Placer mining on what
may be termed a fairly extensive scale, was first carried on in the
Yukon Territory in what is known as the Fortymile district, in the year
1894. Before this time, however, there had been considerable river-bar
mining on the Lewes and Salmon in 1881 and 1882 and on the Stewart river
in 1885. It was estimated by .Dr. Dawson, on information obtained from
the miners, that $100,000 was obtained from the Stewart river during the
years 1885 and 1886. The principal bars on this river were worked out in
a few years, and in 1887 a discovery of coarse gold was made on
fortymile creek, and most of the miners stampeded to that stream. It has
been estimated that during the years I887 and 1888 between 100 and 350
miners were employed on the Fortymile river. In 1884. however, the two
principal creeks that were being worked in the Fortymile district were
Glacier and Miller, tributaries of the Sixtymile river, a stream
entering the Yukon about sixty miles south of Dawson, and although
considerable mining was carried on upon these two creeks the values
found were not such as to create any general interest.
The great discovery of
gold in what is known as the Klondike district was made on August 10,
1S00, on Bonanza creek, a tributary of the Klondike river about two
miles from its mouth. A stampede followed, and Bonanza creek and its
chief tributaries, as well as Hunker creek, were staked from top to
bottom before the end of the year. The following year discoveries were
made on Dominion, Sulphur and Quartz creeks. These five crocks, with the
addition of Bear creek, which enters the Klondike between Bonanza and
Hunker, and Gold Run, which enters Dominion creek close to the mouth of
Sulphur, are the chief gold-bearing creeks in the Klondike district. It
may be mentioned here, however, that Bonanza creek and its tributary,
Eldorado creek, have proved to be by far the richest creeks in the
One very striking
peculiarity of mining in the Klondike district is the fact that the
ground is frozen to bed-rock, which ranges from 15 to 40 feet in depth.
Owing to this frozen ground miners had to devise new methods of mining.
They derived very little benefit from previous experience in other
mining camps. At first all shafts were sunk to bed-rock by what is known
as ' wood fires.' A lire was built on the ground about six feet long by
four feet in width. I his fire was allowed to burn from eight to ten
hours, and the ground which had thawed under it was then taken out.
Another tire was started in the hole thus excavated, and by this means
they gradually worked their way to bed rock. From two to three feet of
dlirt was taken out with each thaw.
Below Discovery, Sulphur Creek.
The bed-rock is covered
with a layer of gravel, ranging from one to four feet deep. The gravel
and the bed-rock for about two feet in depth below contain gold. The
formation from this pay gravel to the surface varies to a certain extent
on the different creeks, but as a general rule is a composition of
organic matter called ' muck.' A miner, after sinking his shaft to
bed-rock then drifts by the same means along the bedrock from the bottom
of the shaft, and hoists out the gravel and bed-rock containing the
gold. For the first two years of the camp the shaft-sinking and drifting
was done during the winter, the gravel being taken out and put in a heap
by itself. Then in the spring when the water starts to run these Humps
are shovelled into sluice-boxes erected for the purpose, and thus the
gold is separated from the gravel. Though the frozen ground creates much
difficulty in the sinking of shafts, yet at the same time it has this
advantage: when the miner drifts from the bottom of a shaft, it is not
as a general rule necessary for him to timber the drift, as the frozen '
muck ' holds up with perfect safety even where very extensive drifting
is done. The miner is thus saved the very considerable expense of
timbering his drifts.
The values in the bench
gravels were not discovered until the autumn of 1897, and were first
found on the left limit, close to the junction of Eldorado and Bonanza.
These benches have proved to he by far the richest and most extensive in
the territory. The pay extends in an unbroken line from French hill on
the left limit of Eldorado creek, about one and one-half miles from its
mouth) to No. GO below Discovery on Bonanza creek, a distance of about
seven miles. The claims located on this pay-streak were worked in a
large number of cases by tunnelling from the side of the hill until the
bed rock is reached on the level of the pay gravel. In a large number of
cases, however, the original system of sinking shafts was adopted.
The bench pay appears
to have crossed Bonanza at No. 60 below Discovery, and to have continued
down stream on its right limit until reaching1 Lovett gulch, when it
appears to have swerved off eastward from Bonanza creek, and crossed
over a small divide to the Klondike river. A considerable number of good
claims have been found on this pay-streak, but as a general rule have
not proven to be anything as good as the claims on the benches above No.
60 on the left limit. Although a very considerable amount of pay gravel
has been found on the benches on Hunker on both limits in different
localities, there are no very long regular pay-streaks. On Last Chance
creek, however, a tributary of Hunker creek, an excellent pay-streak was
found on the benches on its left limit, running almost the whole length
of the creek.
On the Indian river
side the bench pay has not been so good, although on Dominion creek
there seems to have been considerable bench pay on the left limit
between the Discoveries, and for some distance below lower Discovery.
The mining of bench pay
has been considerably handicapped owing to the difficulty in obtaining
sufficient quantities of water by gravity. In order to obtain water by
gravity at the proper elevation, it had to be taken almost from the
source of all the small creeks in the vicinity of the mines upon which
the supply was to be used. As these crocks are small, the result is that
a sufficient quantity of water can only be available in the spring of
the year for a very short period, the rains of the summer being of very
little value in this regard.
In 1901 a number of
miners tried the experiment of pumping water from the creeks to the
benches, but operating expenses, chiefly the cost of fuel, was found to
be so great that in nearly every Ease the experiment was a failure. It
was eventually found that the cheapest method of working the benches was
by hydraulicking, even wire the quantity of water was limited.
The great rush to the
Klondike started in the spring of 1897. The larger portion of this rush,
however, did not arrive in Dawson until the spring of 1898. It was
estimated that at one time during the summer of 1898 25,000 people lived
in and about the city of Dawson. A large portion of this number,
however, stayed in the territory for a very short period.
The following winter
was noted for the large number of stampedes that took place. As the
people who arrived in the territory in the spring of the previous year
had no mining property, they took every opportunity available to stake
claims. The result was that when the slightest rumour got abroad that a
discovery of gold had been made on a new creek, these people would
immediately start out for the scene of the new strike, or where the
discovery was supposed to have been made, in order to stake. Every
stampede was a race, the first arriving at the crock having the best
opportunity to obtain valuable property. Almost every creek within 100
miles of Dawson, either on the Yukon river or on the Klondike river, was
staked from end to end during that winter.
however, did not result in any find of great importance. All these
creeks were prospected more or less, and although on nearly every creek
' colourswere found, there was not sufficient value discovered in any
case to warrant working the properties by the methods in use at that
Improved Methods of
Owing to the many
improvements made in the methods of mining' the whole system has totally
changed from what it was in the, years 1897 and 1898. In the winter of
1898-1899 it was discovered that by using steam the frozen gravel could
be thawed at a rate of from eight to ten feet a day—a great improvement
on the old system whereby the thaw was only from two to three feet a
day. The steam is forced into the frozen ground by what are known as
steam points. A steam point is an iron pipe of about 5feet in length,
connected to a cross-head by means of a small rubber steam hose; the
cross-head is connected to the main pipe, which is connected to a boiler
supplying the steam. As a general rule the miner drives the steam pipe
into the ground, where it is left for a short time until a hole is
thawed. The pipes are then replaced by ordinary gas pipes, as it is
found that the gas pipes allow more steam to be forced into the ground.
These pipes are called locally 1 sweaters.' In very dry gravels the
holes are made with a mixture of hot water and steam, taken from the
blow-off of the boilers; in loose gravels the steam alone is used.
Another economical method used for thawing gravels in drifting
operations is what is called the hot water method. This is especially
used where the gravels are hard. A description of the method is as
A sump-hole is made at
the bottom of the shaft, and a small duplex pump is set up, to which is
attached a small firehose with a two-inch discharge, and as the water is
pumped against the face of the drift it is returned to the sump-hole,
leaving the gravels thawed on the drift. This water is pumped over and
over again on the face of the drift.
On all claims where the
depth of bed-rock is less than fifteen feet it has been found that tho
ground can be operated more economically by what is known as the
This method has been
used very largely on Bonanza and Eldorado creeks. At first the surface
of the ground is removed by what is termed ground sluicing,' the water
from the stream
is diverted into small
ditches, and men with picks and shovels remove the material into running
water, which is carried away. By this means all the muck or surface
material is gradually carried away until nothing i.-, left hut the
gravel containing the gold. The sluice-boxes are then set up, and the
gold-bearing gravel is shoveiled in.
The mining methods to
which reference has been made are the chief methods whereby placer
mining is carried on in the territory under the term of ordinary placer
GRAVELS OF THE KLONDIKE
A section across the
valley of any of the gold-bearing streams entering the Klondike shows a
comparatively narrow trough-like depression below, from 150 to 300 feet
deep, bordered on one or both sides by wide benches beyond which the
surface rises in easy, fairly regular slopes up to the crests of the
intervening ridges. The benches represent fragments of older
valley-bottoms partially destroyed by the excavation of the present
valleys. .Narrow, rock-cut terraces occur at intervals between the-
level of the old valley-bottoms and the present level.
occur on the present valley-bottoms on the portions of the old
valley-bottoms still remaining, and on the rock terraces cut into the
slopes connecting them. They may be classified as follows, beginning
with the youngest:—
' Low-level gravels -
' Gulch gravels, creek gravels, river gravels.
' Gravels at intermediate intervals—
' Terrace gravels.
' High-level gravels —
' River gravels.
While channel gravels:
'White gravels, yellow gravels.'
'The low-level creek
gravels are the most important gravels in the district. These gravels
floor the bottoms of all the valleys to a depth of from four to ten
feet. They rest on bedrock usually consisting of decomposed and broken
schists, and are overlaid by a sheet of black frozen muck ranging in
thickness from two to thirty feet or more. They are local in origin, and
consist entirely of the schists and oilier rocks outcropping along the
valleys. The schists pebbles are usually flat, round-edged discs
measuring one to two inches in thickness and two to six inches in
length. They constitute the greater part of the deposit, but are
associated with a varying proportion of rounded and subangular quartz
pebbles and boulders, and, less frequently, with pebbles derived from
the later eruptive rocks of the region. The pebbles are loosely
stratified, are usually embedded in a matrix of coarse reddish sand, and
alternate in nlaces with thin beds of sand and muck.
"The creek gravels
frequently inclose leaves, roots and other vegetable remains, and also
the bones of various extinct and still existing northern animals, such
as the mammoth, the buffalo, the bear, the musk-ox and the mountain
sheep and goat.
'The gulch gravels
occupy the upper portions of the main creek valleys and small tributary
valleys. They differ from the creek gravels in being coarser and more
angular. A considerable proportion of their material consists of almost
unworn fragments of schist washed down from the adjacent slopes. They
contain the same vegetable and animal remains as the creek valleys.
"The only river gravels
of the district proven, so far, to contain gold in paying quantities
occur in the wide flats bordering the lower portion of the Klondike
river below the mouth of Hunker valley. The river gravels consist of
quart-zite, slate, chert, granite and diabase pebbles largely derived
from the western slopes of the Ogilvie range. They are harder and better
rounded than tho creek gravels -a necessary result of the greater
'Rock terraces occur at
various points cut into the deep slopes of the present valleys. They
were produced during the deepening of the valleys, and are -imply
remnants of former valley-bottoms. They are small, seldom exceeding a
few yards in width and a few hundred yards in length, irregular in
distribution, and occur at all elevations up lo the bottoms of the old
valleys. The terraces support beds of gravel, usually from six to
fifteen feet in thickness, very similar to that in the creek bottoms,
but showing somewhat more wear. The terrace gravels, like the creek
gravels, are overlaid, as a rule, with
muck, and at one point
on Hunker creek were found buried beneath 100 feet of this material. '
High Level Gravels
'High-level gravels are
extensively distributed along Bonanza and Hunker creeks and some of
their tributaries, and also occur on Eldorado, Bar, Quartz, Nine Mile
and All Cold creeks. They consist principally of ancient creek deposits,
overlaid near the mouths of some of the valleys by gravels laid down by
the Klondike river, when it ran at a much higher level than at present
and occupied a somewhat wider valley.
'These gravels occur at
various points along the Klondike river. In the Klondike district they
are found covering the small plateaux in which the ridges separating
Bonanza and Hunker creeks from the Klondike river terminate. The\ rest
in both places on high-level creek gravels at an elevation of about 450
feet above the present valley-bottoms. They have a thickness of from 150
to 175 feet, and consist principally of well-rolled pebbles, of
quartzite, slate, chert, granite, diabase and conglomerate embedded in a
matrix of gray -and, and derived, like those in the present stream, from
the western part of the Ogilvie range. The high-level river gravels are
reported to contain gold in paying quantities at Beklen's farm, a name
given to a portion of the bench on the right limit of the Klondike, two
miles above its month, but are generally of little economic importance.'
'The high-level creek
gravels consist principally of the important deposit known as the quartz
drift white wash of white channel gravels. The latter name is now
generally used by the miners, and is adopted in this report.
'The white channel
gravels are ancient creek deposits laid down in the wide, flat-bottomed
valleys which characterized the region previous to the last general
upraise. After their deposition, the country was elevated 000 to 700
feet, and the increased grades acquire! by the streams enabled them to
cut down through their old gravel beds into the bed-rock beneath, and to
excavate the steep-sided trough-like valley in which they now run. The
old gravels now occur on wide benches bordering the present valleys at
elevations of from 150 to 1500 feet above them, the elevation generally
increasing down stream. Their distribution along the valleys is
irregular, as a large portion of the deposit was destroyed during the
deepening of the main valleys and the tributary valleys and gulches.
'The general character
of the white channel gravels is remarkably similar in the various
Klondike creeks, but differs considerably from the ordinary type of
stream deposits in other regions. They consist of a compact matrix of
small, clear, little-worn and often sharply angular grains of quartz and
scales of sericite thickly packed with rounded quartz pebbles and
rounded and subangular and wedge-shaped quartz boulders often two to
three feet in diameter. Flat and subangular pebbles of sericite schist,
the principal rock of the district, are also present, but in much
smaller numbers than the quartz constituents. The schist pebbles are
usually decomposed and crumble rapidly when thawed out. The deposit is
always stratified, but, except in rare instances, there has been no
sorting of the various constituents into separate beds, and the
composition is very uniform throughout. The colour is characteristically
white or light gray, due to the preponderance of tho quartz constituents
and the leaching out of the greater part of the iron. The colour is
darker and the sands are noticeably coarser towards the limit of the
deposit on the upper part of the creeks.
'The white channel
gravels vary in thickness from a few feet to 150 feet, and in width from
100 feet to half a mile or more. The deposit increases in volume
descending the stream, and attains its greatest development near their
'The white compact
gravel deposit described above is overlaid in places by loosely
stratified gravels known as the yellow gravels. The latter are of a
rusty colour, are more distinctly stratified than the white gravels, and
consist mainly of flat schist pebbles lying loosely in a coarse sandy
matrix. Quartz pebbles and boulders are also present, but are much less
abundant than in the white gravels.
These upper gravels are
not so widely distributed as the white gravels, but are present on
several of the Bonanza hills and at points along Hunker creek. At Gold
hill, on Bonanza creek, the white gravels occur as a buried ridge
bordering the present valley, and the depression between them and the
southern slope of the old valley is filled with yellow gravels to a
depth of 115 feet. The same relationship between the two deposits
obtains at Adams hill, and probably at other places,
but it only
determinable where shifts have been sunk to bedrock across lhe whole
width of the old valley.
'Unlike the creek
gravels, the white channel gravels are destitute, or nearly so, of
vegetable or animal remains. None were found by the writer, and the few
reported discoveries of fragments of wood and bone by miners are all
open to question.
'On Dominion creek and
its tributaries, Sulphur and Gold Run creeks, white gravels, almost
identical in character with the high-level white channel gravels of
Bonanza and Hunker creeks, occur in the bottoms of the valleys
underlying the present stream gravels. Their low position is due to the
fact that the present valley of Dominion creek corresponds, not to the
present valley of Bonanza and Hunker creeks, but to the old valleys cut
through by them.' (McConnell.)
During the summer of
1900 it was reported that gold was contained in the pebbles and boulders
of the white channel, which by process of crushing and amalgamation it
was considered would yield a profit. The Territorial Government promptly
arranged to have a test made by the cyanide process. Eighteen and
one-half tons of quartz boulders, which had been washed from the white
channel by the hydraulic process, and nine and one-half tons of virgin
ground from different parts of the white channel on Bonanza and Last
Chance creeks, were tested under the superintendence of the government
mining engineer in Dawson. The virgin gravels were an average sample of
the deposit from top to bottom, and the values given include the placer
gold, which can be recovered by washing, the gold which is lost by
washing and recovered by amalgamation and the gold in the quartz which
cannot be recovered other than by amalgamation. The proportion of quartz
boulders to fine material in a cubic yard of virgin gravel, was one of
boulders to three of line material. The value of gold recovered by stamp
battery amalgamation was as follows:—
'Average value of
quartz per ton.............. 32c.
Average value of virgin ground per cubic yard...... 54c.
The tailings in the
test did not exceed 20 cents per ton in gold. The cyanide test was,
therefore, omitted, as the samples did not contain sufficient values to
warrant further treatment by that process. The basis upon which a cubic
yard of gravel was calculated was 3,000 pounds.
The volume of the white
channel deposit, which is situated on narrow benches and at an elevation
eminently suitable for hydraulic mining, has been estimated by McConnell
at about 250.000,000 cubic yards on Bonanza and its tributaries,
200,000,000 cubic yards on Hunker and it- tributaries, 115,000,000 cubic
yards on a low bench on Quartz and a smallest quantity on Bear creek.
All the old creeks to
which reference lias been made, viz.: Bonanza, Eldorado, Hunker, Bear,
Dominion, Gold Bun and Sulphur, have been fairly thoroughly worked out,
as far as ordinary placer mining methods are concerned. Some of the
richer claims on Eldorado have been worked over three times; and it is
the general opinion that the only method of again working these creeks
at a profit is by means of dredging. I3nicer mining has now reached a
stage where work must be carried on upon a large scale to make it
profitable. Mining by the ordinary placer mining methods is about over,
and in the near future all creeks will be worked by dredges where the
conditions are at all favourable to that system of mining.
As to the benches, it
will be necessary to obtain a greater and more constant supply of water
than has heretofore been available.
A large number of creek
and bench claims on Bonanza and Eldorado creeks have been purchased by
the Yukon Consolidated Gold Fields Company. This company, together with
the Northwest Hydraulic Mining Company, are making gigantic preparations
to mine on a larger scale by the dredging and hydraulic process the
creek and bench claims on Bonanza and Eldorado.
Next to the Klondike
district in importance as a gold-bearing district is the Stewart river.
The tributaries of this stream, near its mouth, were! all staked in
1898, but none of them proved to be what is termed ' paving
propositions.' In BOO a stampede took place to Clear creek, a tributary
of the Stewart about 90 miles from its mouth. On this stream several
claims were found to be of considerable value, and mining has been
carried on upon several claims on this creek up to the present time.
Duncan creek was staked in 1901-1902. This creek is a tributary of the
Mayo river, which enters the Slew-art river at about 175 miles from its
mouth. Claims of greater value were found on this stream than on the
Stew-are river, but the miners on Duncan have had considerable
difficulty in working certain portions of the creek where the bed-rock
is very deep (over 100 feet) owing to their shafts being flooded by
water when they have sunk to a depth of about 70 feet. This difficulty
has, so far, prevented all the owners from getting to bed-rock. From
prospects, however, that they have found on the rims of some of these
claims there is a general opinion that once they succeed in controlling
the water by pumps of sufficient capacity they will obtain good results
when they reach bed-rock. This creek, a tributary of Mayo, was staked in
1903, and has been worked up to the present time. This creek, although
small, has been a very good producer.
In the season of 1898,
during the great rush to the Klondike, a large number of the streams
flowing into Teslin lake and the upper tributaries of the Yukon river
were staked by the people who were on their way to the Klondike. The
only ease, however, where any of these streams amounted to anything for
mining purposes was the tributaries of what is known as the Big Salmon
river. The names of the tributaries of this creek that were staked are
Livingstone, Cotton Eva, Salmon and Lake creeks. These creeks have Leon
worked continuously since 1S90, and they have produced altogether about
$75,000 a year. They will probably continue to produce this amount for
some time. One feature of these creeks is the difficulty the miners have
owing to the large boulders they find on bed-rock.
In 1900 a discovery of
gold was made in what is known as the Kluane district. This district
lies about 150 miles in a westerly direction from the town of
Whitehorse. It is a very large district and a great number of creeks
were staked. The principal creeks, however, upon which gold in
sufficient quantity to work profitably has been found, are Fourth, of
July, Burwash, Feid, Bullion and Arch. On nearly all the creeks in this
district there is practically no soil on the surface, which is simply
waste gravel from rim to rim, with an occasional patch of clay or sand.
Since 1903 mining has been carried on upon these creeks continually, but
not to a very great extent, as the creeks have not proven to be of much
more value than what is termed a 'wage proposition.' The output so far
has been about $25,000 a year.
Quartz claims of value
were first found within what is known as the "Windy Arm district in
1904. The development of the Windy Arm properties shows a sufficient
quantity of ore of working value to assure a permanent camp in this
district. The showing of these properties has stimulated prospecting in
the Hut horn portion of the territory, and reports of new finds recently
made are numerous. There is a very large expanse of country that has
never been prospected, and there is every indication of discoveries
being made that will make camps similar to that of the Windy Arm
The following is an
outline of the development work which has been done on some of the
principal quartz properties in the Windy Arm district:—
An adit from the
surface has been extended on the vein for a distance of 625 feet. From
this work three winze- have been sunk 30 feet each. Two upraises have
been made to the surface, also on vein: one 130 feet and the other 80
feet. A fourth winze has been sunk, which is really an extension of the
100-foot raise. This has been sunk 200 feet below the tunnel level, and
at the 300-foot point drifts were turned north and south.
The approximate value
of work done on this claim is about $24,000. Eighty-five tons of ore
were shipped to the smelt* at Tacoma, Washington, and tin; return shows
an average value of $100 per ton.
An aerial Riblett tram
has been built from the company's dock to the Montana group, a distance
of about four miles, at a cost of $00,000. On this group there are also
a gasoline hoist, 50 horse-power engine for air compressor, 50
horsepower air compressor and three Sullivan air drills.
This claim is also on
the Montana vein. Cross-cuts have been made, of 00 feet and 2S5 feet,
and an upraise of 90 feet and 205 feet of drifting. The total
development work on this claim amounts to about $11,000.
Uranus No. 1
A cross-cut has been
run 265 feet. On the vein there are five tunnels of from 15 to 220 foot,
and one shaft on vein 50 feet. A great deal of open-cutting and
stripping has been done, leaving the vein exposed for nearly 600 feet.
The approximate value of development work so far is about $10,000.
A shaft has been sunk
53 feet, from the bottom of which a drift has been run on the vein 50
feet east and 75 feet west. Three hundred feet east of this point a
cross-cut is run 10 feet, cutting the vein, and a drift extended east
011 the vein 40 feet and north 110 feet. Five or six open-cuts have been
dug exposing the vein for about 150 feet.
Three tons of ore were
shipped last year to the smelter at Tacoma, Washington, and the return
showed an average of $208 per ton.
M & N
A tunnel has been
driven on the vein for at least 0(1 feet, from which an upraise was
driven to surface, 55 feet. Two tons m. ore were shipped last year to
the smelter at Taeonia, and returns showed an average of $124 per ton.
Venus No. 1.
A shaft has been sunk
50 feet, and from the bottom of this a drift has been run 00 feet to the
north and another the same distance to the south.
Venus No. 2.
A cross-cut, cutting
the vein, has been run 120 feet, from which a drift was run north 95
feet and another south 130 feet; 168 feet lower down the mountain side a
second crosscut was driven 500 feet, at which point the vein was cut.
The cross cut has been extended 08 feet past the vein; a drift north on
the vein 210 feet and south for 240 feet. There is an upraise to connect
with first cross-cut, now 180 feet.
There is already a dump
of about 50 tons of ore, and from assays it is expected to average $70
net per ton. The; approximate value of the work will be about $30,000.
One tunnel has been
driven on the vein 205 feet and crosscut at a point 120 feet. Another
tunnel is now being driven on the vein and is now 142 feet long.
One hundred and
eighty-two tons of ore have been shipped from 'Venus' No. 2, the ore
averaging $53 a ton; and 34 toils from the 'Vault' which averaged $55
At the 'Vault' mine
there is an auxiliary tram about 2,000 feet long, with one 6 horse-power
gasoline engine for operating. There is also an aerial Riblett tram now
under construction, 4,800 feet long, which will cost complete, $12,000;
also gasoline engine with fan, &c., for ventilating.
At the 'Venus' there is
an aerial two-bucket Riblett tram, about 1,800 feet long. There are also
one 50 horse-power gasoline engine for compressor, one 50 horse-power
Leyner air compressor and five Sullivan air drills with full equipment.
Also 1,500 feet of hydraulic pipe and Pelton wheel to operate air
compressor; and gasoline ventilator engine, with fan, pipe, &c.; the
equipment at this mine costing in the neighbourhood of $20,000.
Hamper No. 1, Hamper No.
2, and Red Deer.
On these mines a shaft
has been sunk 20 feet deep, and a drift run about 200 feet on the vein,
and about 100 feet of stripping.
Twenty-five tons of ore
were shipped from these mines to the smelter at Tacoma, and it is
reported that exceptionally high values were obtained.
There is one shaft
about 40 feet deep, and a drift of about, 70 feet. Another shaft of 30
feet and drift of about 20 feet. There is a cross-cut of 25 feet and 40
feet of a drift on the vein. In this there is a winze of about 25 feet.
A cross-cut is now being driven to tap a vein 50 feet below bottom of
winze, now 25 feet.
Between S and 10 tons
of ore were shipped from Venus Extension, and exceptionally high values
On this claim there is
a tunnel of about 90 feet on the vein, and from this a winze of about 8O
feet, and a drift of 110 feet on the vein. This claim forms part of what
is known as the 'Big Thing Group.' There have been considerable
open-cutting and stripping as well as tunnelling on the other claims of
Fifty tons of ore were
shipped to Tacoma, and the return showed an average of $47 per ton.
One open-cut 25 feet
and about 75 feet of stripping. Al>o one open-cut of 00 feet exposing
Thistle. One shaft
about 50 feet deep.
Aurora.- One tunnel about 60 feet long.
Columbian.—One tunnel about 40 feet long.
There are about five
tons of ore on a dump, which will average about $90 per ton.
Conrad Mountain Group.
One tunnel 127 feet
One tunnel 00 feet long.
Ono tunnel 12 feet long.
One tunnel 10 feet long.
About 50 or 60 feet of
So far there have been
no shipments of ore from this group.
A group of claims have
also been staked on the east shore
of Lake Marsh. Sumo of
the ore on this group is reported to be worth $100 per ton.
A group of quartz
claims have also been staked on the right limit of Lake Laberge.
A group of claims have
also been staked 12 miles southeast of Whitehorse. On this group is a
shaft 8O feet deep, with 25 feet cross-cut. The ore assays $4 to $20 per
Up to the present time
there have been 1,000 quartz claims located in the Whitehorse and Windy
Though upwards of live
hundred quartz claims have been recorded in the northern end of the
territory, particularly in the Klondike district, and large sums have
been expended in development work on the different groups of quartz
properties by companies and private individuals, as well as aid given by
the Territorial Government, yet the results have been somewhat
disappointing, and quartz mining has not been carried on with so much
enthusiasm during the past year. Practical quartz miners, however, have
much faith in the future of the KIondike district, and believe
that further development work will reveal abundance of the hidden
Prominent among the
quartz properties in the northern part of the territory, are the Violet
Ledge group and the Lepine group, upon which considerable development
work has been clone. On the left limit of the Yukon river opposite
Dawson the Nortli American Transportation and Trading Company have done
considerable work on their quartz properties, a tunnel having been
driven from the edge of the river into the rock for a distance of 50
feet. There are indications of a good body of ore, but values so far
obtained are not such as would warrant treatment in Dawson. Were this
ore within reasonable distance of a smelter, the mines would be valuable
at the present time. Considerable ore has been taken out and shipped by
the; company, the cost of sending rock from Dawson to Seattle being not
less than $40 per ton plus smelter charges.
The company propose to
develop the mines on a much larger scale in the near future.
The Yukon Milling and
Dredging Company, with a capitalization of $350,000, will erect in
Dawson this year a stamp-mill which has a capacity of 200 tons a day.
This company will employ between 30 and 40 men, and expect that the mill
will ho continually employed crushing ore from the properties
surrounding Dawson. In order to aid and encourage the development of
quartz, the mill, which will be erected within the city limits, has been
exempted from taxation for a period of five years.
Mining by means of a
dredge is considered as mining on a large scale, and outside the pale of
ordinary placer mining. Quito a large; number of leases have been issued
for the dredging of submerged beds and bars of rivers in the Yukon, but
very few dredges have been operated in the rivers. In 1000 a dredge was
brought into the Yukon Territory, and used during that summer and the
following summer on what is known as Cassiar bar, a bar on the Yukon
river some distance above Selkirk. This dredge was not a success on
Cassiar bar, and the following year it was taken to pieces and brought
to Bonanza creek, where it was operated on Discovery and the adjoining
claims both up and down stream. Though this was not considered a modern
dredge, yet its operation on Bonanza was successful, and demonstrated
the possibility of low-grade ground being worked at a profit that could
not otherwise be worked.
In the summer of 1905
the Canadian Klondike Mining Company, Limited, installed a large dredge
on the Boyle Hydraulic concession, at the mouth of Bear creek. The
approximate cost of this dredge, including the power plant, was
$300,000. ' The dredge is second in size only to the mammoth
machine at Oroville,
California, which handles more than 3,000 cubic yards of earth daily.
This one is expected under the less favourable conditions presented by
the frozen gravel of the Klondike to handle, in twenty four hours, 2,000
cubic yards, digging 35 feet below the water surface, and throwing the
tailings 22 feet high and back 60 feet. Each of the 95 buckets weighs
1,700 pounds; and the grizzly, 27,500 pounds: and the spud, which
steadies the barge from the stern, 10 tons; while many other pieces
weigh from 6 to 8 tons each. The hull of the barge measures 100 by 63
feet. The electric power is generated by three 150 horse-power boilers
and a 600 horsepower Westinghonso-Parsons turbine engine. Last year this
dredge was operated 170 days. In California, where dredging operations
are carried on, a dredge can be operated 305 days in the year. The fact
that a dredge cannot be operated in the Klondike during the winter might
be looked upon as a great disadvantage, but the conditions are more than
sufficient to offset the short season. Owing to the continual daylight
in the Yukon during the summer season, a dredge can be operated the
whole twenty-four hours, or in other words from the beginning to the end
of the summer without stopping. In the second place- and which is
probably the most important to the investor- - the values in the Yukon
gravels are very much higher than anything to be found in the auriferous
deposits of California, where this class of mining is carried on. In the
Yukon, during the winter season, wood is cut and placed convenient to
the dredge, the prospecting drill is used to locate the areas carrying
high values, and other preparations are made for the golden harvest in
the summer. In fact the prospecting drill can be used to best advantage
during the winter season. The dredge belonging to the Canadian Klondike
Mining Company has now been operating for two summers, and the best
indication of the result of its operations is the fact that two other
dredges of a similar capacity have been ordered by this company, which
expects to have them in operation during the summer of 1908.
In the summer of 1905 a
dredge was constructed at the mouth of the Klondike river by the Bonanza
Basin Gold Dredging Company, and earlh in the summer of 1900 was moved
on to a group of river claims owned by this company on the flat at the
mouth of the river. This dredge has a practical capacity of 750 cubic
yards per twenty-four hours, the size of the buckets is 6 cubic feet,
and 150 horse-power is required for operation. The cost of installation
was $154,000. During the summer of 1906 this dredge worked at a
disadvantage owing to the ladder being too long for the depth of the
ground, and the quantity of dirt handled would have been greater had the
ladder been the proper length. The motive power on this dredge was
steam, but this year (1907) it is understood that arrangements have been
made to substitute electricity for steam. It is also reported that the
company proposes to install another dredge on the property this year.
As a result of the
success of these dredges many parties have been formed amongst the
people of the Klondike district for the purpose of restaking the old
creeks that had been staked in 1898 and 1899, but were abandoned because
they could not be worked under the old methods. These parties go out and
stake large blocks of claims adjoining one another on a creek, with a
view either of forming a company for the purpose of purchasing a dredge
to work their property, or to sell to any person who may be desirous of
obtaining the ground for dredging. Nearly all the creeks formerly staked
and abandoned have recently been restaking these parties, but nothing
further has as yet been done. Whether any of these creeks will prow to
be of sufficient value to be worked by a dredge is extremely
problematical, and depends largely on the depth and quality of the
bed-rock, the most favourable ground for dredging being a shallow soft
bed-rock. Leases, which have
Bonanza Dam, Yukon Consolidated Gold Fields.
beenissued for the
dredging of the submerged beds and bars of rivers, did not provide for
actual representation work, but for the installation of a dredge within
a certain period and the payment of an annual rental. Ground, however,
which has been staked as placer claims and upon which dredges are
operating must be worked under the terms of the Yukon Placer Mining Vet,
and conditions as to representation and renewal of all such claims are
similar to the conditions under which the individual miner operates.
The Yukon Consolidated
Gold Fields Company have just completed the construction of three
dredges near the mouth of Bonanza creek, for the purpose of working the
creek claims the company have acquired in this vicinity. The company
have also acquired water rights from the Twelvemile river, a small
stream entering the Yukon about 18 miles below Dawson, and upon a
tributary of this stream tie} have installed an electric plant for the
purpose of supplying power to their dredges. The water to supply the
power plant is taken from the Little Twelvemile river at a point about
44 miles from its mouth. The water conduits consist of 1½ miles of ditch
and the remainder of Hume, having a capacity of 2,300 inches. The water
will have a direct pressure of 674 feet on the wheels, which will
generate 1,050 horse-power. The pipe conducting the water from the
penstock to the wheels 30 inches in diameter, and imbedded in a trench
on the hillside.
The transmission line
from the station to a point on Bonanza crook at 79 miles below Discovery
is 30 miles in length and carries a tension of 33,000 volts. It is
estimated that electricity will be delivered on Bonanza creek with
ninety percent efficiency. At 70 below Discovery on Bonanza is situated
a substation, controlling the electrical energy to be used on Bonanza
creek. The cost of the power plant is reported to be in the
neighbourhood of $200,000.
In the Fortymile
district the Yukon Gold Dredging Company of Alaska have one dredge in
operation, and contemplate building another dredge this summer.
The North American
Transportation and Trading Company also propose to build a dredge to
work the creek claims within their concession on Wilier creek.
Writing of the
possibilities for dredging in the Yukon Territory, Mr. J. Moore Elmer, a
member of the American restitute of Mining Engineers, says:—
"As a result of six
years' experience, operating a three-foot, Hisdon dredge in the Klondike
district, and by careful observation during that period of the
auriferous deposits of the country, and the climatic and other
conditions peculiar to it, 1 am convinced that the vast Yukon basin from
the Rocky mountains to the Bearing sea contains immense areas in which
this form of mining can be profitably carried on ....
'There are countless
thousands of acres in the Yukon basin that are suitable for dredging,
and that would pay handsome returns on the investment if judiciously
made. The country is capable of thorough investigation, and it is the
thorough and intelligent investigator that the country needs. When the
true conditions become generally known, by reason of such investigation,
I believe I am not. too optimistic in predicting that the number of
dredges in operation in the Yukon will be limited, for a number of
years, only by the capacity of the manufacturers to fill orders.
'In order to succeed
with a dredge in the Yukon the first desideratum is careful selection of
the ground as to its suitability for the purpose; then, given a dredge
properly constructed to meet the conditions under which it is to be
operated, and intelligently managed, the Yukon presents an almost
limitless field for the profitable investment of capital in mining gold
by the dredge process
liver since the
discovery of the Klondike gold-fields there has boon, during a certain
period of the summer season, a scarcity of water, which has affected the
mining industry to a much greater extent as the richer crook claims of
the district were worked out and miners turned their attention to the
level gravels. On No. 6
and 7 below Discovery on Bonanza creek an expensive pumping plant was
erected at a cost of $120,100. This plant lifted the water from Bonanza
creek and delivered it under the high pressure required for hydraulic
mining on the face of the auriferous gravels on Cheechaco Hill. The
expenditure incurred by such a task was very great. After several
operators had tried and failed in the experiment of pumping water from
the crooks to the benches, on account of the heavy operating expenses,
it was eventually found that the only practical method of working the
bench gravels was by a system of gravity water. About this time several
large mining operators on Bonanza began to realize that an immense
quantity of water flowing into the gulches and mountain streams in the
vicinity of the mines during the spring thaw might be profitably
utilized for hydraulic purposes, if largo reservoirs were constructed to
retain and conserve the water, which could be used during the dry season
for mining operations. In 1905 the Dominion Government sent an engineer
to investigate and report on the feasibility of a water scheme from the
headwaters of the Klondike. The construction of impounding dams,
however, at different point- on Bonanza creek, the granting of water
rights from gulches and other mountain streams to corporations which are
making gigantic preparations to mine the high-level gravels in the
district on an extensive scale, and the acquisition by these
corporations of large numbers of claims on Bonanza and Hunker creeks and
their tributaries, have obviated the necessity of subsidizing or
undertaking as a public utility the construction of a large water scheme
for the Klondike district.
On Bonanza creek then
have been constructed three impounding dams, one of which will be
completed this summer on No. 57 above Discovery, and has a capacity for
354,066,000 gallons of water. This dam was constructed by the Yukon
Consolidated Gold Fields Company. The source of supply is the seepage
-water of Bonanza creek above the point of construction, and embraces an
accumulating area of 35 square miles. The water will be taken from the
dam and conducted by means of two ditches, each ditch having a capacity
of 1.000 inches, to the hills and benches below Gold hill, to Gold hill
and the hills and benches above Grand Forks. The water is under a
sufficient pressure for hydraulic purposes on all the bills and benches.
As Gold hill is on the opposite side of the stream along which the water
is to be conducted, the valley is crossed by means of an inverted syphon.
This syphon has a capacity of 1,000 inches. It is 20, 22 and 24 inches
in diameter, and the water delivered on the rim of Gold hill has a
pressure of 150 feet. Two monitors, 3 and 4 inch, are directly connected
with the syphon. The cost of the construction of this dam was between
$250,000 and $300,000.
The next impounding dam
of importance is situated on Adams creek, about three and a half miles
above its mouth. This dam was built by the lessees of the Matson and
Doyle Concession, and has a capacity of fifty-eight million gallons. The
area within which this water is accumulated is between six and eight
square miles. The water from the dam is conducted along the left limit
of Adams creek, and used under a pressure of 175 feet on the hills and
benches on the left limit <>f Bonanza between the mouth of Edams and
Boulder creek, a distance of three miles. The water is conducted
entirely by flume, which is 24 by 30 inches, having a capacity of 000
inches of water. On Adams hill three monitors of 21, 5 and 4 inch nozzle
diameter are used. This dam cost approximately $75,000.
In 1901 the Yukon
Consolidated Gold Fields Company commenced the construction of an
immense ditch from a point on the main Twelvemile river to Grand Forks,
which is situated at the junction of Bonanza and Eldorado creeks. The
water to be conveyed by this ditch, which is between 60 and 70
miles in length, is
intended to mine by the hydraulic process the hill and bench gravels of
Bonanza, EJdorado and Hunker creeks and their tributaries. The width of
the ditch at the bottom is 12 feet and at the top 20 feet; the greatest
depth of excavation being 12 feet, and an average depth of 1 feet. There
will be 25 miles of flume and pipe, the cost of flume will be $20,000
per mile, and about 40 miles of ditch, which is excavated at a cost of
$8,000 per mile. Steam shovels arc used for excavating, and the cost is
15 cents per cubic yard. The quantity of timber in the flume is 1,000
feet B.M. in every 16 feet of flume. The flume is 7 by 6 and has a
capacity of 10,000 miner's inches. The piping Consists of heavy steel
pipes win re long and deep depressions have to be crossed, and redwood
stave pipes where the pressure of the water does not exceed 125 feet.
The inverted syphon to be installed across the Klondike river will be 40
inches in diameter and 15,000 feet in length. The greatest pressure on
this pipe at the bottom of the valley will be a little over S00 feet.
The redwood stave pipe is 4s inches in diameter, and will be 2½ miles in
In 1906 the Yukon
Consolidated Cold Fields Company also built a reservoir on a bench on
the right limit of the Klondike river, opposite the mouth of Bonanza
creek. The water is conveyed from .Moosehide creek along its left limit,
then along the right limit of the Yukon river and across the face of the
mountain behind Dawson by ditch and flume—accumulating along the rout
the seepage water from the hills—to the reservoir, which is situated 200
feet above the gravels. On the bench gravels between the reservoir and
the Klondike river the water is being applied at the present time by two
On the Miller Creek
Hydraulic Concession the North American Transportation and Trading
Company constructed nine miles of water conduits, having a capacity of
1,200 inches to hydraulic the crock bed of Miller creek. Operations have
been carried on in the creek bottom by the use of an hydraulic elevator,
which system has been found unsatisfactory on account of the
insufficient water supply. As has already been pointed out, this company
contemplate the construction of a dredge on Miller creek, and do not
propose to resume hydraulic work until such time as the dredge has
worked the creek bottom to the desired point of operation, when the
benches will be worked by hvdraulicking, and the tailings can be dumped
on ground which has been worked out. To carry on hydraulic operations it
will be necessary to construct a ditch of about 25 miles, and from 400
to 500 inches of water will be available from Miller, Bedrock and Pat
Murphy creeks, from which the company have obtained water rights
appurtenant to their property.
Besides the hydraulic
operations which has already been described, there is considerable
hydraulic-king on a smaller scale on Bonanza and Hunker creeks. In
nearly every case, however, the supply of water is limited, and
hydraulic mining can only be carried on during the early and latter part
of the summer, at which times the spring and fall rains furnish a supply
of water for this class of mining.
Within a short distance
of the town of Whitehorse is a large number of copper claims, which have
been developed to a very considerable extent. In 1005 the American
Institute of Mining Engineers made an excursion into British Columbia,
Alaska and the Yukon Territory, and the following extract concerning the
copper properties at Whitehorse is taken from a report of the excursion
by K. W Raymond, Secretary of the Institute:—
copper-belt of Whitehorse, as far as now known, about 10 miles in a
curve around the town, presents a considerable number of promising
"prospects" of high grade ore, some of which will doubtless be
successfully developed in the near future, -especially if (as seems to
be beyond doubt) the present progressive world demand for copper shall
continue. The reported offer of a rate of $5 per ton for ore in sacks,
or $6 in hulk, from Whitehorse to the Tvee Company's smelter at
Ladysmith, on Vancouver island (a distance of 112 miles by rail and 900
miles by water), leaves some margin of profit on the mining and shipment
of rich copper ores; and this operation may be expected to promote the
development of mining on a larger scale, and the realization of
economies in all the departments (including transportation) which will
make ores of lower grade profitable.
'Up to the present
time, about 500 locations have been made in the belt, and about 200 kept
valid by annual work. The greatest depth of workings is about 1S9 feet,
and the total shipments of ore have been about 1,000 tons, ranging in
value (for 100-ton lots) from $10 per ton for ore not sorted to 40-04
per cent of copper and 11 ounces silver and $2.58 gold per ton. One lot
is reported to have yielded a net profit, over cost of freight and
treatment, of $32 per ton.
'The prevailing mineral
in these ores, so far, is bornite, carrying gold and silver. Since this
mineral is generally recognized as a secondary product, not likely to
continue to great depth, the nature and value of the deeper parts of the
deposits can only be determined by development, for which, fortunately,
the rich bornite of the upper levels may furnish the means.'
During the past year
twenty-five men have been employed on the principal copper properties
adjacent to WThitehorse. The following is a brief description of the
development work up to date :—
' Pueblo.'- -Open-cut
40 feet wide.
' Copper King.'—100 feet shafts and tunnels.
' Arctic Chief.'—150 feet tunnelled, 52 foot shaft, stope 00 by 20.
' Carlisle.'— 90 foot shaft.
' Grafter.'— 125 foot, shaft and cross-cut.
' Keewenaw.'—50 foot shaft.
' Valerie.'—50 foot shaft.
Last year 200 tons of
ore were taken from the 'Carlisle' and 2,000 tons from the 'Pueblo.'
This ore was shipped to the smelter on Vancouver island.
Several copper claims
have been located near the head of White river, from which prospectors
have brought large pieces of line specimens of placer copper. These
claims, however, are near to the boundary line, and miners usually apply
for record in both the Yukon 'Territory and Alaska.
This mine is situated
on the left bank of the Yukon river, about 201 miles south of Dawson.
During the past winter preparatory work has been going on at the mine,
such as driving tunnels and making rooms for working; 120,000 feet of
prop lumber has been prepared, and a much larger wharf will be built
this spring. The mine is situated so close to the river that it is
difficult to find space for the construction of bunkers and wharfs.
Analyses of this coal show:—
Fixed carbon........ 65
to To per cent.
Ash............. 10 to 15
Water............ 1 to 3
Volatile........... 24 to 12
The mine has been
leased to H. H. Phillips and associates for a period of ten years, and
it is expected that about forty miners would be employed during the
coming summer. The coal has been used on the steamers of the White Pass
Company, plying between Whitehorse and Dawson, for the last two years,
and the output so far is estimated as follows:
It is expected that the
output for the present year will amount to 12,000 tons, or possibly
more; 5,000 tons of this amount being consumed by the steamers of the
White Pass Company.
Tantalus Butte Mine.
This mine is also
situated on the Yukon river, about two miles east of the Tantalus mine.
I here has been no coal taken out, but three seams of 5½, 7 and 7½ feet
respectively are being opened up. There is a gravel bank on the face of
this mine, through which a tunnel of 200 feet will have to be driven
before coal can be reached. The proprietor of this mine states that the
coal-measures can be traced almost to Whitehorse. The following is an
approximate analysis of samples of coal taken from the Tantalus Butte
mine, named :—
Fixed carbon (on
surface) . . . . 55 per cent.
Lignite coal mines have
been stake! in the Twelvemile district, the coal containing about S per
cent ash and 50 per cent fixed carbon. These locations are about seven
miles from the mouth of the Twelvemile.
This mine yields coking
coal, which is only used for smelting purposes, and is the only coal of
this kind so far discovered in the Territory. The seam is about 3½ feet.
Three men worked in the mine during the past winter, and one tunnel has
been driven 700 feet.
Mr. Camsell, in his
report on the Peel river, 1906, reports deposits of lignite coal, twelve
miles below Mount Deception, where a section of tertiary rocks is
exposed. This shows six feet of lignite, associated with beds of clay
and sandstone, overlaid by glacial drift.
"The lignite is still
in a primary stage of development, and shows the twigs and leaves of
which it is composed, and even some blobs of resin. This seam of lignite
is again exposed two mile.-! below, overlaid by six foot of rusty
gravels, and resting on a bed of clay. At the base of all is a soft and
very fine grained sandstone, which is also very porous. The lignite,
when dry, burns fairly readily, giving off the odour of burning resin
and leaving a great deal of ash.'
Sourdough Coal Mine.
About six miles below
Fortymile and fourteen miles from the Yukon river on its right bank, is
the Sourdough coal mine, which is being worked by the Sourdough Coal
Company. The mine was purchased last fall by this company, who took out
over 2,000 tons of coal, which was shipped to Dawson before the close of
navigation and sold during the winter at from $15 to $20 per ton.
Fifteen men have been employed all winter, and extensive preparations
have been made for a large output during the coming summer. Thirty men
are at present working in the mine, and a larger number will be employed
during the summer. There are three seams of 8, 12 and 20 feet
respectively. There is an incline shaft of 240 feet, which has been run
at an angle of forty-five degrees.
A railroad has been
constructed from the mines to the Yukon river, a distance of fourteen
miles, at a cost of $400,000, several large bridges having to be erected
along the route. From this .point the coal is brought to Dawson by the
If arrangements can be
made with the different companies operating and contemplating the
installation and operation of dredges in the, Klondike and Fortymile
districts, the Sourdough Coal Company propose to install a large power
plant at the coal mines to furnish power to dredges, as well as light to
Dawson and Fortymile. Eleetricity is being furnished in Dawson at the
present time by a plant belonging to the company, who have already
contracted to furnish power to dredges in the Klondike district, and as
soon as the demand for power exceeds the capacity of the present, plant,
plant will be
constructed at the coal mines on Coal creek. A preliminary survey has
already been made with the view of constructing a trunk line from the
mines to Dawson.
Besides the power and
light which this company will be prepared to furnish, they also
contemplate the introduction of a system of heating by electricity as a
substitute for fuel. So far the principal fuel in Dawson has been wood,
and during the past few years a considerable quantity of coal has been
used. Thong* no definite arrangements have been made, yet the company
are of the opinion that if such a system can be introduced it will be
possible to furnish the electricity for this purpose at a cheaper rate
than either coal or wool can be obtained. It is estimated that coal can
be mined for 50 cents per ton, and a> the company propose to install a
plant at the mine, a saving of from $S to $10 per ton on transportation
will be saved. The expenditure for fuel to generate the power will,
therefore, be reduced to a minimum, and the company will be able to
supply electricity at a much reduced rate.
Steamers operating on
the lower river can obtain coal from the bunkers at the terminus of the
company's railroad at $6 per ton.
The Territory is
divided into the following mining districts :—
Dawson Mining District.
All that portion of the
Yukon Territory not included in any other district, as hereinafter
described, and which may be more particularly described as follows:—
Commencing at the most
northerly limit of the 141st meridian, thence southerly along said
meridian; thence along the northerly, easterly and southerly limits of
the Sixtymile mining districts; thence along the 141st. meridian: thence
along the northerly limit of the Kluane mining district: thence along
the northerly and easterly limits of the Whitehorse mining district;
thence along the 00th parallel of latitude; thence along the easterly
limit of the Yukon Territory; thence along the southerly, westerly and
northerly limits of the Duncan mining district; thence along the
easterly and northerly limits of the Yukon Territory to the point of
Duncan Mining District.
All that portion of the
Yukon Territory lying within the watershed of the Stewart river and its
tributaries above the mouth of and including the McQuesten river.
All that portion of the
Yukon Territory lying within the watershed of the Sixtymile river above
the mouth of and including Boucher creek.
Conrad Mining District.
All that portion of the
Yukon Territory tributary to Lake Bennett, Lake Kares, Lake Tagisli and
All that portion of the
Yukon Territory tributary to the Lewes river on its right limit above a
point one mile above the mouth of Little Salmon river, and on its left
limit above a point one mile below the mouth of the Nordenskiold river,
excepting, however, from within its boundaries, the district described
as the Conrad mining district.
Kluane Mining District.
All that portion of the
Yukon Territory tributary to the White river, above and including the
Kesling river, and all that portion of the said Territory tributary to
the North Pacific ocean lying to the south of that portion of the
Territory tributary to the White river, above and including the Kesling
Values of Gold Dust.
The following is an
account of the value of gold dust from some of the most important creeks
in the Yukon :—
SYNOPSIS OF REGULATIONS.
Placer Mining Act.
Any person eighteen
years of age or over is eligible to stake out and obtain entry for a
placer mining claim in the Yukon Territory. A placer claim on a creek,
which means any natural watercourse whether usually containing water or
not, shall not exceed in size five hundred feet along the base line by
one thousand feet on each side of such line. Claims situated elsewhere
than on a creek shall not exceed five hundred feet in length by one
thousand feet. A person locating the first claim on any creek, Bill,
bench, bar or plain shall be entitled to a claim one thousand five
hundred feet in length, and to a party of two discoverers two claims,
each of one thousand feet in length.
A claim is marked by
two legal posts on the base line at each end of the claim, each of which
posts shall give information as to the name of the claim, its length,
the date of staking and the name of the locator.
Application for a claim
shall bo made to the "Mining "Recorder for the district within ten days
after location, if it is within ten miles of the Recorder's office. One
extra day is allowed for every additional ten miles or fraction thereof.
A person having
received a grant for a claim is entitled to hold it for the period of
the grant with the absolute right of renewal, provided work is done on
the claim each year to the value of at least $200, and evidence of such
expenditure furnished within fourteen days from the expiration of the
period covered by the grant.
Claims, however, may be
grouped, and upon the owners thereof filing a deed of partnership
permission may be granted to perform on any one or more of such claims
all the work required to entitle such owners to renewal grants for each
claim. Claims grouped may be made renewable by the Mining Recorder on
the same clay.
Xo person shall receive
a grant of more than one placer claim on each separate creek, hill,
bench, bar or plain, except by purchase or by recording an abandonment
of the claim held.
Disputes between owners
of claims as to distribution of water, boundaries and dumping may be
heard and determined by a board of arbitrators appointed by the owners
of the property. The owner of a claim may, upon complying with certain
conditions, deposit tailings upon an adjoining claim.
Royalty at the rate of
two and one-half per cent on the value of the gold shipped from the
Yukon Territory shall be paid to the Comptroller. Gold to be valued at
$15 an ounce.
Fees for a grant of a
claim for one year. $10
Fees for a grant of a claim for five years. $70
Fees for a grant for a renewal. $15
Fees for abandonment $2
Diversion of Wafer for
Every person owning a
claim is entitled to the seepage water on his claim and to the use of so
much of the water naturally flowing through or past his claim, and not
already lawfully appropriated, as may he necessary for the due working
of the claim.
An applicant for a
water grant must, for a period of twenty days previous to making
application, post notice thereof, giving full information, at the point
of diversion, on the land to be operated, on each person's land crossed,
and in the office of the .Mining Recorder, and a copy of this notice
should be forwarded to the Gold Commissioner.
The price charged by
the holder of a water grant with the pri\ilego of selling shall be
subject to the control of the Commissioner of the Territory.
The Commissioner may
also grant permission to impound for mining purposes the surplus waters
of any creek or gulch, and for that purpose he may withdraw from mining
entry any worthless ground required for a reservoir site.
The fees charged for a
grant of water are:—
For 50 inches or
From 50 to 200
From 200 to 1,000
For each additional 1,000 or
An applicant may obtain
a lease to dredge for gold, silver and platinum throughout a continuous
extent of ten miles of the bed of a river in the Yukon Territory, but
not more than one lease can be issued in favour of an applicant.
'River' means a stream
of water the bed of which is of an average width of 150 feet throughout
the portion sought to be leased, of which fact the Gold Commissioner
shall be the judge, and 'river bed' means the bed and bars of the river
to the foot of the natural banks.
The lease shall be for
a term of fifteen years, renewable from time to time provided the
leasehold has been efficiently operated, but has not been fully mined
out, and provided the regulations have been complied with.
The lease shall be
subject to the rights of all persons who received entries for claims
prior to the issue of such lease.
Within three years from
the date of the lease the lessee shall have a dredge of sufficient
capacity on his leasehold and shall operate the same during forty days
of ten hours each in every year after the third year, and furnish
satisfactory proof of such operation.
A rental of $100 per
mile of river leased is charged for the first year, and $10 a mile for
each subsequent year.
The lessee may obtain
permission to cut, free of dues, such timber as may be necessary for the
purposes of his mining operations.
The lessee is not
allowed to interfere with the free navigation of the river, or with the
construction of roads, ways, bridges, drains or other public works.
The royalty on gold
produced from dredging operations is the same as that on gold produced
from placer mining claims.
Any person eighteen
years of age or over, who has discovered mineral in place, may locate a
claim not exceeding fifteen hundred feet in length by fifteen hundred
feet in width, by marking it with two legal posts, one at each end of
the line of the lode or vein, and marking out the line between such
posts. Upon each post should be marked the name of the claim, the name
of the person locating and the date, also the number of feet lying t<»
the right and to the left of the location line.
The claim shall be
recorded with the Mining Recorder for the district in which it is
situated within fifteen days after the location thereof, if located
within ten miles of the Recorder's office; one additional day will be
allowed for such record for leery additional ten miles or fraction
thereof. In the event of a claim being more than one hundred miles from
a recorder's office, and situated where other claims fire beino-located,
the locators, not less than five in number, may appoint a recorder, but
if the latter fails within three months to notify the nearest Government
Mining Recorder of his appointment the claims which he may have recorded
will be cancelled.
The fee for recording a
claim is $5.
An expenditure of not
less than $100 in mining operations must be made on the claim each year,
or a like amount paid to the Mining Recorder in lieu thereof. The survey
of the claim, under proper instructions, will be accepted as expenditure
during the year in which the survey is made. When $500 has been expended
or paid in connection with a location the locator may, upon having a
survey made, and upon complying with certain other requirements,
purchase the land at the rate of $1 an acre.
The Minister of the
Interior may grant a location for the mining of iron and mica, not
exceeding one hundred and sixty acres in area, provided that should any
person obtain a location which is subsequently found to contain a
valuable mineral deposit other than iron or mica, his right to such
deposit shall be restricted to the area prescribed for other minerals,
and the remainder of the location shall revert to the Crown.
The Minister may also
grant locations for the mining of copper in the Yukon Territory, each
location to consist of an area not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres
in a square block. 1 lie boundaries of each location shall be due north
and south and due east and west lines, and not more than one area shall
be granted to any one person within a district of ten miles. The grant
of such location for the mining of copper shall not give to the grantee
any right to any other minerals excepting minerals that are combined or
mixed with copper or copper ore, but in no case shall it include free
milling gold or silver.
The annual expenditure
in mining operations on iron, mica and copper claims of excessive size
shall he $200, and the fee for entry and renewal of such copper
locations shall be $20.
The patent for a
mineral claim in the Yukon Territory shall reserve to the Crown for ever
the same royalty upon the products of the location as is provided or
which may hereafter be provided in the case of placer mining claims in
The collection of
royalty, however, may be abolished on the gold produced from any quartz
mining claim or group of such claims in respect of which a sufficient
expenditure has been incurred within a given time in installing and
putting into operation a suitable plant for milling or otherwise
treating the ore, and provided such plant is capable of milling or
otherwise treating not less than five ton's of ore per day for every
claim in respect of which such plant is installed.
The output of copper
from any mining location or group of locations will also be exempt from
the payment of royalty, provided a sufficient expenditure has been
incurred within a certain time in the erection of a smelter or other
plant for the reduction of the copper or other metals in connection with
such location or group of locations.
All the rights and
privileges which were accorded a free miner under the quartz mining
regulations may be exercised and enjoyed by any person of eighteen years
of age or over without taking out a free miner's certificate.
Petroleum and Natural
The Minister of the
Interior may reserve for an applicant, who has machinery on the land, to
be prospected an area of 1.920 acres for such period as may be decided
upon. Should the prospector discover oil or gas in paying quantities,
and satisfactorily establish such discovery, an area not exceeding 610
acres, including the oil or gas well will be sold to him at the rate of
$1 an acre, and the remaining 1.2S0 acres reserved will be sold at the
rate of $3 an acre. The Minister may also make a preliminary reservation
of a like area of land for a period of four months, for the purpose of
allowing an applicant sufficient time to instal on the land the required
machinery. A fee, of $100 shall be charged for such reservation. A
royalty at such rate as may be specified by order in council will be
levied and collected on the sales of the petroleum.
Disposal of Water for
The Minister may grant
for a term not exceeding twenty years the right to use the water from
any stream or lake in the Yukon Territory for the purpose of generating
power, and the right to transmit, sell or use the power so generated.
Prior to making
application notice shall be posted for a period of sixty days at the
point of diversion, at the place where the power plant is to be
constructed, and in the office of the Mining Recorder. This notice
should contain the name of the applicant, the name of the stream or
lake, the point where water is to be returned to the stream or lake, the
difference in altitude between the point of diversion and point of
return, means by which power is to be generated, number of inches
applied for, purpose for which power is required, locality where water
is to be sold, and date of posting.
Upon satisfactory proof
being furnished as to the posting of in nice, of the correctness of the
statements made therein, and of the ability of the applicant to utilize
the: power expeditiously; and upon a report from the Government Mining
Engineer as to the volume of the unrecorded water available for
diversion, a lease may be issued for such quantity as may be decided
upon. The fees charged arc in proportion to the quantity diverted.
Coal mining rights,
which are the property of the Crown, may he leased for a term of
twenty-one years at an annual rental of $1 an acre. Not more than 2,560
acres shall he leased to one applicant.
Application for a lease
shall he made to the agent of the district in which the rights applied
for are situated, and the tract applied for shall he staked out by one
or other of the following methods:—
(a) By planting at one
angle of the tract applied for a post four inches square and standing
not less than four feet above the ground, upon which shall be inscribed
the angle represented, the name of the applicant, the date of the
application, and the length and direction of the boundaries. The tract
must be rectangular in form, and the boundaries must be duo north and
south and cast and west lines. A description by metes and bounds of the
tract applied for to be furnished with the application.
(b) If, however, the
applicant desires to follow a coal seam the tract shall be marked by two
posts of the above dimensions, bearing notices, placed one at each end
on the line of the seam, and the location shall not exceed 21,120 feet
in length. The line between the posts must be clearly marked.
The length of the tract
staked shall not exceed four times the breadth. Notice of application
shall be conspicuously posted on the tract applied for, and application
shall be filed with the agent within thirty days after staking,
accompanied by an affidavit showing that the requirements of the
regulations have been complied with. Each application shall be
accompanied by a fee of $5, and a plan showing the position of the
tract, and a royalty shall be paid on the merchantable output of the
mine at the rate of five cents per ton.
The lease shall include
the coal mining rights only, but the lessee may be permitted to purchase
whatever available surface rights may be considered necessary at the
rate of $10 an acre.
Every person who is the
sole head of a family, and every male who has attained the age, of
eighteen years, shall be entitled to obtain homestead entry for 100
acres of agricultural land in the Yukon Territory. Entry shall not be
granted for lands valuable for timber, and such entry shall not give the
holder thereof any right to the minerals under the land.
located on a water front, shall be marked by two legal posts, one at
each end of the front boundary, and such frontage shall not exceed forty
chain-. A homesteader shall take possession and commence residence on
the land within three months from the date of entry, and at the
expiration of two years, upon having a survey made and upon submitting
evidence that he has resided on the land during the months of May, June,
July, August, September and October in each year, and brought at least
ten acres under cultivation and erected a habitable house thereon, he
will be entitled to receive a patent for the land homesteaded.
Applications for lands
for purposes other than agriculture should be made to the Crown Timber
and Land Agent for submission to the Commissioner of the Territory, who
is empowered to dispose of the same at a price varying from $1 to $10 an
acre, one-half of tin1 purchase price being payable at the time of the
sale and the balance in twelve months, with interest at live per cent.
Such lands are sold subject to the minerals which may be found
thereundqr, and if the land is at any time valuable as a townsite then
the Government shall own absolutely one-third of the blocks of lots in
such townsite, and the sale of such blocks will be b\ public auction.
Leases may also be
obtained of lands for agricultural and other purposes.
Permits may be granted
by the Crown Timber and Land Agent, with the approval of the
Commissioner of the Territorv, to cut timber within certain specified
districts, upon payment of an office fee of $5 and dues on the timber
cut at the rate $1 per thousand feet B.M., and of ten per cent ad
valorem on the products of the berth not enumerated.
In such districts as
the Commissioner may designate permits may also be issued to cut, free
of dues, logs fur the erection of roadhouses and for firewood to be used
Any person who is bona
fide settled upon land which he is using for agricultural or grazing
purposes may be granted a permit, free of dues, to cut such timber as he
may require for use on his own land.
Grazing and Hay.
Leases of grazing lands
may be issued for a term of ten years, at an annual rental of $100 per
square mile. In unsurveyed territory the applicant shall mark one corner
of the ground applied for by a legal post, and lay off the tract from
Leases of hay lands
shall be for a term of ten years, at a rental of fifty cents an acre per
annum. Permits to cut hay may also be obtained from the Crown Timber and
Land Agent, upon payment of a fee of $2.00 and dues at the rate of $3 a
Leases of water fronts
on rivers in the Yukon Territory may also be obtained upon application
to the Commissioner. The term of the lease is fifteen years, and the
rental varies from $1 to $6 per foot frontage according to the position
of the tract sought to be leased.
REPRESENTATION WORK UNDER SECTION 27 OF THE
YUKON PLACER MINING ACT TO TAKE EFFECT JANUARY 1, 1907.
For first ton foot in
depth, $2 per running foot of dirt removed.
For second ten feet in depth, $4 per running foot of dirt removed.
For third ten feet in depth, $6 per running foot of dirt removed.
For fourth ten feet in depth, $8 per running foot of dirt removed.
Below forty feet in depth, $10 per running foot of dirt removed.
(a) In unfrozen ground,
for first (25) twenty-five feet, $2 per running foot. Beyond 25 feet, $3
per running foot.
(b) In frozen ground, for first (25) twenty-five feet, $3 per running
foot. Beyond 25 feet, $4 per running foot.
Drifting from Shaft.
(al In unfrozen ground,
$2 per running foot.
(b) In frozen ground, $0 per running foot.
There shall be allowed
in addition, Si per running foot for every ten feet in depth of the
shaft from which the drift, is run.
In shaft, $3 per
In drift or tunnel, $2 per running foot.
(a) Ground sluicing, 25
cents per cubic yard of dirt removed.
(b) Stripping (by scraper) 50 cents per cubic yard of dirt removed.
(c) Hand shovelling, $1.75 per cubic yard of dirt removed.
Two dollars per foot in
depth in unfrozen ground.
Four dollars per foot in depth in frozen ground.
and Steam Shovelling.
Fifty cents per cubic
Other miner-like work
for which special provision is not made shall be allowed for at the rate
<»f $6.50 per day per man employed.