have dealt with physical features, with forests, with history of
development and administration and with statistics, but no history
can be complete without reference to the men who have done the
things recorded. It has not seemed necessary or advisable to make
the personal element prominent in a work of this character, but in
order to link the past with the present and to indicate the forces
which are still carrying ahead the lumber development' of the
Province of Quebec the following brief sketches of individuals,
firms or companies that once were or are now prominent in the
industry are presented. Some of them were pioneers; some of them are
occupying a growing place either in lumber manufacture or in lumber
commerce; but all are deemed worthy of mention in a work of this
Early in the
Nineteenth Century the English government sent several practical men
to Canada to procure timber for shipbuilding. One of these men was
Peter Patterson, who, later, in connection with Henry Usbume in the
year 1811, purchased the site of the famous Montmorency sawmills, at
the foot of the Falls of Montmorency, near the City of Quebec.
Subsequently Mr. Patterson conducted the business on his own account
for a period of forty years, when he died. He was succeeded by the
late George Benson Hall, who conducted six mills at the same place
until his death in 1876, after which the mills were operated by
Andrew Thomson, Patterson Hall and George Benson Hall, under the
firm name of G. B. Hall & Co., until 1884, when Patterson Hall and
H. M. Price, under the name of Hall & Price, leased the mills and
continued them until 1892, when they were shut down. In 1894 the
buildings were bought by Mr. Price and pulled down by him. The
Montmorency Cotton Works now occupy the site.
H. M. PRICE.
H. M. Price, after
the Montmorency mills were closed, bought the Whitton, East
Broughton and Lyster mills, which he continued to operate until
about twenty-four years ago, when he sold out to his manager, D. H.
Pennington, an old Montmorency man who has since built another mill
in the same neighborhood, all now being operated to thefts, full
capacity. Mr. Price, though still in the deal business, is largely
engaged in the production of pulpwood, and is president of the
Pulpwood Association of Quebec Province.
one of the earliest in the trade, bought the Hawkesbury mill
property, on the Ottawa River, in 1811, and at his death the
business—a general deal and lumber business—was carried on by his
three sons, Robert, George and the Hon. John Hamilton. The business
became one of the most extensive on the Ottawa River, and the whole
of the mill’s cut was brought to the Quebec market for exportation
to Great Britain. Some years before the firm retired from business,
John, the son of the late Robert Hamilton, became a partner. He is
still living in Quebec and is chancellor of the University of
Bishop’s College, Lennoxville, Quebec, where he graduated with the
degrees of master of arts and doctor of civil law.
In the early part
of the Nineteenth Century, Sir John Caldwell, the Receiver General
of Lower Canada, opened two lumbering establishments—one on the
Etchemin River and the other on the St. Nicholas. For the double
purpose of bringing down logs and for an additional supply of water
for his mills, at the foot of the St. Nicholas Falls he constructed
a canal about five miles long from a tributary of the Chaudiere to
the St. Nicholas River. In 1821 Charles King, father of the members
of the present firm of King Bros., Limited, came over from England
and took charge of the St. Nicholas establishment for Sir John, and
at about the same time John Thomson, father of Andrew Thomson, now
president of the Union Bank of Canada, came from Boness, Scotland,
and took charge of the Etchemin establishment. After the return of
Sir John Caldwell to England, the St. Nicholas mill fell into the
hands of the late William Gerrard Ross, and the Etchemin mill into
the hands of the late Henry Atkinson, uncle of the present
proprietor, Henry Atkinson, who still conducts that valuable
The St. Nicholas
mill, like the Montmorency mills, has long been dismantled, the
tendency at present being to take the mill to the logs instead of,
as in the past, bringing the logs to the mill. Following up this
practice, Charles King, in partnership with H. D. Breakey, father of
the present owner of this property, John Breakey, built in 1846 the
existing mills on the Chaudiere River, several miles south of the
St. Lawrence River (at a point about six miles from Quebec City),
whence the deals were started down to the Chaudiere Basin on the St.
Lawrence for shipment. Subsequently the property became that of
Henry King and John King, and upon the death of the former, Air.
Breakey succeeded to the ownership, which he still maintains. This
mill is one of the largest if not the largest spruce deal mill in
the Province of Quebec.
Some time after
John Thomson, before referred to, left Etchemin, he took two of his
sons into partnership with him—Andrew and John Thomson—under the
firm name of Thomson & Co., and they purchased the Buckingham mill
property in conjunction with the Hamilton brothers, and conducted on
a large scale a pine deal business. These deals were taken down to
Quebec in moulinettes and piled or shipped from the river at the New
Liverpool cove.- When the partnership between the Hamiltons and the
Thomsons was dissolved, the Thomsons ..bought Victoria cove, on the
north side of the St. Lawrence, where they carried on business until
they retired over a quarter century ago.
Limited, with headquarters at Quebec City, are extensive
manufacturers of spruce and pine, and have been in the trade for
many years, the firm having been established in 1829 by the late
Charles King, who erected his first mill at St. Antoine de Tilly in
the Province of Quebec. At present there are two partners in the
firm— Edmund Alexander King and Charles King, with W. S. Thomas as
vice president and general manager of the business. King Bros, are
noted for their careful and reliable selection of shipments, and
their operations have been carried on over a large area and in
various localities of the Province of Quebec. The late James King,
who was a partner up to the time of his death about ten years ago,
was a member of the Provincial Legislature for Megantic for several
years, and was well known to the trade both at home and abroad.
w. & J. SHARPLES.
W. & J. Sharpies
(Hon. John Sharpies) is one of the oldest firms in the Quebec square
timber trade, having been established in 1830 by William Sharpies,
of Liverpool. The business was afterward taken over by his son,
Henry Sharpies, about 1840. Richard Wainright and Charles Sharpies,
and afterward the late Hon. John Sharpies, next conducted the
business and subsequently the latter’s sons, only one of whom
remains in the timber export trade, the Hon. John Sharpies, who is
the sole proprietor of the business carried on under the style of W.
& J. Sharpies. He was born in Quebec in 1847. He entered the firm in
1871, and under his management the business has been greatly
The firm ships
about 2,000,000 cubic feet of square and waney timber of all kinds
during the season of navigation, and about 50,000,000 feet board
measure of pine deals and sidings. The firm possesses two coves at
Quebec—the Sillery cove, which is devoted to the shipment of square
and waney timber, and Bridgewater cove, where there are large piling
grounds for deals and lumber.
The name of
Sharpies has been prominently before the public in connection with
the timber and lumber export trade of Canada for nearly
three-quarters of a century. The development of the business of this
concern from comparatively small beginnings has been some* thing
phenomenal. The establishment transacts the greater part of its
trade with the United Kingdom, but business relations are maintained
also with certain commercial centers in continental Europe. There
are branch offices at Montreal and Ottawa, and the firm has agencies
in Glasgow, London and Liverpool.
The Hon. John
Sharpies is a member of the Legislative Council of the Province of
Quebec, to which he was nominated in 1893, and of the Quebec Board
of Harbor Commissioners; vice president of the Union Bank of Canada
and of the Quebec Auditorium; a director of the Quebec Bridge
Company; president of The Chronicle Newspaper Company ; mayor of the
suburban town of Sillery, and was, until he resigned recently, vice
president of the Great Northern railway of Canada.
J. BURSTALL & CO.
J. Burstall & Co.
is one of the oldest Quebec firms engaged in the export of wood
goods from Canada, having been established in the City of Quebec by
the late Henry Burstall, in the year 1832, nearly three-quarters of
a century ago. He came from Hull, England, and was shortly afterward
joined by his brother Edward. The business was carried on for many
years under the style of H. & E. Burstall. On the retirement of
Henry Burstall in 1856, it was changed to E. Burstall & Co. In 1857
John Burstall, a nephew of the brothers, was admitted as a partner,
and when a few years afterward Edward Burstall retired, it was again
changed to J. Burstall & Co., and has so remained ever since.
About the year 1863
Stanley Smith, of Liverpool, joined the firm and continued as a
partner for ten or twelve years, when he retired. W. H. Robinson
then became a member, as representing Harrison, Robinson & Co., of
Liverpool. Mr. Robinson died in 1876, and the following year F.
Billingsly, for many years in the employ of the firm, was admitted
into partnership, along with H. T. Walcot. The latter remained in
the firm fourteen years, and the former until his death in 1903.
John Burstall, who had been head of the firm for about thirty-five
years, died in England in 1896. The business is now conducted by
John F. Burstall, his son. The firm has a branch office in Montreal
and another in London, England. It has for more than a half century
done a large annual export trade, and before the development of the
steam carrying trade, for a long period of years, exported annually
to Great Britain from 120 to 200 cargoes of timber and deals.
One of the oldest
living operators in the timber and deal trade of the Province of
Quebec is Nicholas Flood, a resident of the Ancient Capital, who, in
the successive capacities of culler and manufacturer, has been
identified with this industry for more than a half century. Mr.
Flood was bom in Wexford, Ireland, and immigrated to Canada with his
parents at the age of eight years. A year later, at the tender age
of nine, he began his apprenticeship as a culler’s assistant at
Walker’s cove, Quebec. His unusually active career covers the most
prosperous period of the Quebec export timber trade. For many years
he received for the owners at Cape Rouge cove, at Quebec, from
7,000,000 to 13,000,000 feet of board pine each season, and about
twelve years ago succeeded to the management, which office he still
PRICE BROS. & CO.,
Price Bros. & Co.,
Limited, of Quebec, are the largest lumber operators in spruce in
the Province of Quebec, having sawmills in all the principal
lumbering districts east of the Ottawa, and are also the largest
individual limit holders in Canada. The company has a paid up
capital of $2,000,000. The total appraised value of the assets of
the company is $4,500,000. The value of the freehold lands,
seigniories and timber limits alone is in excess of $3,000,000.
These lands schedule over 100,000 acres. The limits operated under
license schedule over 6,000 square miles. The timber consists
principally of spruce, balsam, cedar, birch and a small amount of
pine, poplar and hemlock. The predominating wood is spruce, a large
part of the limits being included in the great spruce belt of
Canada. The timber is located in a district where the rapidity of
growth is probably greater than anywhere else in North America, so
that a tract may be gone over again in fifteen or twenty years. The
company has mills at the following places, all in the Province of
Quebec: Batiscan, St. Thomas, Cape St. Ignace, Rimouski, Matane,
Salmon Lake, Metabetchouan, Chicoutimi, L’Anse au Cheval and St.
Catherine’s Bay. In addition to the sawmills, the company owns one
of the largest pulp mills in Canada, located at Rimouski.
The founder of this
business, the late William Price, in 1840 established the mills at
Chicoutimi, St. Alexis, L’Anse St. Jean and St. Etienne, on the
Saguenay, and at Metis, Matane, St. Thomas, Batiscan and other
places, leaving an immense business to his sons, the last of whom,
Hon. E. J. Price, died about six years ago, at which time his
nephew, William Price, succeeded to the business, which, during the
latter part of 1904, was converted into a limited stock company,
with Mr. Price as president.
On the far famed
Saguenay the company has four mills, from which it ships its well
known spruce deals. This remarkable river is navigable for ships of
the deepest draft for sixty miles. On account of the swift current,
a powerful tug is provided for the convenience of ships coming up to
load, there being no possible anchorage on the river except at the
mills. The Chicoutimi mill is situated in the town of that name at
the head of navigation. The mill at Grand Bay (or Ha-Ha Bay) is
driven by water power. The other mills on the Saguenay, as already
stated, are situated at L’Anse St. Jean and St. Etienne. The total
capacity of these mills is 20,000 standards per season. The Metis
steam mill is about two hundred miles below Quebec, on the south
shore; the Matane mill, about two hundred and thirty miles; these
and the Salmon Lake mill, on the Matapedia River, have a capacity of
about four thousand standards each. A few years ago a new steam mill
was built at Trois Pistoles, about one hundred and thirty miles
below Quebec, on the south shore of the St. Lawrence. The capacity
of the mill is from 2,000 to 3,000 standards. The mill at Cape St.
Ignace (steam power) and the mill at Trois Saumons have a joint
capacity of about two thousand standards. The shipments of the
company are chiefly to Great Britain, the Continent, South America
and Australia, and its agents in the United Kingdom are Price &
Pierce, of London.
William Price takes
an active interest in all commercial matters relating to the
development of Canada. He has been president of the Quebec Board of
Trade, is honorary commodore of the Quebec Yacht Club, vice
president of the Quebec Steamship Company and was a candidate in the
Conservative interest for the county of Rimouski in the general
elections for the Dominion of Canada in 1904.
succeeded his uncle, the Hon. E. J. Price, as president of the A.
Gravel Lumber Company, Limited, which has a large modern mill on the
south shore of the St. Lawrence River, a few miles from Quebec City.
It manufactures all kinds of lumber, including spruce, birch, etc.,
and box boards for the English market and all kinds of joinery for
local consumption. Agencies are maintained in Boston, New York and
G. B. SYMES & CO.
The well known firm
of G. B. Symes & Co. was established in Quebec about the year 1840,
and was composed of George Bums Symes and D. D. Young, both of whom
were English bom. They were shippers of all kinds of timber and
lumber, and operated largely in the shipping interests of the port.
Upon the death of Mr. Symes, A. F. A. Knight, the firm’s bookkeeper,
became a partner with Mr. Young under the name of D. D. Young & Co.
This firm was succeeded, upon the retirement of Mr. Young, by A. F.
A. Knight & Co., which firm went out of business over a quarter
The name of Benson
has long been familiar in connection with the timber and shipping
interests of the port of Quebec. W. J. C. Benson, came to Canada
from London, England, about sixty years ago, and began a business
career which, though brief, was extraordinarily active. He was one
of the largest if not the largest shipper in the port for five
years, when he died at the early age of thirty-three years. He
shipped from 100 to 110 cargoes each season during this period. He
built several ships at New Liverpool cove, Quebec, which property he
owned, in the palmy days of the wooden ship industry. His cargoes of
wood goods embraced square pine, deals, staves and lathwood. At the
time of his death, about 1850, Joseph Roberts, who had been Mr.
Benson’s agent both in Quebec and in England, entered into
partnership with Thomas Benson (a brother of the former) and R. H.
Smith, under the firm name of Benson & Co. The new enterprise was
very successful, and the firm’s cargoes reached the extraordinary
number of 140 in a single season. The business continued until the
retirement of Thomas. Benson, when the two remaining partners
continued the business under the name of Roberts, Smith & Co., their
operations being extensive for upward of twelve years, when Mr.
Roberts retired and returned to England in 1880. At this time E.
Harper Wade (now manager of The McArthur Export Company, of Quebec)
became a partner with Mr. Smith under the style of Smith, Wade & Co.
Mr. Smith retired after six years, and H. T. Walcot (now
representing The McArthur Export Company in London, England) joined
Mr. Wade under the old firm name, and the business was continued
until 1890, at which time it was wound up.
DUNN & CO.
The business of
Dunn & Co. was established over a half century ago by the late
Timothy Dunn, who was the doyen of the timber trade of the port of
Quebec. Stuart H. Dunn, his oldest son, is now the sole proprietor
of the firm. This concern draws its supplies of timber from Ohio and
West Virginia, and is agent for certain hardwood lumbermen of the
United States whose makes are of standard excellence and in good
repute abroad. Dunn & Co. are probably more largely interested in
the oak timber trade than any other firm in the City of Quebec.
The late Timothy
Dunn was born at St. Ursule, Quebec Province, in 1816. In 1841 he
entered the Quebec office of the great timber firm of Calvin, Cook &
Counter, and later became the head of the firm of Dunn, Calvin & Co.
Afterward, in conjunction with the late Thomas Benson, he transacted
business under the name of T. H. Dunn & Co., and in 1860 formed a
new partnership with the late William Home, the firm being Dunn &
Home. The firm was succeeded by his two sons, the late Logie H. Dunn
and Stuart H. Dunn, under the present name of Dunn & Co.
HENRY FRY & CO.
A notable firm
closely associated with the commercial life of the port of Quebec
for over a half century is that of Henry Fry & Co. The firm was
established by Henry Fry in *1854, as timber merchant and ship
owner. The founder having been joined by his brother in 1861, both
continued to carry on this business on an extensive scale. In 1877
it happened, however, that, owing to ill health, Mr. Fry was
prevented from taking an active part in the operations of the firm,
and from that date until 1882 the management and direction of the
business was in the hands of E. C. Fry. In the year last mentioned
it was deemed advisable for the senior partner to retire for a much
needed and well earned rest, and, in consequence, the firm was
dissolved. At about this time Robert Stanley, who had been
associated with the business since 1862, was admitted as a partner,
and, with E. C. Fry, has since successfully conducted the present
business of general commission merchants. E. C. Fry was appointed a
member of the Transportation Commission created by the Canadian
government in 1903.
Wilson and his brother, Charles William Wilson, formed a partnership
under the firm name of Wilson Bros. & Co., on March 7, 1854. This
partnership was formed in Liverpool, and a business in timber,
deals, staves and general cargoes was conducted in both Liverpool
and Quebec, with C. W. Wilson in charge of the Canadian branch. The
firm acquired Dalhousie and Glenbumie coves in Quebec, and built
several ships. About a year afterward the partnership was dissolved,
when C. W. Wilson continued as agent in Canada for his brother in
Liverpool until 1866, when the former went into the business on his
own account, retaining the coves mentioned, building ships and
carrying on a general export business, the cargoes embracing largely
timber, deals, staves, etc. The Wilsons have loaded as many as 140
cargoes in a single season. J. P. Bickell, who was a clerk in the
firm’s offices, became a partner with M. I. Wilson and represented
the business as selling agent in England. The business of C. W.
Wilson in Quebec was wound up in 1885, and that of the Liverpool
house in 1895. The brothers were among the best known merchants and
shipbuilders in the history of these important industries. W. H.
Wilson, oldest son of C. W. Wilson, in the year in which his father
retired formed a partnership with John S. Murphy as J. S. Murphy &
Co., which continued up to 1895, when the senior partner died, and
W. H. Wilson, with his brother Fred, formed a partnership in a
commission and agency business, which is still in existence, having
headquarters in Quebec City.
DOBELL, BECKETT &
Among the notable
firms that have long held a prominent place in the Canadian timber
export trade, that of Dobell, Beckett & Co. is most familiar. The
Quebec house was founded nearly a half century ago by the late Hon.
R. R. Dobell and the late Thomas Beckett. The firm has branch
offices at Montreal and Ottawa and representatives in Great Britain.
Its annual shipments from the ports of Quebec and Montreal amount
to, in timber and lumber, hundreds of millions of feet. The Quebec
establishment is one of the leading commercial inheritances of the
The late Hon. R. R.
Dobell was senior member and active head of the enterprise, and to
his personal activity and commercial ability the firm in a large
measure owes its prominence, stability and wide spread reputation.
In the partnership were, in more recent years, T. Stevenson, Lorenzo
Evans and W. Molson Dobell. Since the death of the two principals a
few years ago, the Canadian business has been carried on by L.
Evans, W. M. Dobell and R. W. Beckett, and the London, England,
business by Mr. Stevenson.
Hon. R. R. Dobell
represented Quebec West in the Canadian House of Commons for several
years, and was also a minister of the Federal government. His
absorption in the duties of state as well as those of membership of
the Quebec Harbor Commission and Board of Trade, latterly placed the
firm’s business, to a large extent, in the hands of his associate
partners in Quebec.
The firm possesses
some fine cove property at Sillery, where, during the season of
navigation, much activity prevails in connection with the dressing
and loading of timber.
SIR HENRI JOLY DE
The seigniory of
Lotbiniere, in the Province of Quebec, is one of the oldest in
Canada, having been in the possession of the de Lotbi-nfere family
since the year 1673. The seigniory is situated on the right bank of
the St. Lawrence River, about forty miles west of the City of
Quebec, and embraces an area of 87,000 acres of forest. It is the
ambition of the de Lotbinikres to work this forest in a scientific
and conservative manner so as to secure its perpetuity for many
years to come. Their contention is that any one holding freehold or
patented timber lands should work them simply for the revenue and
not with the idea of converting them, with as short delay as
possible, into cash; that no better investment can be found at the
present time than timber lands, particularly when easy of access and
exploitation; that a timber limit if properly managed should have no
finality; that conservative felling will ensure the perpetuity of a
forest, be it large or small; that a strict attention to a rational
felling diameter and careful supervision against the lumberman’s
greatest enemy, fire, constitute the two essential features
necessary to perpetuate the existence of a forest.
Henri Gustavus Joly
de Lotbiniere built a mill and began operations on the property in
the year 1830, taking large quantities of pine and spruce deals to
the Quebec market. His son, Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, continues
the business with the assistance of his son, E. G. Joly de
Sir Henri Joly de
Lotbiniere, present head of this house, and one of the most
distinguished public men of Canada, is widely known as a zealous and
practical advocate of forestry. Sir Henri was bom in France in 1829
of Huguenot ancestry, and came to Canada when a young man. He was
admitted to practice at the Quebec bar in 1855, and was returned as
a Liberal to the Canadian Assembly in 1861 for the county of
Lotbiniere. He took a prominent part in the agitation preceding the
confederation of the provinces, to which measure he was strongly
opposed. For a number of years he was a member of the Quebec
Legislature, and in 1878 became Premier of that Province but was
defeated the following year. After a protracted retirement from
public life, he reentered the field in 1896, and was elected to the
House of Commons as a supporter of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. He was made
Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia in 1900, which position he
Sir Henri has
written and spoken frequently in connection with forestry,
horticulture and kindred topics, displaying a knowledge largely
based upon practical experience and personal research, and has taken
an active part in connection with organizations for the promotion of
E. G. JOLY DE
connection of E. G. Joly de Lotbiniere, son of the above, with the
lumber industry covers a period of barely ten years. Prior to that
time he practiced law at Quebec. When, in 1896, his father accepted
a seat in the Laurier cabinet, he gave up law and devoted himself to
the management of the seigniory of Lotbiniere. He has also taken an
active interest in the work of the Canadian Forestry Association for
several years past, and has the honor of representing the
association as president for the current year (1905). He was bom
November 12, 1859. His mother’s name was Margaretta Gower. He was
married in 1885 to Lucy Geils Campbell, eldest daughter of the late
W. D. Campbell, N. P., of Quebec.
He maintains the
traditions of his family in the management of the family property,
the seigniory of Lotbiniere, and in his public capacity suggests
regarding Crown land forests that a rigid enforcement of the
existing rules and regulations, the setting aside of extended areas
as perpetual forest reserves and a vigorous fire protection service
should ensure for posterity the advantages which are yet happily
enjoyed in the Province of Quebec.
D. R. M'LEOD
D. R. McLeod has
been in business as a broker between manufacturers and shippers of
timber for nearly a half century. He was at one time a shipper and
is still largely interested in the trade at Quebec.
WILLIAM POWER, M.
Canada allows no
adventitious circumstance of birth or fortune to be a bar to the
progress of her deserving sons. A notable example of this is the
career of William Power. He was born in 1849 at St. Colomb de
Sillery, a suburb of Quebec City, and was educated at the parochial
school of his native parish and at the Quebec Commercial School.
When but a lad he entered the offices of W. & J. Sharpies, the well
known lumber merchants. Here he displayed such business ability that
at the age of seventeen he was promoted to a more important position
in the company’s employ, and is now, as he has been for several
years, manager of the Sharpies business. Mr. Power has been
identified with the timber trade of Quebec for nearly forty years.
He is a practical lumberman, having spent several years in the pine
forests of Canada and of Michigan, supervising the work there
carried on by the Sharpies employees. He visits the timber markets
of Great Britain each year in the interest of his firm.
It would hardly be
expected that a man who has shown so many excellent business
qualities would be allowed to remain altogether in the comparatively
quiet sphere of a business life, and so, not only has he been for
many years a member of the parish Municipal Council of Sillery, but,
on the death of Hon. R. R. Dobell, member of Parliament for the city
district of Quebec West and a prominent timber merchant, Mr. Power
was elected as his successor. He has since been reelected by his
constituency at the general elections for the Dominion Parliament in
Mr. Power is
associated with Mr. Sharpies and Harcourt Smith in an important
business known as the River Ouelle Pulp & Lumber Company, which owns
two mills on the River Ouelle, on the line of the Intercolonial
railway below Quebec City.
E. HARPER WADE.
Edward Harper Wade,
who arranged the formation, a few years ago, of. the McArthur Export
Company, Limited, in the City of Quebec, and now holds the position
of general manager of this concern, is a native of Liverpool,
England. In 1862 he entered the offices of Sharpies & Co., in his
native city of Liverpool. In 1870 he was transferred to Quebec,
Canada, and remained with the Sharpies firm in that city until the
end of 1877, visiting England each winter and taking an active part
in the timber business as a salesman. He then accepted a similar
position with Roberts, Smith & Co., of Quebec, and remained with
them until the retirement of Joseph Roberts, in the year 1880, when
he was taken into partnership by R. H. Smith, of the same city, and
for six years carried on business under the style of Smith, Wade &
Co. On Mr. Smith’s retiring, H. T. Walcot, who had been a partner in
the business of J. Burstall & Co., joined the firm. Subsequently, in
1890, Mr. Walcot became agent in England of the McArthur Bros. Co.,
Limited, and Mr. Wade the manager of the Quebec and Montreal
business of the same concern.
CARBRAY, ROUTH &
Carbray, Routh &
Co., of Quebec and Montreal, have been engaged in the business of
general commission and shipping for nearly forty years. They are
also selling agents for several important sawmills, and have done a
large business with Great Britain, France, Portugal, Australia and
South America. Mr. Carbray is a prominent man in public life, and
for many years represented the business division of the City of
Quebec in the Parliament of the Province of Quebec. He is also
consul for Portugal at Quebec, while Mr. Routh fills the same
position as Portuguese representative in Montreal.
THE EDSON FITCH
Edson Fitch & Co.
was established at Montmorency, a few miles east of the City of
Quebec, in 1867. In 1869 the plant and works were moved to Etchemin,
on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River about four miles west
of Quebec, where the establishment has steadily grown in importance.
Mr. Edson Fitch is an American and has invested the industry with a
spirit of enterprise so characteristic of his nationality. In 1886
Edson Fitch & Co. was converted into The Edson Fitch Company, and
has so continued ever since. The specialty of the works is the
manufacture of match splints, shooks and match blocks. Enough
splints and blocks are manufactured daily to produce 80,000,000
matches, and in the manufacture of splints and cases about
20,000,000 feet of lumber are used a year. The company maintains
business relations with the United Kingdom, the West Indies and
BENNETT & CO.
Bennett & Co.,
manufacturers’ agents, have been in business in the City of Quebec
for over thirty years. The two partners are sons of the late Benson
Bennett, who was well known as the largest mill owner and
manufacturer of pine and spruce deals in Quebec. Among the various
mills for which Bennett & Co. have acted as agents are those of Sir
Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, in the seigniory of Lotbiniere, and the
Hon. J. K. Ward, of Montreal, for both of whom they have been agents
for many years.
Harold Kennedy, who
has been established in the port of Quebec for nearly a quarter of a
century, is identified with the timber export trade. He is the owner
of Indian cove, one of the best properties of the kind in the port,
which was occupied at one time by the Gilmour Company. Mr. Kennedy
came to Quebec from his native city of Liverpool to represent
Taylor, Pierce & Co., of that place, who were the successors of
James Bland & Co. He is a manufacturer and shipper of pine and
spruce deals and pine and birch timber, and an owner of large limits
in the Province of Quebec. He has for his Montreal agents McLean,
Kennedy & Co. As ship owners’ agent he acts for the following well
known lines of steamers: Head Line, Belfast and Dublin; Moss Line,
Liverpool; Malay & McIntyre, Greenock and Glasgow; Holme Line, of
Maryport, and represents many owners of tramp steamers trading with
the St. Lawrence. Mr. Kennedy is a member of the Quebec Harbor
Commission, president of the McArthur Export Company, Limited, and
vice president of the Quebec-Jacques Cartier Electric Company. He
was appointed by the Federal government in 1903 as a member of the
Dominion Transportation Commission, but, owing to business
engagements, was obliged to decline the honor.
H. R. GOODDAY & CO.
Nearly twenty years
ago H. G. Goodday, of London, England, engaged in the lumber export
business with E. W. Benson. The firm of Goodday, Benson & Co. was
dissolved in 1894, when H. R. Goodday, a son of the senior member of
the firm, continued the business under the firm name of H. R.
Goodday & Co. In 1899 he entered into partnership with H. C. Foy,
who is a son of the head of the well known firm of Foy, Morgan &
Co., of London, England, under the style of H. R. Goodday & Co. The
specialty of this firm is spruce deals, getting its supplies from
Canadian forests. It also handles hardwoods and other lumber. Its
trade is principally in the United Kingdom and the chief centers of
business on the Continent. Foy, Morgan & Co., London, England, are
the firm’s agents in London and on the Continent. -
J. BELL FORSYTH.
J. Bell Forsyth is
a name well known in Canada from the publication for so many years
of the annual statistics of the timber and lumber trade of Quebec by
the late firm of J. Bell Forsyth & Co., who were for many years
engaged in the commission business in lumber. The annual statement
is still continued under the old name, but Mr. Forsyth is now the
collector of customs for the port.
About half way
between Quebec and Montreal, at Three Rivers, are the well known
mills of Alexander Baptist, who, on account of the extensive limits
he has owned, has been styled the “ Lumber King of the St. Maurice.”
His father was one of the pioneers of the trade. His usual cut is
about 300,000 logs per season of pine and spruce, most of the
product reaching the English market.
Thomas Malone, of
Three Rivers, Quebec, has been prominent for over a quarter of a
century in the lumber trade of Quebec Province, though his
operations have extended over a much wider field. Born in Quebec
City in 1856, he began active operations, before reaching his
majority, as a shipper of deals to the British market. Under his
energetic management the business rapidly developed until he handled
a large proportion of the output of the Ottawa Valley going to
Quebec. Between the years 1876 and 1880 he operated in Michigan and
Wisconsin, shipping direct to Britain. In 1884 he removed from
Quebec to Three Rivers, in the neighborhood of which place he owns
extensive limits in addition to conducting a lumber agency. Mr.
Malone has bought and sold timber limits on a large scale, and has
done much to develop the trade of Three Rivers.
THE WARREN CURTIS
At Three Rivers is
also the Warren Curtis mill, which has a capacity of 100,000 feet
per day of ten hours. The logs are principally spruce, and number
about 200,000 per year.
ST. MAURICE LUMBER
One of the leading
institutions of the St. Maurice River district is the St. Maurice
Lumber Company, of Three Rivers. Its ownership is largely American,
and it operates the pulpwood part of its business in connection with
pulp and paper mills at Glens Falls, New York. It owns extensive
limits on the St. Maurice River. A large sawmill at Three Rivers
produces pine and spruce deals for the English market and inch
lumber for the United States, while during the working season about
100,000 feet of spruce timber is cut into pulpwood daily for
shipment by the Richelieu Canal and Lake Champlain for the Glens
On the St. Maurice
River is situated the Laurentide’s pulp mill at Grand Mere,
manufacturing about one hundred tons a day. Three hundred thousand
spruce logs are cut yearly.
LUMBER MILLS COMPANY.
A little higher up
the St. Lawrence than Three Rivers, the river widens out and is
called Lake St. Peter, near the shores of which the Tourville Lumber
Mills Company has three mills—one on the north shore at Louiseville
and two on the south shore at Pierreville and Nicolet. The office of
the company is at Montreal.
THE CHARLEMAGNE &
LAC OUAREAU COMPANY.
The limits of the
Charlemagne & Lac Ouareau Company’s mills are situated in the
counties of Joliette, Montcalm and Berthier, in the Province of
Quebec, and are composed largely of spruce, pine, birch, hemlock and
ash.- The output of the mill is about 30,000,000 feet, the bulk of
which is shipped to Great Britain and the United States. The
principal mill is located at Charlemagne, about twelve miles below
Montreal, at the junction of the L’Assomption, Ottawa and St.
Lawrence rivers. It is operated by steam and has a capacity of about
2,000 logs per day. The president of the company is Robert Reford,
of Montreal, senior member of the firm of Robert Reford & Co.
HON. JAMES LITTLE.
The Hon. James
Little, of Montreal, one of the pioneer lumbermen of Canada, died in
October, 1883, being over eighty years of age, and held in the
highest esteem not only in his own country but in the United States
He was born near
Londonderry, Ireland, emigrating to Canada in 1823, at the age of
nineteen years. He passed through Montreal and went to Niagara,
Ontario, then the wholesale market for that part of Canada. .
Toronto at that time was known as the village of York, and Hamilton
was not in existence. In 1833 Mr. Little married and moved to the
township of Seneca, on the Grand River, Ontario. The place where he
settled is now the town of Caledonia, which is surrounded by a
country that is cleared and settled, but at the time of his first
residence there the entire section was an unbroken forest
wilderness, the home of the Indians.
Upon the building
of the first dam in the river, Mr. Little began a lumber
manufacturing business, which he carried on upon a large scale for
over a quarter of a century. His operations extended over almost the
entire peninsula between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and at one time
numbered twelve different concerns. Later he operated in the
counties of Brant, Wentworth, Norfolk and Elgin, and in the Georgian
Bay district, Ontario, and finally in the St. Maurice River
district, Quebec, after 1873 making Montreal his home. He was among
the first to send lumber to the United States, Albany being his
Mr. Little was a
public spirited and farseeing man, being often in advance of his
fellows. This frequently caused opposition to his views, but he
continued to fight for them until his object was gained. This was
especially true of his labors in the interest of forestry. Seeing
the rapidity with which commercial woods were being cut away with
but small return to the country for their loss, and having a
thorough knowledge of the subject, he became an earnest and
persistent writer on the subject of forest protection at a time when
the popular belief was that there was no need of any such
protection. His efforts were at last rewarded. The American Forestry
Congress, in recognition of his services, accorded him a vote of
thanks; the first forestry association of Canada, that of Ontario,
made him its honorary president, and the Government showed its
recognition by establishing “Arbor Day.” The United States, as well
as his own country, honored James Little for his valuable work for
Since the death of
James Little his work has been successfully continued by his son,
William Little, of Montreal, who seems to hold by natural heritage
the same views as did his father. Following in his father’s
footsteps, William Little has for many years been a foremost
advocate of forestry preservation, and has devoted much time and
attention to the study of the relations of Canada with the United
j. K. WARD.
A fine type of the
pioneer lumberman is J. K. Ward, of Montreal, Quebec, a Manx by
birth. He migrated to the United States, and leased and operated a
sawmill at Troy, New York. He bought a sawmill and stumpage on
Maskinonge River, in Quebec in 1853, largely increasing his
operations as time went by. In 1863 he located at Three Rivers,
Quebec, and operated a mill, which he subsequently sold to an
American concern. He then leased a larger area of timber land from
the Province of Quebec on the Rouge River, and built an extensive
sawmill on the Lachine Canal. He operated this mill, which had an
annual cut of approximately 15,000,000 feet, until 1900, when he
sold the property to a company headed by his oldest son.
family, of Buckingham, Quebec, noted for its extensive and widely
scattered lumbering interests, traces its connection with the
industry back to the early days of the pioneers of the Ottawa
Valley. David MacLaren, a Scotchman, migrated to Canada in 1824, and
took up land in the township of Torbolton, Carleton County, Ontario.
He was a man of strong, energetic character and earnest religious
convictions. James MacLaren, his eldest son, was six years of age
when the family emigrated. On attaining the age of eighteen he
engaged in lumbering, and in 1842 conducted a general store at Peche
on the Gatineau River, Quebec. He subsequently built a small
sawmill, and in 1853, in partnership with J. M. Currier, leased an
extensive sawmill at the mouth of the Gatineau. He rapidly enlarged
his enterprises and in 1864 purchased mills and timber limits on the
Riviere du Lievre, Quebec. He built an immense sawmill of the modern
type at Buckingham, Quebec, on the Ottawa River, at the mouth of the
Lievre, about fifteen miles below Ottawa, where, for over a quarter
of a century, he engaged in the manufacture of lumber on a large
scale. He subsequently operated on the North Nation River, on the
Upper Ottawa and in Michigan, being at one time the most extensive
operator in America. He died in 1892.
David MacLaren, of
Ottawa, eldest son of James MacLaren, was born in 1848. In 1874 he
became manager of the Gatineau and Ottawa branches of his father’s
business, which at times employed over one thousand men. The
business was subsequently incorporated as the James MacLaren
Company, Limited, David MacLaren becoming one of the directors, a
position he still holds. He is interested in many other large
son of James MacLaren, born in 1870, is president and managing
director of the company, which now operates two extensive sawmills
with planing mills, etc., at Buckingham, having an output of from
25,000,000 to 30,000,000 feet of lumber annually, and employing from
1,200 to 1,500 men in the winter and 400 during the summer months.
The company has 2,600 square miles of timber limits in Quebec
Province, and owns a pulp mill which began operations in 1902 and
produces seventy tons of wood pulp daily.
another son of James MacLaren, bom in 1860, has been an active
participant in the affairs of the James MacLaren Company, but is,
perhaps, more prominently connected with other enterprises. He is
president of the North Pacific Lumber Company, Limited, organized in
1890, with mills at Bamet, British Columbia, having 90,000 acres of
cedar and fir limits. Over 25,000,000 feet of sawn lumber is shipped
annually from this mill, which also manufactures about 30,000,000
shingles a year. Alexander MacLaren is a director of the Keewatin
Power Company, Limited, and is concerned in other industrial
John MacLaren, son
of James MacLaren, died May 29, 1903, at Kamloops, British Columbia,
from injuries sustained by being thrown from a horse. As a young man
he was associated with his father in the lumber business. He spent
several years at New Westminster, British Columbia, and for a time
lived at Windsor, Ontario. He owned a large sawmill at East
Templeton, Quebec. At the time of his death he was about fifty years
EZRA B. EDDY.
Ezra Butler Eddy,
of Ottawa, was bom near Bristol, Vermont, August 22, 1827. He
engaged in the business of match manufacturing in Burlington,
Vermont, in 1851, and three years later established himself at Hull,
Quebec, where he erected extensive mills and workshops. He obtained
large timber limits and began the manufacture of lumber, engaging
also in subsidiary industries, on a large scale, availing himself of
the splendid water power of the Ottawa River. In 1856 he added to
his enterprise the manufacture of woodenware, and in 1892 erected a
paper mill. In the meantime the business had been turned into a
joint stock company under the name of The E. B. Eddy Company, of
which organization Mr. Eddy is president. The establishment is one
of the largest of its kind in the world, the output of the match
daily. The total number of employees is over 2.000. Mr. Eddy has
been mayor of Hull and represented Ottawa County for a term in the
HON. GEORGE BRYSON.
Hon. George Bryson,
who died at Fort Coulonge, January 14, 1900, was one of the pioneer
lumbermen of the Province of Quebec. He was born in Paisley,
Scotland, December 13, 1813, and came to Canada in 1821, when eight
years of age. During the early part of his life he worked on a farm
in the summer and in the winter season he got out cordwood under
contract. He was one of the first to engage in lumbering in his
district, and at twenty-two years of age, in company with his
brother-in-law, the late Hiram Colton, of Litchfield, Pontiac
County, Quebec, he began lumbering operations on the Coulonge River
above Ragged Chute, Quebec. He took many rafts of square timber to
Quebec, and was a well known figure in the commercial as well as the
political life of Canada for more than a half century.
Mr. Bryson was a
promoter of the Pontiac & Pacific Junction railway, a member of the
Upper Ottawa Improvement Company for several years and was one of
the founders and a director of the Bank of Ottawa. The town of
Bryson, formerly known as Havelock, was renamed after the Bryson
family. In politics he was a Liberal, and his parliamentary career
began in 1857, when he was elected to represent Pontiac County in
the old Canadian Assembly. He was called to the Legislative Council
of Quebec in 1867, and occupied a seat there for twenty years, when
he retired in favor of his second son, George Bryson, Junior.
Tach6, Deputy Minister of Lands and Forests, Province of Quebec, is
the eleventh child of Sir E. P. Tach6 and was born at St. Thomas de
Montmagny October 25, 1836. He was educated at the Seminary of
Quebec and at the Upper Canada College, Toronto. He is a civil
engineer and land surveyor for the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario.
In 1862 he received the brevet of captain in the Chasseurs Canadiens,
of Quebec. He was also a member for several years of the Civil
Service Rifle Corps, at Ottawa. On September 20, 1869, Mr. Tache was
appointed Deputy Minister of Crown Lands, for the Province of
Quebec. The department has been known for several years past as that
of Lands, Forests and Fisheries, but quite recently it has assumed
the title of Lands and Forests simply, the other branch having been
added to another department of the government service.
As a land surveyor
Mr. Tach6 has had wide experience, among other important works,
having been engaged in the location of the Ottawa Canal. The maps of
the Province which have been drawn by him are models of exactitude
and clearness. The plans of the legislative buildings and the
courthouse, as well as other notable civic and military edifices in
the City of Quebec, were made by him, and in these he has shown
great taste and originality.
Mr. Tach6 has given
loyal and active service to the Province for thirty-six years. He
has worked conscientiously and assiduously and has shown himself to
be a thorough master of all the intricate details of the most
important department of the government service. He is the author of
the beautiful and patriotic device, “Je me souviens,” which
accompanies the arms of the Province of Quebec. His Majesty, King
Edward, recognizing the official merit of Mr. Tache, has created him
a Companion of the Imperial Service Order.
He has been married
twice—on the first occasion to Olympe Elea-nore, daughter of Louis
Albert Bender, who died in 1878; and subsequently to Maria Clara,
daughter of the Hon. E. L. A. C. J. Duchesnay.