History of the Lumber Industry of America
Chapter XVII. Ontario—Personnel


In the preceding chapters which treat of the lumber history of the Province of Ontario, are many references to individuals; but the sequential character of most of the narrative, which relates to timber and lumber rather than to individuals, did not permit of specific reference to many persons who were prominent in the lumber industry and the operations of many of whom should have a place in any history of the lumber industry in Canada. This chapter, therefore, is devoted to a brief definition of the place of certain individuals, firms and companies in the lumber development of Ontario during the last hundred years. By no means all who should be included are mentioned and to those an apology is perhaps due, but the list includes those regarding whom data were immediately available.

As in the chapter devoted to the personnel of the Quebec industry, there is a certain co-mingling of interests. The Ottawa Valley includes sections of both Ontario and Quebec, the river forming, as it does, the boundary line between the two provinces. Some Ottawa lumbermen have had their chief holdings in Quebec waters, while some residing and having mills on the Quebec side of the river have had timber holdings in Ontario. From some standpoints the history of the Ottawa Valley, without regard to provincial lines, would have been more desirable ; but the plan of the work made most desirable the present arrangement, which in this particular connection seems somewhat arbitrary. For one who would secure a comprehensive view of the Ottawa Valley as a whole it will be necessary to read the history of both provinces and the account of the personnel of each.

THE WHITE FAMILY.

The town of Pembroke, about one hundred and twenty miles up the river from Ottawa, was founded in 1828 by Col. Peter White, a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, who was for many years one of the principal timber merchants of the Ottawa Valley. His sons have been actively engaged in the lumber business and by their enterprise have done much to build up their native town. Hon. Peter White, born at Pembroke August 30, 1838, after receiving a business training from an Ottawa mercantile firm, entered into partnership with his brother, Andrew T. White, now deceased, as A. & P. White, and for many years carried on an extensive lumber business which is still continued under the firm name. Mr. White is known best, perhaps, as an active politician. He was elected to Parliament in the Conservative interest for North Renfrew in 1874 and, with the exception of a brief interval, represented the constituency steadily until 1896. He was chosen Speaker of the House in 1891 and held that position during a parliamentary term, until 1896, in which year he was defeated in the general election. He carried the constituency again in 1904. Mr. White is a member of the Privy Council of Canada, to which he was called in 1897. He is a director of the Pembroke Lumber Company and is prominently identified with many local commercial enterprises. His brother and business partner, Andrew T. White, was also in public life and for some time represented North Renfrew in the Ontario Legislature.

WILLIAM MOHR.

William Mohr, a prominent figure in the early lumber trade of the Ottawa Valley, died at his home in the township of Fitzroy, near Renfrew, Ontario, in May, 1903, in the ninetieth year of his age. His operations were confined to the square timber trade. He took many rafts to Quebec, his transactions sometimes reaching 750,000 cubic feet in a season. He operated on the Quyon, Bonnechere, Petawawa, Du Moine and Madawaska rivers, where year after year he regularly made his trips to the shanties.

BOYD CALDWELL & CO.

The late Boyd Caldwell, of Lanark, Ontario, came to Canada from his native place in Renfrewshire, Scotland, in 1821 with his parents, when only three years of age. For about fifty years he was engaged in the export timber business, but in 1867 became more extensively concerned in the manufacture of woolen goods. Boyd Caldwell died in 1888. The firm of Boyd Caldwell & Co., of which he was the founder, is still extant, having recently been incorporated, with his son, Thomas Boyd Caldwell, as president. In addition to its extensive woolen mills the company operates a large planing and sawmill.

GILMOUR & CO.

Allan Gilmour, a member of a family that in the early days was extensively engaged in the square timber trade and is today prominently represented in lumber manufacturing, was born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, August 23, 1816. In his early youth he went to Montreal, where he entered the employ of William Ritchie & Co., wholesale merchants. In 1840 he and his cousins, James, John and David Gilmour, assumed the business. Shortly afterward they engaged in the production of square timber for the Quebec market, and in 1853 Allan Gilmour took up his residence in Ottawa, which became the headquarters of Gilmour & Co. The firm acquired large sawmills on the Gatineau, Blanche and North Nation rivers, tributaries of the Ottawa, as well as steam mills at Trenton, on the Bay of Quints. Allan Gilmour retired from business in 1873 and died in 1895.

THE COOKS.

George J. Cook, of the Cook & Bro. Lumber Company, was a brother of Herman H. Cook and was bom August 22, 1824, in Williamsburg Township, Dundas County, Ontario. He was all his life actively engaged in the lumber business. His first operations, early in the ’40’s, were on the Nation River, from which they were transferred to Belleville and subsequently farther west. He was one of the first lumbermen to take out board pine in the country lying between Toronto and Barrie. The later operations of the company under his management have been in the Algoma district, where it owns extensive limits. Mr. Cook died August 21,1902, and was succeeded as president of the company by his nephew, George W. Cook.

H. H. Cook is a son of George Cook. He built a mill at Midland, Ontario, in 1872, and during the next ten years built six others in various localities. Mr. Cook is at the head of the Ontario Lumber Company, of Toronto, and owns extensive limits on the French and Vermillion rivers.

THOMAS COLE.

The death of Thomas Cole, of Westboro, Ontario, in 1904, removed one of the pioneer lumbermen of the Ottawa Valley. Mr. Cole was bom in Devonshire, England, in 1820. He went to Canada when still young, and was attracted to the lumber business, first locating at Papi-neauville, Quebec, taking out square timber. Some years later he became a partner of the late James MacLaren, of Buckingham, Quebec, J. C. Edwards and Daniel Cameron in a firm which acquired the Gilmour timber and sawmill interests on the Nation River. The firm did business at the North Nation mills until 1878, when, through the death of Mr. Cameron, the firm wound up its affairs. Mr. Cole left a wife, four sons and five daughters.

THE M’LACHLIN FAMILY.

The founder of the large lumbering business now carried on by McLachlin Bros, at Arnprior, Renfrew County, Ontario, was Daniel McLachlin, one of the pioneer lumbermen of the Ottawa Valley, who established it over sixty years ago. He was an important factor in the public and commercial life of his day and represented his constituency in the Canadian Parliament.

In 1853 Daniel McLachlin purchased the water powers at the mouth of the Madawaska River and the land on which the town of Arnprior now stands, and in 1857 moved up from Ottawa to Arnprior with his family. In 1866 he erected the first sawmill in that place to saw lumber for the American market. In 1869 he retired from business, leaving the work to be carried on by his three sons, Hugh, Frederick and Claude, under the style of McLachlin Bros. He died in 1872.

During the last quarter of a century McLachlin Bros, have cut an average of 60,000,000 feet per annum. The firm has operated for years on the Madawaska, Bonnechere, Petawawa, Kippewa and Black rivers and other tributaries of the Ottawa River, at present furnishing employment to about a thousand men.

Claude McLachlin died in New York April 19, 1903. He was the youngest son of Daniel McLachlin and was born at Ottawa in 1854.

THE CHARLTON BROTHERS.

Among the Canadian lumbermen who during the last generation or so have risen to prominence in public life, John Charlton, of Lynedoch, Norfolk County, Ontario, is easily foremost. Mr. Charlton, though an American by birth, is of British parentage. He was born in New York State, February 3, 1829, and went with his family to Canada in 1849. He established himself at Lynedoch and engaged extensively in lumbering operations.

Always keenly interested in social and political questions and a strong Liberal of the old school by conviction, he took an active part in politics and in 1872 was elected to the House of Commons for North Norfolk, a seat which he retained throughout all political vicissitudes until the last general election in 1904, when his failing health compelled his retirement from politics. Though a keen partisan, he held decided views of his own on many questions. He is the author of a measure usually known as the “Charlton Act for the Protection of Girls,” and devoted much attention to the advocacy of commercial reciprocity between Canada and the United States. He was appointed by the British government a member of the Joint High Commission which met at Quebec in 1898 to arrange disputes and remove obstacles to trade between the two countries. A volume of Mr. Charlton’s speeches and addresses on various topics has been published.

Hon. William Charlton, brother of John Charlton, is a native of Cattaraugus County, New York. His earlier years were spent in Iowa, but in 1861 he made his home at Lynedoch, Ontario, and engaged in lumbering and mercantile business. He attained a leading position in the locality and took a prominent part in politics on the Liberal side. He was elected to the Provincial Legislature of Ontario, for South Norfolk, in 1891 and reelected in several following contests. His thorough knowledge of the lumbering industry and the conditions prevailing in the backwoods contributed greatly to his usefulness as a legislator. In 1902 he was chosen Speaker of the House, occupying the position until the defeat of his party in the general elections of 1904. Mr. Charlton is a member of the firm of Pitts & Charlton, of Toronto.

WILLIAM MACKEY.

William Mackey was a prominent figure for over a half century in the lumbering trade of the Ottawa Valley. He came to Ottawa, then Bytown, from his native country of Ireland in 1S42 and secured employment in the construction of the first government slide built at the Chaudiere, and was subsequently engaged in improvement work and lumbering on the Upper Ottawa under Hon. James Skead. In 1850 he went into business on his own account and about this time formed a partnership with Neil Robertson which lasted for twenty years and was terminated by Mr. Robertson’s death. Their early operations were conducted in the Madawaska country at a time when the square timber trade was at its height. They made money rapidly until the depression set in. In addition to the square timber operations they had a sawmill on a limit at Amable du Ford. When they experienced some reverses Mr. Robertson wished to withdraw from milling operations and to give up his share in the limit as an unprofitable venture. Mr. Mackey’s faith in the future of the industry, however, was unshaken, and he relieved his partner of any obligation as to this feature of their business and secured the entire control of the Amable du Ford limit. After the market recovered he took from the limit annually large quantities of timber and eventually disposed of it for $65,000. Mr. Mackey retired from active business in 1902 and sold out his limits and other lumbering property to J. R. Booth for $655,000. He died a few months afterward.

H. L. LOVERING.

H. L. Lovering, of Coldwater, Ontario, of English birth, began lumbering in October, 1850, on the present site of Port Severn, at the mouth of the Severn River. In 1852 he located at the head of Lake Superior and cut the first board manufactured on the site of the present cities of Duluth and Superior. In 1857, having returned to Ontario, he associated himself with A. R. Christie, of Port Severn. Since 1870 he has been with the Georgian Bay Lumber Company.

JOHN R. BOOTH.

John R. Booth, of Ottawa, Ontario, went there in 1852 and leased a small mill. He now owns about 4,250 square miles of timber limits— sufficient timber land to make a strip a mile wide reaching across Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In one of his mills 600,000 feet of lumber is produced daily and between 1,500 and 1,600 men are given employment directly or indirectly.

Mr. Booth built the Canada Atlantic and the Ottawa, Arnprior & Parry Sound railways, with 400 miles of main line and 100 miles of siding. He also founded a line of steamers, built car shops and created other extensive interests. In 1904 he erected a pulp mill at the Chaudiere. Mr. Booth has also a distributing yard and planing mill at Burlington, Vermont.

ALEXANDER FRASER.

Alexander Fraser, of Ottawa, one of the leaders of the square timber trade, was the son of Hugh Fraser, a Highlander who served in the War of 1812 and afterward settled at a point near Ottawa, where Alexander was born in 1830. He embarked in the lumbering industry and in 1853 took out his first raft of square timber on Black River. His career was successful from the start, and his operations rapidly increased until during the ’70’s he had frequently a dozen or so rafts simultaneously on the way to market. He was known from the headwaters of the Ottawa to Quebec. He was a man of great energy and determination of character, was possessed of a keen foresight and sound business judgment and often by tacit consent was accorded a leading part in the management of large enterprises in which he was interested. He was one of the founders of the Bank of Ottawa, the Lachine Rapids Hydraulic Company and the Ottawa Trust & Deposit Company and was also heavily interested in the Upper Ottawa Improvement Company and the Keewatin Lumber Company.

Mr. Fraser sustained great reverses from time to time, but his strong financial standing enabled him to bear them easily. In 1895, npon his retirement from active business, his sons, J. B. and W. H. A. Fraser, organized the Fraser Lumber Company. Mr. Fraser died June 1, 1903, aged seventy-three years.

HON. ERSKIXE H. BRONSON.

Hon. Erskine Henry Bronson, of Ottawa, was bom at Bolton, New York, in 1844. His father, Henry Franklin Bronson, moved to Ottawa, then By town, in 1853, and built on Victoria Island, in the Ottawa River, the first sawmill which shipped lumber from Ottawa to the American market. The venture prospered and grew and many fortunes were made in the trade. At the age of twenty-one the younger Bronson entered his father’s business, familiarizing himself with all of its details. In 1867 he was given an interest in the business, which was afterward incorporated as the Bronson-Weston Lumber Company. The cut for twenty years averaged 50,000,000 feet of lumber annually and one season it amounted to 85,000,000. The mill went out of operation in 1898, but the company still owns large areas of timber lands. Mr. Bronson is president of several industrial companies. He represented Ottawa in the Provincial Legislature of Ontario between 1886 and 1898, and for some years was a member of the Liberal administration.

ROBERT STEWART.

Robert Stewart, of Guelph, Ontario, located there in 1855, and is now the owner of one of the largest plants in Ontario manufacturing sash, doors and trim.

THE M’ARTHUR BROS. CO., LIMITED.

This concern was composed originally of John, Alexander and Peter McArthur, of whom only the latter survives. For nearly a half century they conducted a manufacturing business in board pine, in western Canada and Michigan. Their head office was in Toronto, with branches in Montreal and Quebec. They held valuable timber limits in various parts of Canada, and still have important interests in [this respect, as well as others in gold, silver, lead and copper, both in Canada and in the United States. The firm still manufactures timber for the Quebec market, its product being handled by The McArthur Export Company, in Quebec City. Its specialty, board pine, has been always recognized as superior and is well known in all consuming countries.

The eldest brother of the family, Archibald McArthur, with his sons, is engaged, in a limited way, in the manufacture of mixed varieties of square timber for the Quebec market, at Lancaster, Glengarry County, Ontario, where the Canadian branch of the family originated.

Under the name of The McArthur Bros. Co., Limited, Peter McArthur conducts a large enterprise in lumber in Detroit, Michigan.

THE RATHBUN COMPANY.

Edward Wilkes Rathbun, late president of the Rathbun Company, of Deseronto, Ontario, was born in 1842 at Auburn, New York. During his youth his father, Hugo B. Rathbun, left the United States to engage in the lumbering industry in eastern Ontario. He started a small sawmill at Mill Point, now the town of Deseronto, on the Bay of Quint6.

E. W. Rathbun, after having received a first-class business training in New York, joined his father. The industry soon attained large proportions and expanded in many directions. In 1884 it was incorporated as the Rathbun Company, with E. W. Rathbun as president. The company established sawmill plants at Gravenhurst, Lindsay, Campbellford, Tweed, Bancroft, Fenelon.Falls and Manitoulin Island. Other branches of industry were added and operated from time to time as auxiliaries, either by the Rathbun Company or other corporations closely affiliated with it and controlled by Mr. Rathbun. These included a sash and door factory doing a very large export trade, charcoal kilns to utilize the byproducts of lumbering, cement works, etc. The Rathbun Company is also in the lumber and coal carrying trade, owns a dry dock and ship yard and has extensive car shops. The stockholders are proprietors of the Bay of Quint6 railway, eighty-four miles in length. These and other diversified industries aid each other and have built up a flourishing industrial community. The company owns about 350,000 acres of government timber limits in addition to 60,000 acres of timbered land in fee simple.

Mr. Rathbun was a firm believer in the necessity of conserving the forest as a permanent source of supply, and the extensive limits under his control were worked on economical principles with a view to avoiding waste and preserving the younger growth of trees with an eye to future requirements. He had made a close study of the question, and was appointed a member of the Ontario Forestry Commission in 1897, in which capacity he brought his practical experience as a lumberman to bear upon the problems submitted. The report of this body had an important influence upon the policy since pursued by the Government.

Mr. Rathbun, who died November 24, 1903, was a many-sided man of tireless energy and liberal culture, and took a keen, practical interest in all public questions.

THE HUEDMAN FAMILY.

Robert Hurdman, of Ottawa, was the youngest and surviving member of the original Hurdman family, consisting of five brothers, William, Charles, John, George and Robert, who were prominently identified for a half century with the lumber trade of the Ottawa Valley. Their father was Charles Hurdman, who emigrated from Ireland in 1818, and settled in Hull Township.

Robert Hurdman was born in 1830, and in connection with his brothers operated extensively in the square timber trade on the Peta-wawa River, Ontario, their first operations being in 1866. In 1872 limits were purchased in the Kippewa district, and in 1879 they began to get out logs on contract for the mill owners, in the same year forming the partnership of Sherman, Lord & Hurdman. The firm operated the old Crannell mill in the Chaudiere district, the logs being cut by the Hurdmans on their limits. A limit was also purchased that year in the Coulonge district. Several changes and reorganizations in the personnel and style of the partnership subsequently took place. In 18S6 the name was R. Hurdman & Co., Mr. Hurdman acting as manager of the mills. The concern afterward embraced other interests and in 1891 became the Buell, Orr, Hurdman Company. Mr. Hurdman, however, had large lumbering interests outside of the company’s operations and dealt extensively in timber limits, accumulating considerable wealth. He entered into partnership with the Shepard & Morse Lumber Company, of Boston, to operate his limit in the Kippewa district. After the dissolution of this partnership he purchased limits from the Bronson Company, at Deep River, which he sold to Fraser & Co. A few years ago Mr. Hurdman bought from R. H. Flock & Co. the limits at Ross Lake in the Kippewa district which he operated with the help of his son until the time of his death. He died May 4, 1904, aged seventy-four years.

HON. WILLIAM C. EDWARDS.

Hon. William C. Edwards, of Ottawa, is the son of William Edwards, who came from England to Canada in 1820 and settled in Clarence Township, Russell County, Ontario, where Senator Edwards was bom May 7, 1844. He established in 1868 the firm of W. C. Edwards & Co., the transactions of which have been large and successful. In addition to his lumber interests Mr. Edwards devotes a good deal of attention to stock raising and agriculture. Entering the political field as a Liberal, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1887, and in 1903 was appointed a member of the Senate.

ROBERT LAIDLAW.

Robert Laidlaw, of Toronto, has always been identified with the lumber industry, and in 1871, in partnership with Thomas Shortreed, purchased some timber in Barrie Township, Simcoe County, Ontario, where he operated until the timber was exhausted. In 1886 Mr. Laid-law established wholesale and retail yards at Sarnia, Ontario, and Buffalo, New York. He is also a member of the R. T. Jones Lumber Company of North Tonawanda, New York.

GILLIES BROTHERS.

The business of Gillies Bros. Company, Limited, was founded in 1873, by James, William, John and David Gillies, sons of the late John Gillies, who at one time carried on extensive lumbering operations at Carleton Place, Ontario, in partnership with Peter MacLaren. The Gillies brothers bought a sawmill plant at Braeside, Ontario, which has been enlarged and improved until at the present time they manufacture about 40,000,000 feet of lumber yearly, in addition to their output of shingles,*lath, etc., giving employment to about a thousand men in the mills and the bush. They hold about one thousand miles of timber limits, partly in Ontario and partly in Quebec, on the Coulonge, Peta-wawa and Montreal rivers and Lake Temiscamingue. For the last thirty-five years the greater portion of their output has found a market in the United States. James Gillies is president of the company and is also head of the John Gillies Estate Company, manufacturer of gasoline launches and sawmill machinery at Carleton Place.

GEORGE M’CORMACK.

George McCormack, of Orillia, Ontario, was born October 12, 1850, at Lochaber, Ottawa County, Quebec, of Irish and Scotch descents Having in his youth acquired a thorough knowledge of the lumber trade in the-Ottawa Valley, he transferred his operations to the then little known region of Parry Sound, which offered a promising field. He displayed much foresight and energy, and his trade rapidly extended. For many years he was in partnership with the late Angus McLeod under the name of McCormack & McLeod until the death of the latter in 1903. In addition to his operations in northwestern Ontario, Mr. McCormack has large interests in the lumber trade of British Columbia. He is a Conservative in politics and takes an active part in public life. He entered the House of Commons in 1896 as representative of the Muskoka and Parry Sound district and was a member during two terms.

GEORGE H. PERLEY.

George H. Perley, of Ottawa, is the son of William G. Perley, one of the pioneer lumbermen of the Ottawa Valley. His native place is Lebanon, New Hampshire, and the date of his birth September 12, 1857. His business career began with his admission to the firm of Perley & Pattee, of which his father was the senior partner. At present he is head of the firm of G. H. Perley & Co., vice president of the Hull Lumber Company, and is also actively concerned in other industrial undertakings.

Mr. Perley is a public-spirited citizen and has taken an active part in charitable enterprises. He was chairman of the relief fund which distributed nearly a million dollars to the sufferers of the Ottawa fire in 1900. In politics he is a Conservative and on three occasions was nominated as candidate of that party for the House of Commons, being returned in 1904 as member for Argenteuil, Quebec.

JOHN B. MILLER.

John B. Miller, of Toronto, president of the Parry Sound Lumber Company, is a native of Athens, Leeds County, Ontario, and was born July 26, 1862. His father was John Clausin Miller, at one time Superintendent of Woods and Forests for Ontario, and subsequently a lumber operator. At an early age Mr. Miller was associated in the business with his father, upon the death of whom in 1884 he succeeded to the presidency of the Parry Sound Lumber Company, which does a very extensive business. He is also largely interested in manufacturing, being joint owner of the Poison Iron Works, of Toronto, and is a prominent figure in the commercial life of the city. In February, 1905, he was elected president of the Lumbermen’s Association of Ontario.

JOHN BERTRAM.

On November 28, 1904, Canada lost one of its foremost citizens in the person of John Bertram, who died from an operation for appendicitis at his home in Toronto. He was a man of splendid business ability and sterling integrity. Though prominent in many other spheres of activity he was, perhaps, more closely identified with the lumber industry than with any other. He was a Scotchman by birth, and arrived in Canada in 1860 when twenty-three years of age, settling at Peterboro, Ontario, where he engaged in the hardware trade. He moved to

Toronto in 1878, embarking in the wholesale branch of the business. About this time he began extensive lumbering operations in connection with the Collins Inlet Lumber Company, of which he was president, having large limits on the Georgian Bay with sawmills at Collins Inlet.

He was eminently successful as an operator, and was a noted advocate of forest preservation. His own operations were conducted on economical principles with an eye to the future productiveness of his limits, and utilized to the best possible advantage not only the pine but the hardwood growth. Owing to his practical knowledge of forest conditions, of which he had made a life study, in 1897 he was appointed a member of the Ontario Forestry Commission to report on the subject of restoring and preserving the growth of white pine and other timber trees upon lands in the Province which are not adapted to agricultural purposes or to settlement. The valuable report of this commission practically inaugurated a new era in forest administration. Its recommendations were adopted by the Government, and a large area of land was added to the forest reserves. He was an active and valued member of the Canadian Forestry Association and the author of several masterly papers on forestry subjects.

Mr. Bertram was largely interested in the Bertram Engine Works Company, of Toronto, of which he became president in 1900. His last field of public usefulness was as chairman of the Dominion Transportation Commission. He was appointed to that office October 27, 1903. Under his leadership the commission had collected much valuable information, when ill health terminated his tenure of office. A widow and a family of seven survive him.

NATHANIEL DYMENT.

A lumber operator since the time of his youth is Nathaniel Dyment, of Barrie, Ontario. His first operations were in Ancaster and Beverly townships, Wentworth County, and subsequently he built a number of mills on the Great Western railway. In 1886 the firm of Mickle, Dyment & Son was organized, with mills at Gravenhurst, Severn Bridge and Thessalon, Ontario, with an annual output of 35,000,000 feet.

ELIHU STEWART.

Elihu Stewart, Superintendent of Forestry for Canada, was born in Sombra, Lambton County, Ontario, November 17, 1844. He was admitted as a Dominion land surveyor in 1872, and was extensively engaged in Crown surveys both in Ontario and the Northwest Territories. He resided for some time in the town of Collingwood and took an active part in municipal and political affairs. He was elected mayor of the town in 1896, and during the same year unsuccessfully contested North Simcoe in the interest of the Liberal party.

In 1899 he was appointed Superintendent of Forestry, owing to his wide knowledge of the requirements of the Northwest, where extensive operations in tree planting have since been carried on under his direction with the best results. Since the work has been undertaken its scope has been greatly increased. During the years 1901-1904 upward of 3,200,000 trees, distributed by the Government, have been planted by the farmers in the prairie country. Over half of these trees were set out in 1904.

AUBREY WHITE.

Aubrey White, Assistant Minister of Lands and Mines for Ontario, was born at Lisonally House, Tyrone County, Ireland, March 19, 1845, and received his education in that country. He came to Canada in 1862, and for some years was engaged in the lumber business in the Muskoka district. In 1876 he entered the service of the Government as a forest ranger and some years later was appointed clerk of the Woods and Forests Branch. Recommendations made by him to the Provincial government resulted in the adoption of the fire-ranging system, which was established in 1885, and, having subsequently been greatly extended, has done much to check the ravages of forest fires.

In 1887 Mr. White was advanced to the post which he now holds in what was then known as the Department of Crown Lands. During successive administrations he has taken a prominent part in the shaping and carrying out of their timber policies and the effecting of such changes in the regulations as were rendered necessary by the development of the Province. Mr. White is a leading Free Mason and a prominent member of the Canadian Forestry Association.

THOMAS SOUTHWORTH.

Thomas Southworth, director of Forestry and Colonization for Ontario, was born in Leeds County, Ontario, in 1855, of American parentage, and is a direct descendant of one of the Pilgrims who came over in the Mayflower. He was for many years engaged in journalism as editor and manager of the Brockville Recorder. In 1895 he was appointed Clerk of Forestry. Previous to his appointment the duties of the position had been merely of an educational and advisory character, but, owing to the growing urgency of the question, the scope of the office was greatly enlarged and it was put upon a practical basis in connection with administrative work. To the investigations undertaken by Mr. Southworth, and the data and suggestions presented by the Bureau to the Government, the establishment of the system of extensive forest reserves in the wooded regions of New Ontario is mainly due. Mr. Southworth was a member of the Royal Commission which in 1897 reported on the subject in favor of the setting apart of forest reserves. Latterly he has been entrusted with the direction of colonization movements in the newer parts of the Province.


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