some eruptive rock. Among those that have attracted attention might be mentioned the properties at Head bay, Klaanch river, Quinsam river, and Gordon river on Vancouver island, and the Texada Island ores already mentioned. In the interior of the province occurrences of iron have been noted at Kam-loops, Kitchener, Bull Run, Burmis, and elsewhere, but no mining has been done on any of these deposits with the exception of a small shipment of ore as a flux from the Cherry Bluff mine near Kamloops.

The total production of pig iron in Canada in 1912 was 1,014,5S7 short tons and of steel ingots and castings 957,0S1 short tons. That the domestic production is insufficient to meet home demands is indicated by the large imports which in 1912 exceeded 1,300,000 tons of pig iron, ingots, blooms, etc., plates, bars and rods, structural steel, rails, pipe, nails, wire forgings, castings, etc. The opportunity in so far as the market is concerned for the development of Canadian iron resources is evident.

Lead.

In Canada lead is derived entirely from galena ores the great majority of which are argentiferous, and therefore much that is said of silver is applicable to lead and similarly on account of associated blende much that is said of lead covers the ground in connexion with zinc.

In Nova Scotia argentiferous galena ores have been worked near Mus-quodoboit in Cape Breton county in the Pre-Cambrian rocks. They also occur at various points in the lower Carboniferous limestones.

Veins of galena are found in the Silurian rocks of New Brunswick and have been found at various points through the Eastern Townships, in Gaspe, in Portneuf county, and on Calumet island, where they have been worked to some extent.

lrThe Iron Ores of Ontario, A. B. Willmott, Journal of the Canadian Mining Institute, Vol. XI. p. 10$.


Copper and lead smelter at Trail, B. C.


Electrolytic lead refinery at Trail, B.C.

In Ontario the Frontenac lead mine was opened about 18G8 and a smelter was erected in 1879; operations however ceased in 1882. Various properties have been worked from time to time, and the Frontenac is once more being operated. The ores are galena carrying little silver.

A lead smelter, that of the North American Smelting Co., is in operation at Kingston, treating Ontario, United States, and British Columbia ores.

Practically all the lead produced in Canada in recent years has come from the British Columbia silver bearing galena ores. The Blue Bell mine was discovered in 1825 but active operations in the Ainsworth camp date from about 1888, with Sandon camp following in 1892 and the discovery of the North Star, St. Eugene, and Sullivan in East Kootanay in that year and the next. The latter are large bodies, comparatively low in silver content, the St. Eugene ore being argentiferous galena with some zinc blende and a little pyrite forming irregular lenses in a fissured zone within Pre-Cambrian quartzites.

There are a few producing mines in the Sheep Creek district, south of Nelson, but the largest number of mines are located in the Ainsworth and Slocan districts. The Sandon-Silverton camps especially are showing promise, development at depth having been very satisfactory. The ores are argentiferous galena and tetrahedrite with native silver and sometimes gold, argentite, zinc blende, etc., in veins cutting sediments. The ores of the Lardeau may be said to belong rather to the silver ores than to the lead, and the same may be said of the Greenwood camp. The West Fork of the Kettle river will probably add some shippers to the list with the opening of traffic on the Kettle Valley railway, and the Canadian Northern railway may provide shipping facilities for the silver-lead properties of the North Thompson River valley.

West of Princeton in the Similkameen, at Leadville, a new camp is opening up but no shipments have yet been made. On the coast, Portland Canal district is another silver-lead camp,, and the newer discoveries toward the Bear river are most promising.

The present year will see shipments from several mines in the neighbourhood of Hazelton on the Skeena river. Development has been going on quietly for several years awaiting the advent of transportation, with the result that the camp starts shipments with a fair amount of development clone.

The lead ores of British Columbia are nearly all shipped to the smelter of the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., at Trail, which operates in connexion therewith an electrolytic lead refinery, the products of which are refined gold, silver, and lead, copper sulphate, and antimony.

A few of the Coast ores find their way to American smelters.

In the Yukon there are several properties which have been developed and have shipped occasionally, but in most cases as yet the transportation charges have been found too heavy a burden. With further development of the country these wall probably become shippers.

As mentioned elsewhere the prospects of finding more lead ore bearing areas throughout Canada and especially in the more remote districts are most favourable, and many districts now known only await transportation facilities.

Molybdenum.

This mineral occurs as molybdenite or molybdite, and although found in numerous localities in many parts of the country, there has as yet been practically no recovery of the metal in Canada with the exception of small amounts obtained while developing or exploring properties. With regard to the loca-lion of molybdenite deposit?, Dr. T. L. Walker, in his special report > on this subject, states that in Canada they are usually found in the Arclueau regions, and are probably due to the influence of masses of granite. Molybdenite occurs in quartz veins, pegmatite dykes (probably connected with the granite masses), and along contact borders of granite or pegmatite with crystalline limestone.

Most of the known occurrences are described by Dr. Walker who selects the following list as representing the most promising deposits as they were to be seen in 1909 and 1910: island opposite Romaine, lower St. Lawrence; Aldfield and Egan townships, north of the Ottawa river. Deposits in the vicinity of Kewagama lake in the northern part of Pontiac county, Que., near the Grand Trunk Pacific railway; Brougham, Lvndoch, and Ross townships in Renfrew county, Sheffield township, Addington county, and Cardiff township, Haliburton county, in eastern Ontario; and the Giant mine, Rossland, B.C.

Nickel.

Minerals containing nickel have been found in a number of localities throughout Canada, but the important commercial deposits at present exploited are confined to two localities, both in the province of Ontario. These are the Cobalt and Subdury districts. It should be mentioned, in passing, that pyrrhotites carrying a small amount of nickel are known to occur near St. Stephen, New Brunswick, and also in several other localities in Ontario. Similar occurrences have been reported from British Columbia. These, however, are comparatively low in grade and have not been successfully exploited.

In the Cobalt district niceolite, an arsenide of nickel, occurs either alone or associated with other less important nickel-bearing minerals in the veins in which the native silver and silver-bearing minerals are found. The average percentage of nickel in the ores shipped from Cobalt varies considerably for the different mines. For the whole district the average is probably between 3 and 5 per cent. The total tonnage is very small and only a portion of the nickel is recovered as the oxide.

The Sudbury nickel region has sharply defined geological boundaries, since all the ore deposits are connected with a single great sheet of eruptive rock, called norite. This sheet is roughly boat-shaped, with a blunt bow turned towards the southwest and a square stern towards the northeast. The sheet is basin-shaped, its interior is filled with sedimentary rocks and only the upturned edges are exposed. The basin is 30 miles in length, from southwest to northeast, and 10 miles in width. All the known ore deposits occur either along the edge of the sheet, or less than 4 miles away from it, on projections or "offsets." In the early days the nickel deposits were grouped in two ranges—a main, or southern, range, and a northern range, but since it has been proved that the ores are all connected with the edges of a single sheet of eruptive rock, one may think of them all as belonging to a single oval range. It is found that the important deposits are not distributed uniformly around the basin, but that there are rich portions separated by barren portions. It is probable that in the near future a third, or eastern, range will be recognized, and possibly a fourth, or western range, though at present the ore deposits at the west end are not known to be of much importance.


Creighton nickel-copper mine, Ont., Canadian Copper Co.

At. ipnesent, t»he inAkiiickel range may bejfcfined as running from the Sultana mine, 6 miles southeast, to the Victoria mine, then turning northeast for 23 miles to the Sheppard mine, and finally east for 4 miles to the Garson mine. There is, however, a gap of about 5 miles towards the southeast, between the Crean Hill and Gertrude mines, where no ore has been found. Along this somewhat irregular line of 33 miles on the southern margin of the nickel-bearing eruptive, 17 mines have produced ore, and within 2 or 3 miles to the south of it, 10 other mines have been worked.

Practically all the ore hitherto mined and smelted in the region must be credited to the southern range. The northern range is not so continuous as the southern, but is generally reckoned as extending from certain deposits in Levack township to the Whistle mine at the northeast corner of the basin, a distance of 25 miles. There are, however, two gaps of 0 miles each, so that there are only 13 miles of the margin of the nickel eruptive which are ore-bearing. In addition, however, some ore has been found for 0 miles west along an offset.

Coleman recognizes two main varieties, or types, of ore bodies in the region, which he designates as " marginal " and " offset " deposits.

Many of the more important nickel deposits occur at the basic margin of the norite, lying between it and the adjoining country rock. They are commonly irregular sheets of ore, occupying the lowest parts of the country rock, penetrating all its fissures and enclosing blocks of it of all shapes and sizes. They may, however, have a very distinct foot wall, where the country rock was not shattered by the influx of ore and norite, or where faulting has brought a smooth surface of country rock against the ore. Passing upward through a varying thickness of pure ore containing very little of the rock minerals, the blending of rock and ore. called pyrrhotite-norite, occurs, passing finally into norite with a few blebs of ore. The inner and upper margin is very indefinite, being fixed in mining simply by commercial considerations. The thickness of workable ore may vary from a few feet to 100 feet, or more; the length is equally variable, ranging from 100 feet or 200 feet to 700 feet. The depth to which marginal deposits go is unknown. The Creighton has been explored by mining to 700 feet and diamond drilling has shown that it extends to at least 900 feet.

The "off-set" deposits of Coleman include ore bodies connected with dyke-like projections from the basic edge of the norite, or more or les.> separate masses of ore and norite not visibly connected with the main body of rock, but almost certainly having underground connexions. Typical offset deposits differ completely from the marginal deposits. They are often more or less columnar in shape, forming pipe-like ore bodies. The contents of these pipelike bodies differ considerably from those of the marginal deposits, being more rocky, and containing usually more copper ore, as well as more of the precious metals: gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. Another type of offset, with very different features from the columnar type, is recognized in the Frood-Stobie offset, which contains the greatest mass of nickel ore thus far discovered in the district, or in the world. In this case there i.Mio observable connexion with the basic norite edge. The offset, however, lies parallel to the edge and at a distance varying from 4,000 feet to 8,000 feet to the southeast. The ore resembles that of a marginal deposit more than that of the columnar offsets, and the ore body dips at an angle of 00° towards the basic edge. It is a long irregular sheet, enclosing much rock, and its connexion with the edge of the norite is probably at a considerable depth below the surface. The ore is known bv diamond drilling to extend northwest beneath the country rocks to a depth of more than 1,000 feet. This deposit probably contains over 35,000,000 tons of ore.

The nickel-bearing minerals that have been reported from the Sudbury region are pyrrhotite, pyrite, marcasite, pcntlandite, polydymite, gersdorffite, millerite, and nickelite. Of these, pyrrhotite and pcntlandite are the only ones having any important relation to the ore deposits, and the former is the only one visibly present in all the ore deposits. There is some doubt, however, as to whether pyrrhotite is nickel-bearing in itself, since its nickel content may be due to finely disseminated pentlandite. In addition to the sulphides containing nickel and iron, a sulphide of copper and iron, in the form of chalcopyrite, is almost invariably present. It comes next in amount to pyrrhotite and pentlandite and is always a more conspicuous component of the ore, because of its colour. Copper pyrites may be cither intimately mixed with the pyrrhotite or form considerable masses by itself. It is especially common near the walls of ore bodies or associated with masses of rock enclosed in the sulphides, so that, as a rule, rocky ore contains a higher percentage of copper than ore rich in sulphides. In two important mines— the Copper Cliff and Crean Hill—copper is present in larger amounts than nickel, and at Garson and Victoria mines it about equals the nickel; but all the other mines contain more nickel than copper.

The metallic content of the ores varies considerably in the different mines. The nickel content reported averages about 2-09% and the copper 1*85%. If the losses in roasting and smelting are assumed to be 15% of the metallic contents, the proportions of metals in the ores will be 3-09 of nickel and 2-12 of copper, making a total of 5*21 per cent. The ores also contain small amounts of the precious metals, including platinum and palladium.

The metallurgy of the Sudbury ores includes four distinct processes:—

Roasting of the ores in open heaps, to remove part of the sulphur.

Smelting in water-jacketed blast furnaces, to produce a low grade matte, containing about 33 per cent copper-nickel and nearly all the precious metals.

Converting the furnace matte in Bessemer basic converters, to make a matte containing about 80 per cent copper-nickel.

Refining the converter matte, separating the nickel, copper, and precious metals.

At the present time, the first three processes are carried on in Canada in the Sudbury district. The converter matte, however, is shipped either to the United States or to England for final treatment in the refineries.

The most promising recent find of nickel ore in Canada, aside from the Sudbury deposits, is the Alexo mine in northern Ontario, near the town of Matheson. This deposit consists of pyrrhotite, containing nickel, associated with chalcopyrite in a serpentine rock, the latter having been formed by the alteration of a pcridotite. This occurrence of ore is similar to the Sudbury deposits. Mining operations are in progress and a small amount of ore has already been shipped to the smelter at Copper Cliff.

There are two strong companies carrying on mining and smelting operations in the Sudbury nickel region. A third company has recently acquired properties containing great reserves of ore, and is planning the erection of an extensive plant.

The total production of nickel (contained in matte) in 1912 was 44,841,542 pounds, valued on the basis of refined metal at $13,452,463. There was also a recovery from the same ores of 22,231,725 pounds of copper, valued at $3,032,88(3, on the basis of the Xew York market average price of copper for the vear.


Power plant, High Falls, Spanish river, Canadian Copper Co.

Platinum, Palladium, etc.

Both platinum and palladium occur as constituents of the nickel-copper ores of the Sudbury district in Ontario, though in very small amounts. After smelting the ores to a Bessemer matte containing about 80 per cent of the combined metals nickel and copper, it is found that this matte contains from 0" 17 to 0-5 oz. of the platinum metals per ton, the proportions varying with the ores from different mines. The precious metals are recovered from the residues remaining after the treatment of the mattes for nickel and copper.

Platinum has also been found in many of the gold placer deposits, its occurrence in this manner having been noted on the Riviere du Loup, Quebec, on the Similkaineen, Tulameen, Tranquille, Eraser, North Thompson, and other creeks and rivers of British Columbia, on the Yukon and its tributaries, and the Teslin and other rivers of the Yukon district.

Silver.

The silver produced in Canada at the present time is derived from three main sources, the silver-cobalt-nickel ores of the Cobalt district, Ontario, the argentiferous galena of British Columbia, and the recovery at the smelters from the complex gold-silver-copper ores of the different provinces. There is also a slight recovery from gold mill bullion and from placer gold.

In Nova Scotia there are some argentiferous galena deposits near East Bay and Musquodoboit, Cape Breton, which have been intermittently worked.

Champlain mentions a galena property on Lake Timiskaming, Quebec; this was afterwards known as the Wright mine, and was worked for some time. At Calumet island there are several silver bearing galena deposits which have been worked at various times.

A small amount of silver is also contained in the copper sulphide ores of the Eastern Townships, and whilst, as yet, no discoveries have been made, it is by no means improbable that areas similar to Cobalt district may yet be found in this province.

In Ontario, as early at 1846, veins carrying silver were found on the shores of Lake Superior in the district about Port Arthur, and from 1806 to 1903 the district produced silver. The most famous silver mine was known as the Silver Islet and the vein was found on a small island, some 90 feet square, lying near Thunder capc. The ore bearing veins of quartz and carbonates traversed a large dyke of diabase cutting it along a fault plane. Only where the vein traversed the diabase, did it carry silver, elsewhere except gangue material, it bore only galena, sparingly disseminated. When the mine was abandoned in 1884, work had been carried to a depth of 1,160 feet, and it is estimated that $3,250,000 of silver had been extracted.

The position that Canada now holds as a silver producers country, being third on the world's list of silver producers, must be credited in large measure to the mines of the Cobalt district.

Cobalt, situated on the main line of Ontario's government railway, 330 miles north of Toronto, has the mines closely clustered round and even beneath the town, while other are distributed in a southeasterly direction for a distance of 4 miles. This comprises the Cobalt silver district proper, and while isolated productive mines have been found in the outlying country, such as the Casey, 19 miles north of Cobalt, the Wettlauffer, 20 miles south, and the Millorctt and Miller-Lake O'Brien, 50 miles northwest, nevertheless none of these newer discoveries have yet disclosed a district comparable to the parent camp.

The silver deposits of Cobalt are found in association with Pre-Cambrian rocks. These belong to the Huronian and Keewatin formations and through them has been introduced a later diabase in the form of a sill. This intrusive need not necessarily be considered the source of the ore deposits, but the indications are that it was the means of opening up the way for their introduction from other adjacent sources. About 80 per cent of the productive veins occur in the Huronian formation, while tin1 remaining 20 per cent is about evenly divided between the Keewatin and the later diabase. As a rule the Cobalt silver deposits are not known to extend to great depths. Below the sill most of the silver is found within a depth of 200 feet.

The Beaver which is above the diabase has the deepest workings in ore in the district, having attained a depth of 700 feet. To offset this shallowness of the ore, the salvation of the cam]) seems to lie in .the fact that the veins are numerous. The veins are approximately perpendicular and vary in width from a mere crack up to 12 inches or more occasionally. The values are not confined to the vein rock itself, but in many cases extend into the adjacent wall rock, making a valuable milling ore. In exceptional cases this disseminated ore has a stoping width of 15 feet and from 5 to 0 feet is not uncommon. The vein filling is usually calcite or dolomite carrying native silver associated with the arsenides of cobalt and nickel. A trace of gold is found in the ores as well as a small amount of mercury, and in 1912 one of the mines was paid for a small copper content. ^ .-> ^

There are in Ontario six smelters for the treatment of ores from the Cobalt district. The products from these include, fine silver, white arsenic, cobalt oxide, nickel oxide, and in some cases a semi-refined mixture of the cobalt and nickel oxides.

From the copper-nickel ores of the Sudbury district silver is being recovered in the refining of the matte.

The silver production of British Columbia comes mainly from the argentiferous galena ores of the province which will be more fully described in the chapter on lead. In the East Kootenay the ore bodies are large and the silver content low, and the same may be said of the ore bodies in the Sheep Creek division of West Kootenay and the Blue Bell mine on the east shore of Kootenay lake. The ores of the Slocan district are much higher in silver, probably averaging 75 oz. per ton of ore, whilst the ores of the Slocan City and the Lardeau divisions are what are known as dry ores, containing little galena, the values being in native silver and sometimes a little gold associated with argentite, pyrargyrite, tetrahedrite, etc.

A few galena and high grade deposits are being worked in the Boundary district, notably near Greenwood, and the completion of the Canadian Northern may see shipments from the North Thompson River valley.

In the neighbourhood of Hazelton on the Skeena, a number of new properties are just entering the shipping list. The ore is galena carrying gold values in silver.

As mentioned before there is a considerable amount of silver recovered from the gold and gold-copper ores and alluvial gold production of the province. These are more fully described under gold and copper. The copper-gold ores are treated in the various copper smelters of British Columbia, whilst the galena and silver ores go mainly to the lead smelter of the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. at Trail, B.C.

The silver from the Yukon (outside of the small amount from the few lode mines now working) is derived from the placer gold bullion, but there are


Mines in Kerr Lake section, Cobalt district.


Silver vein, Casey Cobalt mine, Cobalt district, Ont.

many silver lead properties which will probably become steady shippers with further development of the country.

Tin.

The occurrence of tin ore has been reported from several localities, the most important being perhaps the discovery of cassiterite, near Xew Ross, Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. With respect to this occurrence Mr. Faribault states i that "A tin bearing vein was also discovered by Ernest Turner, at Mill Road, four miles north of New Ross, and has been prospected under the management of A. L. McCallum. It has been proved to a depth of 20 feet, and for a length of 250 feet, while the float has been traced half a mile towards the north. The vein is 24 inches wide, mostly made up of quartz, merging with granite at the sides, and carries at the middle a streak of rich ore from three to five inches wide. Several assays of the ore made by Mr. McCallum have given from 10 to 30 per cent tin, and 8 per cent copper, present in the form of cassiterite and chalcopyrite, with association of tungsten-bearing zinc minerals."

Tin minerals have also been reported from several localities in British Columbia and from the Yukon district.

There has as yet been no commercial production or recovery of tin from Canadian sources.

Tungsten.

The tungsten bearing mineral sclieelite has been found at a number of localities in Canada, but the only place at which it has been worked commercially is at Scheelite Mines, Moose River district, N.S. Here it occurs in quartz veins cutting the quartzites and slates of the gold bearing series. The quartz veins also carry mispickel and several other minerals but are not gold bearing. A mill has been erected and about 15 tons of concentrated ore (72% scheelite) have already been shipped. Scheelite also occurs in the Malaga gold mining district, Halifax county, while at one locality near South East Margaree in Inverness county, C.B., from 300 to 500 lbs. of hiibnerite (Fe, Mn) W04 were recovered from a large detached mass of quartz. The mineral has also been noted at New Ross, in Lunenburg county, and at Perry lake, West Waverley, Halifax county, N.S.

In the province of Quebec, scheelite has been found in Beauce county, in a quartz vein traversing Pre-Cambrian rocks, while in Ontario it is found occurring in small nodular masses in parts of the veins around Pearl lake, Porcupine gold mining district.

In British Columbia its occurrence has been noted in quartz veins on the Meteor claim, Slocan City mining division, West Kootenay, and also in the •Cariboo district at Hardscrabble creek where the scheelite appears to be very irregularly distributed in the country rock.

In the Yukon territory at Dublin gulch, scheelite is encountered in small water worn nodules of yellowish colour, which are caught in the sluice boxes .at Highet creek.

The mineral is employed in the steel manufacturing industry making a tungsten steel of high tensile strength.

Zinc.

The close association of zinc blende with galena and its wide distribution has made its treatment one of the economic problems of mining in Canada, and its history is interwoven with the history of the silver-lead mines.

In the province of Quebec. Calumet island has been the centre of the greater part of the lead-zinc mining. Several tons of mixed galena and blende were obtained on lots 10 and 11, range IV, Calumet township, in the early nineties, and in 1897 and 1898 The Grand Calumet Mining Co. shipped several hundred tons of ore to Belgium. In 1903 the Lawn mine shipped tons of zinc ore to England. Some exploration work was done in later years, and in 1910 the Canada Metal Co. started work, making a trial shipment the next year.

In Ontario the Zenith mine at Rossport, Thunder Bay, was discovered in 18S1, and in 1899 the first Ontario zinc shipment appears to have been made from it. The Balfour mine was also worked for zinc. In 1902 the Richardson mine at Long Lake, Frontenac county, began shipping, and, in recent years, has been the zinc producer of the province. The last couple of years no zinc shipments have been made from this property.

The occurrence of zinc blende in British Columbia is frequently mentioned in the earlier reports on the province, but only in 1902 is definite reference made to zinc shipments from the Payne and Bosun mines.

In 1904 we find a number of mines producing zinc concentrate, though of this a great deal was apparently never shipped. In the next few years much experimentation was done on processes for zinc treatment, impelled by the high American import duty on zinc in ores. 1905 saw the appointment of the Zinc Commission by the Dominion Government, for the purpose of investigating the zinc resources of British Columbia and their commercial possibilities. The exhaustive report of the Commission was published in 1900. An electric smelting furnace was erected at Nelson in 1908, but did not go into commercial operation. At the present time two mines in the province, the Lucky Jim, and the U.S. are operating for zinc alone, while the Monarch, Hewitt, Noble Five, Ruth, Slocan Star, Standard, Van Roi, and Whitewater are producing hand picked zinc ore or concentrates as a by-product from the milling of galena ores. These concentrates as a rule carry values in silver. It is a notable fact that for some years the Lucky Jim was worked for its silver-lead values only.

Other properties occur on Lynn creek near Vancouver, at Quatsino on Vancouver island, and at Owen lake, near Hazelton. These as yet, however, have made no shipments.

The majority of the British Columbia galena properties carry enough zinc blende to make its separation and possible recovery a question of much importance.

At present all British Columbian ores are shipped to the smelters in the United States. Shipments from Ontario are usually made to European smelters.

The Mines Branch of the Department of Mines is now investigating the possibility of producing spelter by an electric smelting process. While considerable progress has been made during the last two years, the commercial practicability of the results obtained has yet to be determined.


Asbestos quarry, Black Lake, Que.


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