The following rules
and regulations for the inspection of pine and hardwood lumber were
adopted by the lumber section of the Board of Trade of the City of
Toronto, Ontario, in 1890. Though now obsolete, they are of
lumber must measure and inspect each piece as they find it, of full
length and width. Imperfections are not to be measured out.
All lumber must be
put into the grade its defects call for, regardless of measurement.
All lumber over 1
inch in thickness must be measured full, with the % or %, added on
each piece (no fraction in width allowed).
In inspection the
inspector is instructed to use his best judgment, based upon the
rules laid down for his guidance.
The standard knot
is to be considered as not exceeding 1 % inches in diameter.
Splits are a
greater or lesser defect in lumber, and must be considered
All lumber must be
cut plump in thickness and be well manufactured, and all lumber
imperfectly manufactured shall be classed as culls.
The following shall
be the grades of lumber sanctioned by the Council of the Board of
Trade for the Lumber Section of the Board of Trade of the City of
lumber shall be perfect in all respects and free from wane, rot,
shake or check, not less than 12 feet long, 8 inches wide and 1 inch
thick. A piece 12 inches wide will admit of imperfections to the
extent of one standard knot or its equivalent in sap. In lumber over
12 inches wide the inspector must use his best judgment in
accordance with the instructions above given.
must not be less than 12 feet long, 8 inches wide and 1 inch in
thickness, well manufactured and free from wane, rot, shake or
check. A piece 8 inches wide will admit of one standard knot, or
imperfections in sap to the same extent. A piece 12 inches wide will
admit of two standard knots, or imperfections in sap to the same
extent. For lumber wider than 12 inches, of this grade, inspectors
will carry out the instructions as given regarding wide, clear
No. 1 Cutting
Up.—No. 1 cutting up shall not be less than 12 feet long, 7 inches
wide and 1 inch in thickness. Clear pieces 10 feet long and the
required width are included in this grade; this must be free from
wane, rot, shake or check.
Pieces from 7 to 9
inches wide will admit of imperfections to the extent of two
standard knots or their equivalent in sap. Pieces from 10 to 12
inches wide will admit of three standard knots or imperfections
equivalent to them in sap, and wider for lumber of this grade
inspectors will follow instructions as given in two previous grades.
Inspectors are informed that this grade of lumber is expected to cut
out two-thirds clear in profitable lengths to the consumer.
No. 2 Cutting
Up.—No. 2 cutting up shall not be less than 10 feet long, 6 inches
wide and 1 inch in thickness, and shall cut at least one-half clear
in accordance with the instructions as given above regarding No. 1
cutting up lumber.
grade of lumber shall be generally of a sound character, and shall
be free from wane, rot, shake or check, not less than 10 feet long,
7 inches wide and 1 inch in thickness. A piece 7 inches wide will
admit of one or more knots which can be covered with a ten-cent
piece if they are sound. A piece wider than 7 inches will admit of
one or more knots of the same size according to the judgment of the
inspector in regard to the width.
Dressing.—Common dressing shall not be less than 10 feet long, 7
inches wide and 1 inch in thickness, and shall be free from wane,
rot or check, and shall be generally of a sound character, and will
admit of standard knots that will not unfit it for dressing
shall be free from rot and unsound knots, and well manufactured, not
less than 10 feet long, 7 inches wide and 1 inch in thickness.
strips shall be from 4 to 6 inches wide, not less than 12 feet long,
and 1 inch in thickness, and shall have one perfectly clear face,
free from all imperfections; bright sap will be permitted on the
strips for fine dressing shall be from 4 to 6 inches wide, not less
than 12 feet long and 1 inch in thickness, and will admit of one
knot which can be covered by a 10-cent piece in a piece 4 inches
wide, and two knots of like size in a piece 6 inches wide. All
strips free from other imperfections and having bright sap on two
sides would be admitted into this grade. „
Strips.—Common dressing strips shall be from 4 to 6 inches wide, not
less than 10 feet long, and 1 inch in thickness, and shall be well
manufactured and generally of a sound character; will admit of knots
which are sound and not coarse, and which will not unfit it for
ordinary dressing purposes.
Strips.—Common strips shall be from 4 to 6 inches in width, not less
than 10 feet long and 1 inch in thickness, free from rot and wane
and to be of a coarse, sound character.
No. 1 Culls.—This
grade shall consist of lumber above the grade of No. 2 culls and
shall admit of coarse knots and stain and be free from rot. It shall
also admit of pieces imperfectly manufactured below 1 inch in
thickness and perfectly sound, and not rendered worthless through
No. 2 Culls.—No. 2
culls shall be lumber that will work one-half sound.
No. 1 Lath.—No. 1
lath shall be 4 feet long, and shall be when cut lyi, l}i and 1 %
inches in width, cut out of good, sound, live timber, free from
wane, rot or knots, well manufactured and trimmed square at the
No. 2 Lath.—No. 2
lath shall be of the same width and length as No. 1 lath, and shall
admit of a small portion of wane, and also will admit of lath sap
stained, and will admit of small, sound knots; must otherwise be
Shingles.—No. XXX shingles, packed in 4 bunches to the 1,000, of 250
each, free from all rot, shake, sap, knots, pin holes, bastards, or
defects of any nature. A shingle 4 inches being the standard,
16-inch shingles should be 5 shingles to 2 inches thickness at butt,
with fa inch points, and 18-inch shingles, 5 to 2# inches thickness
at butt, and fa at points, to be well manufactured and well pointed.
No. XX 6-Inch Clear
Butts.— No. XX 6-inch clear butts must be perfect for at least 6
inches from butts, and the defects from this hereon to be of
water-tight character, and same regulation regarding thickness as
No. 1.—No. 1 to be
of a grade not specially up to, so as to be considered in, either of
above grades, and to be sold by special agreement.
Shingles.—All other shingles are culls, and their value is to be a
matter of arrangement, if they have any market value.
It is impossible to
make rules that will govern every piece of lumber, there being no
two pieces of lumber exactly alike. It is therefore expected that
the inspector shall be a person of experience, and use his best
judgment, based upon the general rules given, making no allowance
for the purpose of raising or lowering the grades of a piece.
The inspector must
not favor either the buyer or seller, but take lumber as he finds
it, and pass each piece into the grade to which it belongs.
Inspectors should examine all lumber on the poorest side, except
flooring. All lumber must be measured in even lengths, excepting
stock that is cut to order for special purposes, when it shall be
measured for the full contents. Bark or waney pieces shall be
measured inside the bark or wane. All tapering pieces will be
measured one-third the length of the piece from the small end.
All badly cut
lumber shall be classed as cull, or placed one grade below what it
would be if properly manufactured. All lumber shall be sawed thick
enough to meet the required thickness when seasoned. Lumber sawed
for newels, columns, balusters, axles, or other specific purposes,
must be inspected with a view of the intended use of the piece, and
the adaptability for that purpose, as in most cases it cannot be
utilized for other purposes. Heart pieces are excluded from all
grades above cull. Worm holes are considered one of the most serious
defects. Gum spots in cherry is a defect, and, if excessive, will
lower the piece one or two grades. Warped, twisted, stained and
stick-rotten lumber shall either be classed as cull, or mill cull
lengths of whitewood to be 12, 14 and 16 feet, admitting 10 percent
of 10 feet lengths; walnut and cherry, 10, 12, 14 and 16 feet
lengths, admitting 10 percent of 8 feet; 8 feet to be admitted as
No. 1 must be 12 inches wide and upwards; to grade as No. 2, 8
inches wide and upwards.
A standard knot
must not exceed 1% inches in diameter, and must be sound. Log run
shall be the unpicked run of the log, mill cull out. Lumber sold on
grade, and without special contract will be measured according to
these rules. The inspector will be required to keep a correct copy
of all measurements, and give duplicate of same to both buyer and
seller if required.
In all grades
mentioned as combined in No. 1 and No. 2, all pieces less than 8
inches shall be considered as seconds.
Combined grade of
firsts and seconds, rejects and shipping culls.
No. I.—No. 1, from
8 to 10 inches, shall be clear of all defects; 10 to 16 inches wide
may have 1% inches bright sap, or one standard knot; 16 inches wide
and upwards may have 2 inches bright sap, or two standard knots
showing on one side only.
inches wide and upwards, must be clear of all defects at 7 inches;
at 10 inches will admit of 1% inches sap or two standard knots; 10
to 16 inches wide will admit of 2 inches sap, or two standard knots;
16 inches wide and upwards may have 3 inches sap, or three standard
knots; 12 inches wide and upwards will admit of a split, if
straight, l/e the length of the piece, provided the piece be equal
to No. 1 in other respects. Not over 10 percent of seconds will be
taken with splits of the above character.
inches wide and upwards; at 7 inches may have 1 inch sap, or one
standard knot; 7 to 12 inches wide may have 2 inches sap, or two
sound knots; 12 to 18 inches wide may have 4 inches sap, or four
sound knots; above 18 inches may have 5 inches bright, sound sap.
Cull.—Shipping cull will include all lumber not equal to the above
that will average and work two-thirds its width and length.
CHERRY AND BUTTERNUT
Will be graded and
inspected according to the rules given for black walnut, with the
exception of gum specks in cherry. (See instructions.)
COTTONWOOD OR BALM OF GILEAD
Will include the
combined grade of first and seconds—No. 1 common, No. 2 common, or
shipping cull. The combined grade of firsts and seconds shall not be
less than 65 percent of No. 1.
No. 1.—No. 1 shall
be 10 inches wide and upwards, and clear of all defects at 12
inches; 12 to 15 inches may have 1% inches bright sap, or one
standard knot showing on one side only; 15 to 18 inches may have 2
inches sap; 18 inches and upwards may have 3 inches sap, or two
standard knots showing on one side only.
inches wide and upwards, clear of all defects at 9 inches; at 10
inches wide, may have one standard knot or a split not over 12
inches long; 15 to 18 inches wide may have two standard knots, or 3
inches bright sap; 18 to 22 inches may have three standard knots or
4 inches bright, sound sap.
No. 1 Comtnon.—No.
1 common shall be 6 inches wide and upwards, bright, sound and clear
sap, not a defect in this giade; 8 to 12 inches wide, may have three
standard knots; 12 to 16 inches wide, four standard knots; 16 to 24
inches, five standard knots, or may have straight heart cracks not
showing over one-quarter the length of the piece, if it has no other
defect excepting bright sap.
No. 2 Cotnttton or
Shipping Cull.—No. 2 common or shipping cull will include lumber
with more defects than the No. 1 common. Pieces will be received
where two-thirds of the piece will be available for use for rough
manufacturing purposes; stained sap or other defects will be
received in this grade; dozed and rotten sap, and other lumber, than
as above named, will be classed as mill cull or refuse, and have no
Shall be inspected
the same way as whitewood, cottonwood or balm of Gilead.-with the
exception that seconds will take lumber 6 inches wide and up.
ASH AND OAK
Shall be graded as
firsts and seconds, and shall be 6 inches and over in width.
Plank.—Boards or plank 8 inches wide will admit of one standard knot
or one defect; 10 inches and over wide will admit of two or more
defects, according to the width of the piece ; bright sap is not
considered a defect.
include all width, lengths and sizes, except such stock as will not
work one-half without waste. Other than the above are classed as
mill culls and have no value in this market.
Shall be 6 inches
and over in width, and clear up to 8 inches. Pieces 9 inches wide
may have three standard knots; over 12 inches wide, four standard
knots. This grade must be absolutely free from worm or pin holes.
Culls shall constitute all lumber below the above grade that will
cut one-half without waste.
Shall be inspected
the same way as oak and ash.
Shall be inspected
the same as oak and ash.
ROCK AND SOFT ELM
Shall be 6 inches and up wide, and up to 10 inches shall be perfect.
Beyond that width shall take the inspection given to oak and ash.
HARD AND SOFT MAPLE
Shall be inspected
for firsts and seconds in the same manner as oak and ash.
Flooring.—Clear maple flooring shall have at least one clear face,
and two edges also clear.
Flooring.—Common maple flooring shall be of the same general
character as clear ; may have one or two small sound knots of not
more than }£ of an inch in diameter, or a small wane on one edge,
which will not injure it . for working its full size without waste.
Shall have the same
inspection as hard and soft maple, with the exception that sap is
considered a defect more than in maple.