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History of Toronto and County of York in Ontario
Part IV: Toronto: Wholesale. Trade

Booksellers and Stationers.

Brown Brothers, stationers, bookbinders, account book manufacturers, publishers of diaries, etc., 66 and 68 King Street East, and 7 and 9 Court Street, Toronto, commenced business in May, 1856, succeeding their father, who was established in the same line within a door or two of the present house, n the year 1846. The firm have now some binders' tools that have been in use in the same family for over a century, their ancestors having been engaged in the same business for generations in Newcastle, England. Since, their establishment, over twenty-eight years ago, the business has gradually increased, so that they now make use of every inch of room in the large premises they occupy. The business is divided into several separate departments ; and in the manufacturing department alone they employ upwards of one hundred hands, many of whom entered the house when young and have grown up with the business. Their specialties are the manufacture of Account-books and Leather goods, Book-binding, Publishing of Diaries, which they have published for the past twenty-one years. They can well claim to be the premium manufacturers in these lines. They have exhibited at many exhibitions, and have always taken the lead in prises: Medal, Exhibition opening of Victoria Bridge, Montreal, i860; diploma at Dublin, 1865; Paris Exposition, 1867 and 1878; silver medal and diploma at Toronto Exhibitions. Their Stationery business has very largely developed. Their stock comprises everything in the general stationery line, made up from the principal markets in Britain, Europe, America and Canada. Another special feature in their business is the Book-binders' material department, where are kept large supplies of leather, cloth, etc., for binders' use. The book-binding department is very complete with steam power and the addition of every known new device in tools and machinery; it has grown in efficiency second to none on the Continent. They turn out large editions or publishers, for which they enjoy peculiar facilities. Almost every bank, insurance or loan company and merchant can testify to the superiority of the account books manufactured by this firm.

Copp, Clark & Co., 7 1'ront Street West, wholesale dealers in books, stationery anil fancy goods. They are also manufacturers of stationery and pocket books, publish text-books for schools and colleges, law books", etc. In their manufactory they employ from seventy to eighty hands, and about the warehouse and office from sixteen to twenty hands. The business was originally established on King Street East as early as 1841, by Hugh Scobie, who died in 1853, and was succeeded by Maolear & Co. in 1854, who were followed by Chewett & Co. ui 1857. In 1869 the present firm became the 'proprietors. Their manufactory is located at 67 and 69 Colborne Street.

The Toronto News Company, 42 Yonge Street, Mr. A. S. Irving, President and Managing Director. This business was established by Mr. Irving in 1864., their premises then being located on King Street West. In 1874 the firm took in the respective business of Copp, Clarke & Co., and W. E. L'unis, of Clifton, and since that date has been known as "The Toronto News Company." They do a large wholesale trade (the bulk of the periodical business of Canada is in their hands), yielding a turn-over of about §250,000 yearly, employing four travellers, who visit all parts of the Dominion. They have branch houses in Montreal, Clifton and London, England, and -act as agents for the large publishing firms of the latter city. 1 ie News Company make a specialty of Christmas and Easter cards being agents for "Prang's" celebrated goods in this line, and sold last •year of that firm's manufacture over $27,000 worth. The warehouse of the company has a frontage of 42 x 90 feet, and is five storeys in height. Mr. Irving, the Manager, -may be said to be the father of the cartoon paper Grip, having commenced it. He is of Scotch descent, and n early life was a resident of the United States. He has lived in Toronto for the past twenty years.

Boots and Shoes.

Charlesworth & Co., boot and shoe manufacturers, 16 Front Street East, established their business in 1880. They employ one hundred and fifty hands and four travelling salesmen. They manufacture fine goods principally, and do an annual business of §250,000.

S. M. Sanderson, boot and shoe manufactory, 84 Bond Street, first established his business on King Street East, in 1857. About six years ago he moved to his present location, where he employs from eight to ten hands, manufacturing for the wholesale trade.

'l he Toronto Shoe Company, "Headquarters," corner King and Jarvis Streets, is an old establishment. In 1882 the business was purchased by Joseph Tolfree, nephew of an old York pioneer of the same name. In 1883 the adjoining premises were added, making it the most complete shoe house in Canada. All sales are made for cash. Mr. Tolfree does a general fobbing trade and employs nine clerks. The house is known far and near as the original one-price establishment.

Brewers' Supplies.

Auguste Bolt£, business established ;n 1880, as wholesale dealer in brewers' supplies, some of which he manufactures himself. His trade extends from Halifax to British Columbia, and his premises have a frontage of 30 x 80 deep, located at 39 Colborne Street. This is the only house that makes a speciality of brewers' supplies m Canada. Mr. Bolte was born in Montreal, and came to Toronto in 1880.


Edward Blong (of the firm of Thompson, Flanagan and Blong, cattle exporters, 21 and 23 St. Lawrence Market), was born in Queens County, Ireland, 1838. His father came to Canada and commenced business as butcher hi 1841, which he continued until his death in 1861, being succeeded in his business by his sons. In 1874 Edward formed a partnership with James Walsh, and the two conducted a wholesale business for some time. In the spring of 1878, in connection with others, Mr. Blong commenced to ship live stock to England, which business he has since been engaged in. He owns and cultivates four farms outside the city, and is the owner of two thousand acres of land 1 the Province of Manitoba.

John Glenville, wholesale cattle dealer, 47 St. Lawrence Market, was born in Devonshire, England, 1833. He came to Canada in 1854, and engaged with P. Armstrong in the meat market until 1859, after which he entered into business for himself and continued for about hve years. He then became manager of the pork-packing establishment of William Davis, with whom he remained until 1865, in which year he established the business he at present owns.


W. E. Sanford & Co., wholesale dealers and manufacturers of ready-made clothing, 14 Wellington Street West. This firm was established in Hamilton in i860, and has been represented in Toronto since 1875. They employ eighteen travellers, and the trade extends from the Atlantic to the Pacilic Oceans. From the Hamilton Spectator, August 31st, 1880 : " This firm have transacted more business during the past eight months than m any year since they have been in business. It is a pleasure to-pass through an establishment that is arranged in departments, the individuality of which is strictly maintained, as "s the case rn this instance. Our citizens will be pleased to learn of the continued advancement of this enterprising firm, and that the prospects for a further increase are most promising."


W. W. Park, confectionery, cigars and vinegar, 98 to 106 Adelaide Street East, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, 1850, and settled in Toronto in 1863.


Elliot & Co., drug merchants, manufacturing chemists, etc., 3 Front Street East. The senior partner, William Elliot, joined the house of Lyman Brothers & Co. in 1853, which became Lyman, Elliot & Co., until 1870, when William Elliot and his son established the present firm. They do an exclusively wholesale business, and manufacture at their factory, Beverley Street, white lead in oil, putty, linseed oil, pharmaceutical preparations, and drugs, etc., and employ about thirty hands, clerks, etc. Mr. Elliot, sen'r, was President of the Board of Trade for two years; Director in the Northern Railway eight years; is at present Vice-President of the Bank of Commerce; President of the People's Loan and Deposit Company ; a Vice-President of the Confederation Life Association; Director of the Anchor Marine Insurance Company. He was born near London, England, 1812, and first came to Toronto in 1827, and made it his home in 1853.

Evans, Sons & Mason (Limited), late H. Sugden, Evans & Co., wholesale druggists and pharmaceutical' chemists, 23 Front Street West, established their business in Montreal 'n 1864, a branch of which was opened in Toronto in 1877, the warehouse at the above address occupying 150 x 30 feet frontage, and in height having three flats in addition to basement. The business is managed ill Toronto by Mr. James H. Pearce, who has been connected with the firm since his arrival in Canada twenty years ago. A staff of three travellers and ten men are employed by the company, who are engaged in the sale and despatch of goods throughout the Dominion. We may add that this firm makes a specialty of the celebrated " Montserrat Lime Fru t Juice."

Lyman Brothers & Co., importers and general dealers in drugs, Nos. 71 and 73 Front Street East. This firm is composed of Henry Lyman, G. W. Lillie and John Henderson : a combination we have no hesitation in affirming the drug trade of this country is indebted to for its present stability. Their warehouse has a frontage of 45 x 200 feet, and is four storeys high. The building itself is a handsome one, the cost of erection reaching §50,000. Three travellers are employed by the firm, who push the trade through the Provinces of Ontario, Manitoba and the western districts.

Dry Goods.

B. A. Boas & Co.—This firm, we believe, 'are the oldest dry goods commission merchants in Canada. They commenced business in i860 under the name of L Meyer & Co., with Mr. B. A. Boas as managing partner in Montreal, with head-quarters in New York. In 1870 the firm became Meyer, Boas & Co., and in 1879 the New York partners were bought out by Mr. B. A. Boas, and the firm became B. A. Boas & Co. It now has its head-quarters in Montreal, with a branch i? 1 Toronto under the management of Mr. R. J. Tackaberry, and another branch in Minden, Prussia, under the management of Mr. M. Boas, jun This firm shows the productions of some thirty to forty of the best manufacturers scattered over the continent of Europe. They take importation orders from the largest dealers in Canada for kid gloves (of which they are the largest importers in Canada). Thread gloves, hosiery of all kinds, mantle cloths, silks, velvets, laces, knitted goods, and all kinds of trimmings, etc., etc.

Boyd Brothers, wholesale dealers and importers of dry and fancy-goods, 41 and 43 Yonge Street, was established in 1868, and was first located on Wellington Street. The warehouse has a frontage of 60 by 100 feet on Yonge, and 30 by 100 feet on Front Street. Employ six travellers and a staff of thirty-live in their warehouse. The trade is principally conflined to the Province of Ontario. The firm is composed of Alexander, George, jun'r, and John Boyd. This firm makes a specialty of dry goods, fancy goods, and gents' furnishing goods.

Bryce, McMurrici & Co., importers and wholesale dealers in dry and fancy goods, 34 Yonge Street. This business was first established 011 King Street East, 1832, and is without doubt the oldest dry goods house in Toronto. The firm has also a house in Glasgow, Scotland, under the style Playfair, Bryce 6c Co.

Caldecott, Burton & Co., importers and wholesale dealers in dry goods. The firm is composed of S. Caldecott, P. II. Burton, W. C. Harris, and R. W. 6pence, who established the business in 1879, locating first at 52 Front Street, from whence they removed to their present large building in 1883, which has a frontage of 52 by 120 feet, and is five storeys in height. Seven travellers and about thirty clerks are employed, and their trade extends from Montreal to Sarnia. The firm represent several French and German manufacturers. Messrs. Caldecott and Burton are English by birth, the remaining partners being Scotch.

W. H. Cross, wholesale dealer in general goods, 42 Scott Street. The business was established in 1872, and for seven years was located on Wellington Street East. In 1879 it was removed to its present site, the premises having a frontage of 30 x 100 feet, with a height of four storeys. Two travellers are employed, and the trade chiefly confined to the Province. Mr. Cross was born in England, and carne to Canada in 1863, and spent some years in Hamilton before his settlement in this city.

Darling, Cockshutt & Co., wholesale dealers m imported and Canadian woollens and merchant tailors' goods, 34 Wellington Street West. This firm comprises Robert Darling and Charles Cockshutt, the first named being formerly one of the partners in the firm of Wyld & Darling Brothers. ;die present business was established in 1879, and has been progressive from the commencement. There has been a continued increase in volume done from season to season, and by the combined ability and energy of both parties, they now stand at the head of this particular branch of trade. Their warehouse is five storeys high, occupying a frontage of 25 x 120 feet, and is well adapted for the woollen trade, being lighted on the north, west and south. The first floor is devoted to heavy Canadian woollens; second floor, to tailors' trimmings, linings, etc., etc., and offices; third floor, to six-fourths imported woollens; fourth floor, to three-fourths imported woollens of Scotch, English, Irish, French, and German manufacture ; fifth floor, to fine Canadian woollens. These goods find a ready market in the Provinces of Ontario, Manitoba and Quebec, five travellers being employed by the firm for their introduction, as well as a resident agent in Montreal. Mr. Darling is a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, and has been a resident of Toronto since 1871. Mr. Cockshutt is a Canadian.

Forres, Waugh & Co., 53 Yonge Street, wholesale dealers in gent's furnishings, consisting of shirts, collars, scarves, ties, braces, silk handkerchiefs, umbrellas, rubber coats, underwear, etc. This business was established in 1881, under the name of Forbes, Roberts & Co., but towards the end of 1883 Mr. Roberts retired from the firm, and was replaced by Mr. W. J. Waugh, of Hamilton, who did a large and successful business in that city. The business extends throughout the Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and Manitoba. The warehouse has a frontage of 30 x 80 feet deep, is four storeys high, and contains a large assortment of the above lines the year through.

J. W. Gale, wholesale dealer in staple and fancy dry goods, woollens, tailors' furnishings, and gents' furnishings, 24 and 26 Wellington Street West. Business established in 1839, by John Robertson, afterwards known as John Robertson, Son & Co. In 1881 Mr. Gale entered the partnership, under the name of Gale, Robertson & Co., which continued up to 1883, when Mr. Robertson retired, since which time the business has been continued by Mr. J. W. Gale, under the name and style of J. W. Gale & Co. His warehouse has a frontage of 36 x 80 feet in depth, and was buiit by Mr. Robertson. Mr. Gale employs live travellers, and. a staff of sixteen clerks in the warehouse. His trade is confined principally to the Province of Ontario. Mr. Gale is also the manufacturer of the celebrated "Gale Shirt Collars and Cuffs," and ladies' underwear, in which he employs over one hundred and thirty-five hands. He is a Canadian by birth, and has been a resident of Toronto for the past fifty years.

John Macdonald & Co., wholesale dry goods merchants and importers, 21 to 27 Wellington Street East, and 30 and 32 Front Street East. This business is of extensive proportions, and was established in 1849 at 30 Wellington Street East, since which time the present premises have been occupied, and at stated periods enlarged to suit the requirements of increased trade. The warehouse has a frontage of 100 x 140 feet, and is the largest dry goods warehouse in Canada, and is furnished with all modern improvements in heating, lifts, etc. Some idea of the immensity of their trade ma\ be gained when it is stated that they employ twenty men in their entering rooms alone, sending goods to all points in Canada between the Atlantic and Pacific. Oceans. Ninety to one hundred hands are engaged at the warehouse in the different departments. Appended hereto is the. order in which goods are classed. First flat, entering, packing and shipping; second flat, imported and Canadian tweeds and staple dry goods; third flat, imported woollen stuffs, dress goods, hosiery, etc.; fourth flat, bonded ware-rooms, silks, satins, mantles, embroidered laces, etc.; fifth flat, haberdashery, small wares, and innumerable fancy goods ; sixth flat, carpets, oil cloths house furnishings, etc. Mr. Macdonald was born n Scotland, and came to Canada at an early day.

A. R. McMister & Brother, importers and wholesale dealers in dry goods, 12 Front Street West. This business was established in 1844 b> the Hon. W. McMaster, and to his energy, skill and care, may be attributed in a measure the high rank which the lirin is enabled to take at the present day amongst the great wholesale houses of the Dominion. The success which attended each stage of its career repeatedly caused the firm to make alterations and extensive additions to their premises, and on the retirement of the Hon. Wm. McMaster from the business they erected the large and commodious warehouse on Front Street yet occupied by them.

Up to 1881 the members of the firm were A. R., J. S., W. F., and S. F. McMaster, but on the death of A. R. McMaster in that year the business has since been conducted by the remaining partners. The frontage of the warehouse is 50 x 120 feet, with five flats, each being 6,000 square feet in area, access to which is gained by steam and water hoists. Adjoining the warehouse is the engine house, packing room and shipping office, 44 x 50 feet, and two storeys high, they employ about forty warehouse hands and seven travellers, who have charge of a trade which is confined principally to the Pro\ince. The first flat of the warehouse is devoted to staples, cottons and linens ; second flat to tweeds, cloths, woollens and trimmings ; third flat to dress goods, laces, silks, etc.; fourth flat to hosiery, gloves, haberdashery and furnishings; fifth flat to carpets, blankets and flannels. All the members were born in Ireland, the founder of the firm corning to Canada in 1835.

W. J. McMaster & Co., wholesale dry goods merchants, 41 Front Street. The business was established n 1867 at Montreal, and was removed to Toronto in 1878, being located at 54 Front Street until 1883, when they took possession of their present premises. The warehouse has a frontage of 30 x 200 feet, with four-flats, the first of which consists of entry room, bonded warehouse, storage and packing rooms. The second flat is devoted to imported woollens, Canadian tweeds, heavy linens, flannels and cottons, and also the offices. Dress goods, prints, stuff goods, silks, velvets, mantles, carpets, haberdashery and fancy goods occupy the third flat, while the fourth is given up to lace curtains, Canadian hosiery, fancy woollens, rubber clothing, and blankets. The working staff comprises eight travellers and twenty-live clerks, and the trade extends from Manitoba to St. John's, Newfoundland.

Ogilvy & Co., 'rnporters and wholesale dealers in dry goods, corner of Bay and Front Streets. This business was established in 1850 at Montreal, and was located at the corner of St. Paul and St. Peter Streets of that city, where a large staple trade was earned on. In 1871 they opened a branch in Toronto ; such success attended it that eight years afterwards they entirely closed the Montreal house and concentrated their energies on the business in this city. The building has a frontage of 35 x 200 feet, and is four storeys high. The first flat consists of entry and packing rooms ; the second flat is devoted to prints, cottons, linens, flannels and carpets; the offices are also situated on this flat. On the third flat the dress goods department, which represents the most celebrated English, French and German manufactures; this department also includes Canadian

and Scotch tweeds, worsted coatings, Meltons, cloakings, muslins, lace curtains, etc. The fourth flat includes gloves, laces, hosiery, ribbons, parasols, umbrellas, gents' furnishings and small wares. The firm employs six travellers, with a staff of thirty hands in the warehouse. The members of the firm are John Ogilvy, Thomas Ogilvy, Thomas O. Anderson and A. T. Ogilvy, all being of Scotch birth.

Simpson, Robertson & Simpson, wholesale dry goods merchants, 36 and 38 Colborne Street. This business was established in 1879 to the present members of the firm, and deal on general lines of Canadian and European goods.' Mr. James Robertson is a native of Glasgow, Scotland, and came to Canada m 1866. He was three years in the establishment of John Macdonald & Co.. and eleven years with Sampson, Kennedy & Gemmell, and on leaving the last-named house formed the present firm.

Tait, Burch & Co., wholesale dry goods merchants, 64 and 66 Yonge Street. The business was commenced in 1881 at the present premises, which are five storeys :n height, the different flats being devoted respectively to linens and staples, silks, velvets, dress goods, mantles, mantle cloths, kid gloves, hosiery, umbrellas, etc., with the fourth flat set apart for packing. This firm has a large connection.

Fancy Goods.

James S. Russell, wholesale dealer in fancy goods, 122 Bay Street. This business was established in 1877. He does a large trade in specialties not kept by other houses, and deals extensively in native Indian goods, drawing his supplies from the Province of Quebec and from Lake Superior and the North-West. One of his specialties is agates from Rake Superior in all stages of manufacture; another is gold and silver lace and fringes, procured from France and Germany; and manufactures of cork from Austria. He also supplies curling stones, imported from Scotland, to all the Provinces of the Dominion, and largely to the United States. A visit to this store will prove interesting : there is always something strange and peculiar to be seen, and frequently one comes across articles of rare and unique interest.

Fish and Oysters.

John McMillan, wholesale fish and oysters, 70 Front Street East, established his business in 1871, as a retailer, but now has a large wholesale trade. He is agent for nearly one hundred of the principal fruit growers of the Province, and sells largely in the season on the wharves for the local trade. He distributes all over Ontario, Ottawa and Montreal, and does a large commission business, and is agent for D. E. Foote, and T. B. Schall. the Baltimore Oyster Packers. Handles large quantities of D. Wyer & Go's Portland Finnan. Haddies, averaging about one ton weekly, and deals in all kinds of smoked fish. Has three waggons, and employs from six to nine hands. Business returns $1,500 to $2,000 weekly.


Cramp, Torhvnges & Co., warehousemen, 45 Front Street East, were established in 1869. The firm is composed of Thomas Cramp and John and G. W. Torrance, the latter of whom is also manager of the Canada Vine Growers' Association. The warehouse has a frontage of 30 x 180 feet, and is composed of four fiats. 'Mr. Torrance is a Canadian by birth, being a grandson of John Torrance, deceased, of Montreal, who formerly carried on the oldest grocery "concern in the Dominion.

Fitch & Davidson, wholesale grocers, 36 Yonge Street. The names connected with the firm are John C. Fitch, John I. Davidson and W. C. Fitch, the business having been in existence thirty-three 3'ears. It was only in 1881 that the firm adopted its present title, which it ha« since continued to bear, and it is doing a trade second to none in the city. The warehouse at the above address has a frontage of 40 x 195 feet, and is four storeys high. They employ five travellers and a staff of seventeen clerks. The Messrs. Fitch are Canadians, and their partner is a Scotchman.

Thomas Kinnear & Co., 47 Front Street East, wholesale grocers. Thomas Kinnear was born in the County Antrim, Ireland, and came to Canada in 1862 with his father, locating in Toronto. In 1863 he engaged with Henry Swan, grocer, King Street East, remaining there two years. He subsequently engaged as salesman with James Hutchinson, Yonge Street, and with Richard Dunbar, of West Market Square. In 1871 he entered into business with J. W. Eaing. They carried on a grocery jobbing trade until 1880, when the partnership was dissolved. Mr. Kinnear then entered into the wholesale grocery trade exclusively, occupying the large and commodious warehouse where his business is now located. Mr. Kinnear's trade has increased to such an extent that his house is now regarded as among the leading ones in the city—evidence of the ability of one of the successful young business men of Toronto.

James Lumbers, wholesale grocer, 67 Front Street East, first established his business in 1874, at No- 5 Manning's Block. In 1876 he removed to his present large and commodious warehouse, which has a frontage of thirty feet, is one hundred and .seventy feet in depth, and four


storeys high. Mr. Lumbers does not send out travellers, but does his business by means of circulars. lie imports a large quantity of goods direct. His trade extends over the whole Dominion, necessitating the employment of a staff of fifteen clerks. Mr. Lumbers was born in Toronto in 1843, and is the eldest son of William Lumbers, sen'r, who came to Toronto in 1837.

F. M. McIIardy & Co., wholesale grocers, 69 Yonge Street. This firm first located at 70 Front Street, where they remained five years, and took possession of their present premises in 1877, and are at present doing a business which extends all through the Province. They employ two travellers and a number of hands, and the premises they occupy have a frontage of 25 x 1 Go feet. Mr. McHardy was born in Scotland, and after his arrival in Canada :n 1853 was connected with several well-known firms ere his commencement in the above business. Mr. McHardy was a member of the Queen's Own Rifles during the years between 1859 and 1867, and in the Fenian raid which culminated ft the battle of Ridgeway was severely wounded, and also taken prisoner.

Perkins, Ince & Co., wholesale grocers, wines, liquors, etc., 41 and 43 Front Street East. The business was established in 1836, and for seven years was conducted under the name of Hart & Co. Upon the retirement of Mr. Hart in 1843, the firm was known as F. & G. Perkins, and remained so until 1853, in which year Mr. Ince, the senior member of the present firm, was taken '.nto partnership, and Co. was added to the then title of the firm. In 1874 F. Perkins retired, and from that date up to the present time the business has been carried on under the name of Perkins, Ince & Co. This is without doubt the oldest grocery house in the city. They have a warehouse with a frontage of 60x180 feet, with a height of five storeys, and the extent of their trade may be calculated from the fact that among their staff are included four travellers and ten other employes. In 1873 G. Perkins died, and since then the business has been conducted under the old title by Messrs. Ince and Young.

W. J. R4.MSAY & Co., wholesale grocers and wine and liquor dealers, 29 Church Street, established their business in 1874, in remises they at present occupy, which have a frontage of 30 x 90 feet, and have a height of four storeys. They do a large trade, which is almost wholly confined to the Province, and employ three travellers and a staff of seven clerks. Mr. Ramsay is a native of Toronto, and is the son of Mr. James Ramsay, an early settler.

Sloan & Mason. The firm is composed of John Sloan and Herbert D. Mason, who succeeded the firm of Sloan, Jardine & Mason in July last. Their premises are situated at the corner of Church and Front Streets, and are composed of three warehouses, 59, fn and 63 Front Street, 75 x 140 feet, and four storeys high. This firm is chiefly engaged in importing and jobbing teas, and employs five travellers and a staff of fourteen men.


William Brown, importer of, and wholesale dealer in carriage hardware, woodenware and trimmings, 44 and 46 Wellington Street East, Toronto. This business was established in 1866, and has now become well known as the place for carnage and waggon-makers' supplies. The stock is large and well assorted, and comprises full lines in all the departments, and well selected, and suitable for the wants of the trade, and at prices low as regards quality of goods. Auspicious circumstances have surrounded this house from its inception, and it sprang into prominence and became a favourite resort for buyers of these "goods, from the very fact that they have found by experience that all goods coming from this establishment fulfil to the very letter every representation made for them.

A. & T. Darling & Co., wholesale hardware dealers, 5 Front Street East., where they have a large and commodious warehouse 40 x 180 feet, and four storeys high. The business was first established >n Montreal in 1839, and it was only in 1878 they opened a branch in this city. Five travellers are attached to the Montreal house, and four to the branch :n Toronto, in addition to a staff of thirty clerks. They do a very extensive trade, all the Provinces of the Dominion being included. The members of the firm are by birth Canadians.

C. Davidson & Co., importers and wholesale dealers in carriage and saddlery hardware, 13 Front Street West. This. business was first commenced in 1866 by .Davidson, McVittie & Co., at 18 King Street East, and was changed to Davidson & Co., in 1876. In 1880 the firm removed to their present address, where their warehouse occupies a frontage of 30 x 165 feet, and is four storeys in height. Their trade covers a large area, including Ontario and Manitoba, and gives employment to two travellers, and a staff of seven hands at the warehouse. Mr. Davidson was born in Scotland, and came to Canada in 1853.

H. S. Rowland, Sons & Co., wholesale hardware merchants, 37 Front Street West. This firm includes H. S. Howland, sen'r, II. S. Howland, jun'r, and Peleg Howland, who established their business in 1877. The articles which constitute their chefs-d'ceuvre are builders' hardware, mechanics tools, cutlery, house-furnishings, fire-arms, garden and farming tools, lumbermen's supplies, chains, etc. Their trade employs three travellers who introduce the goods of the company throughout the Province. The warehouse has a frontage of 30 x 180 feet. Mr. Rowland is an American by birth, and came to Canada in! 1840. He has been a resident of this city for the past twenty years.

Kick Lewis & Son, wholesale and retail hardware merchants, at 54 King Street East. This business is a very old one, its origin elating from the earlier years of the city (1844). It was first established by Rice Lewis, and up to the time of his death in 1871, was composed of G. W. Lewis. Arthur B. Lee, and John Leys. For seven years after the latter date, G. W. Lewis continued a member of the firm, and on his retirement in 1878 Messrs. Lee and Leys have since managed the business. Their King Street warehouse has a frontage of 50 x 80 feet, and is four storeys in height, and their trade is of such proportions as to necessitate the employment of twenty-live clerks. Messrs. Lee and Leys are also proprietors of the St. Lawrence Foundry, where are manufactured gas and water-pipes, and general castings, giving employment to about one hundred and fifty men. They have a large warehouse in Globe Lane, three fiats, Go x 1G0 feet, in which they do their iron and heavy hardware business—average stock over one thousand tons in iron, besides steel, iron pipe, rope and other heavy goods. Both members of the firm are Canadian by birth.

G. V. Martin, wholesale manufacturer of saddlery hardware, 18 and 20 Sheppard Street, is the only one in Canada who has established this 1 ne, having commenced the business in 1880. He employs twenty^five hands, and his goods have a market from Prince Edward Island to British Columbia. Mr. Martin is from the United States, his residence in Toronto having only covered the last four years.

Risley & Kerrigan, wholesale dealers and importers m light hardware, No. 30 Front Street West. This is quite a new firm, but the energy and business qualifications of its two members have been the means of accumulating a fair share of the trade of the western Provinces. The warehouse occupies a frontage of 30 x 120 feet and is six storeys in height. They employ seven travellers, and a staff of thirty-five hands. The firm is composed of John T. Risley and James Kerrigan, Canadians by birth, who established the business in 1883.

M. & L. Swift, Benjamin & Co., wholesale importers of hardware, metals, house-furnishing goods, etc., 56^ and 58 Yonge Street ; lamp and lamp goods department, No. 9 Jordan Street. This firm carries a large and well-assorted stock, and dc one of the most extensive businesses in their particular line in the Dominion. This business has been a growing one since their establishing themselves in this city in 1856, when the style of the firm was M. & L. Samuel. They now employ some forty hands, which include five representatives on the road. They have a house in Liverpool, England (Samuel, Sons & Benjamin), which places them in a position to purchase to the best possible advantage.

William Thomson & Co., hardware merchants, 18 and 20 Front Street West, have been established since 1855, their occupation of the present premises taking place in 1868. The warehouses have a frontage of 90 x 180 feet, and are four storeys in height. In addition to general hardware, the firm deals n china, glass and earthenware; four travellers are employed, who cover the territory between Belleville and Thunder Bay; the warehouse staff is composed of thirty-five hands. The members of the firm are Williarn Thomson, George Hutchinson and F. J. Menet, The first-named is of Scotch birth, the remaining two being Canadians.

Hats, Caps and Furs.

A. A. Allan & Co., wholesale dealers in hats, caps, furs and robes, and manufacturers of cloth caps and furs. This business was established in 1877 at 32 Wellington Street West, where it is still being carried on. The warehouse has a frontage of 25 feet, is no feet deep and five storeys high. The cap factory is at 49 King Street West. This well-known firm employs five travellers, and have a stalf of nine clerks, besides employing about sixty hands in the manufacture of hats, caps and furs. Mr. Allan was born in Scotland, and came to Canada with his parents, locating in Toronto in 18G0.

T. Christie & Co., wholesale dealers and manufacturers in hats, caps and furs, and straw goods, 20 and 22 Wellington Street. This firm established their business n 186C at Hamilton, removing to Toronto ten years afterwards. They were for some time located on Front Street, but took possession of their present commodious warehouse in 1878, which is four storeys high, and has a frontage of 40 x 80 feet, and where forty hands are engaged in the manufacture of furs. They employ four travellers, and have a trade which extends from Montreal to the Rocky Mountains. Mr. Christie is a Canadian by birth.

Gillespie, Ansley & Martin, wholesale dealers in hats, caps and furs, 28 and 30 Wellington Street. This firm was established in 1864, under the title of J. Gillespie & Co., who carried on business first at No. 39 and afterwards 64 Yonge Street. The re-arrangement of the firm under its existing title was consummated in 1882, and is composed of George E. Gillespie, A. Ansley and John Marh. The warehouse has a frontage of forty-five feet on the ground floor, the flats above being 85 x 135 feet. Six travellers are employed by the firm, and seventy-five hands in the manufacture of furs.

Leather and Shoe Supply Merchants.

P. Jacobi, wholesale leather-dealer and importer of shoe findings, 5 Wellington Street East, established the business in 1869 at io3 Yonge Street. In 1877 he removed to his present locality, the building occupying a frontage of 30 x 90 feet, having a height of four store}-s. lie does a large and extensive trade, in which two travellers cover the Provinces of Ontario and Manitoba. Mr. Jacobi is of German birth, and came to Canada in 1854.

King Brothers, tanners, curriers, and leather-dealers, warehouse situate at 44 Colborne Street. The tannery is at Whitby, where the business was first established in 1863. About forty men are constantly employed. To meet the requirements of a rapidly-growing business, the Toronto branch house was opened in 1878. Their trade is largely confined to the supply of wholesale houses with their staple manufactures.

Charles Parsons & Co., wholesale leather and shoemakers' oil and findings, 79 Front Street East, established their business in 1876 at the above address, where they have a warehouse frontage of 32 X 200 feet. The business carried on is one of the largest in the city, employing three travellers and seven clerks. Mr. Parsons is the son Mr William Parsons, who came to Canada in 1814, and originated a milling business at Thornhill.

James Pepier & Son, dealers and importers of leather and tanners' supplies, 51 Front Street. This firm is composed of James Pepier and T. S. G. Pepier, who established their business m 1877 at 86 Front Street East, removing to their present place in 1883. The warehouse has a frontage of 30 x 100 feet, and in addition to a basement there are three fiats. They employ two travellers, and have a trade which extends through Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba.

Liquors, Wines and Spirits.

C. W. Brown, commission merchant, dealer in wines and spirits. This business was established in 1872, and was hist located at 32 Church Street until 1878. It is now located at 2 Leader Buildings. Mr. Blown represents the firms of J. Guest, L. Ilnot, Green & Houston, Dufresne & Mongenais, of Montreal. He was born in England, and came to Canada in 1871.

Burns & Co., wines, liquors and cigar merchants, 62 Front Street East, .'he leading partner in this firm, Mr. George A. Burns, is a native of Ballamard, Ireland, and came to America in 1865, landing m New YorL Subsequently he came to Toronto, and in 1868 in partnership with his cousin engaged in the wholesale grocery and liquor trade, under the title of G. A. Burns & Co. '"his dispensation lasted two years, and on the retirement of his cousin, Mr. Burns conducted the business alone until the fall of 1871, when he and Air. Adams formed a company partnership under the style of Adams & Burns. This well-known firm existed until 1882. when Mr. Burns removed to Winnipeg, and, returning again to this city in 1883, he again engaged in his old business, and continues to push trade with characteristic vigour. The business extends over the entire Province, and few names are more widely or favourably known than the genial head of this firm.

W. Kyle & Co., importers and shippers of wines and liquors, 38 Well, ington Street East. The business was established by W. J. Shaw in i860, and was afterwards taken by Charles Hutchinson until 1878, when Mr. Kyle and C. Monroe took possession, and have since conducted the business. They employ three travellers, and their trade extends through Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba. The firm also ships largely to the cities of Chicago, St. Paul, Detroit, and other parts of the United States. Their warehouse has a frontage 30 x 175 feet, occupying two flats.

Lumber Merchants.

T. & S. Baldwin, 4 and 6 Dundas Street, lumber dealers, established in 1882. Handle over three million feet annually, employing from six to eight men and eight to ten horses. Deal principally in pine lumber.

Joseph Davidson, lumber merchant, corner Queen and Dufferin Streets, was born near Toronto, November 24th, 1829. He early engaged in lumbering and farming, and has built a number of saw-mills, two of which he yet owns. He also constructed the telegraph line from Thunder Bay to Fort Garry. In 1866 he established a lumber yard at Spadina Avenue, and in 1879 moved to his present premises, where he disposes of about three million feet of lumber annually.

Thomas Downey, lumber merchant and builder, succeeded to the business of his father, Thomas Downey, sen'r, on his retirement in 1869. Thomas Downey, sen'r, came to this country from Ireland in 1842, and after following his trade as carpenter and joiner for some years, commenced business as a builder in 1852. By close attention to his affairs he amassed a competency and retired in favour of his son, the subject of this notice. Mr. Downey, sen'r, was Alderman for St. John's Ward for five years successively, retiring in 1876. He died in 1879. His son, Thomas Downey, is still carrying on the business, and gives ernplovment to a large number of men. He was also elected Alderman for St. John's Ward for 1882-3, and then retired. He is a brother of John Downey, a member of the well-known legal firm of Mowat, Mac.Lennan, Downey & Biggar, of this city.

Estate of W. & R. Henry (lately deceased). This firm has mills at Randwick, County Dufferin, and at Kagawong, Manitoul'n Island, which annually cut about six millions of lumber, one-half of which finds its way to Toronto. James McGee, financial agent, 10 King Street East, is attorney and manager for the estate.

McCraken, Gall & Co., lumber merchants, Victoria Street. This firm does a large business in lumber, and also in manufacturing, hardwoods being a specialty. The main building of the factory is 176 x 40 feet, and with engine house and other buildings, and their large yard at Strachan and Wellington Avenues, occupies about four acres. They employ about ninety hands, and handle upwards of ten million feet of lumber annually. At the factory is kept in stock dressed lumber for building and other purposes. Thomas McCraken, of the above firm, was born at Bonaventure, Bay de Challeurs, September, 1835. His father was a native of Ayr, Scotland, and followed the business of lumber merchant, and was one of the pioneers of the Ottawa Valley. In the early part of his career, Thomas entered the lumber trade, but from 1869 to 1876 he occupied the position of Cashier of the Royal Canadian Bank, the head office of which was in Toronto, afterwards resuming his former occupation. George Gall is a native of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, and came to Toronto in 1874. established himself on Richmond Street East, as a builder, subsequently entering the above lumber firm.

John Oliver, lumber merchant, Esplanade, is a native of Ireland, and on leaving there in 1849 settled in Philadelphia, where he remained one year, finally locating in Toronto, where he learned the trade of carpenter and builder, which business he carried on from 1856 to 1S70, when he commenced the wholesale lumber business, together with a planing-mill, but the latter being burned he has since confined himself to the lumber trade.

George Reid, sen'r (of Reid & Co.), lumber merchants, offices and docks, foot of Sherbourne and Berkeley Streets, Esplanade Street. Son of James and Anne Reid, Sligo, Ireland. He was boin in the year 1826, and came direct to Toronto in 1849. He worked the first three years as a mechanic, and afterwards carried on a building business. He did not commence the lumber business till the year 1880, and now the firm turn over about eight million feet of lumber per annum.

J. & I?. N. Tennant (lumber merchants, Dovercourt Road). Established hi 1880 in this city. James Tennant was formerly in the lumber business at Barrie. F. N. Tennant was Principal of the Canada Business College at Hamilton, for ten years. The firm now handles about forty million feet of lumber in the year, and by strict attention to business have been more than usually successful. Mr. James Tennant occupied the position of J.P. in his native county (Brant), but neither of the brothers takes rank as a general office seeker.

Millinery and Laces.

G. Goulding & Sons, wholesale millinery, 38 Yonge Street. This business was commenced in 1869, by Peach & Goulding, at 40 Yonge Street, where they carried on a general wholesale trade up to 1877, when Mr. Peach retired. Mr. Goulding then continued the business with his sons under the present name. They subsequently removed to the commodious building at 38 Yonge Street, occupying the whole of it. They have a very large trade, extending all over the Province. They employ three travellers and a large force of salesmen. The firm is now composed of George Goulding, W. Goulding and H. Goulding.

D. McCall & Co., 12 and 14 Wellington Street West, wholesale dealers in millinery, mantles and fancy dry goods. This business was established in 1880, and located at 51 Yonge Street. Their trade increased so rapidly that the firm was obliged to remove to its present handsome and commodious warehouse, which has a frontage of eighty-five feet, is eighty-five' feet in depth and five storeys high. This enterprising firm employs eight travellers and a staff of thirty clerks, besides from one hundred to one hundred and fifty girls in the manufacturing of millinery goods. The firm is composed of D. McCall and Wm. Blackley. The latter was born in Inverness, Scotland, and came to Canada in i860, remaining in Montreal until 1866, when he removed to Toronto.

McKinnon, Proctor & Co. In the year 1871, Mr. McKinnon, who was born in Halton County, came to Toronto, and in 1873 he established this business. In the following year he was joined by Messrs. Proctor and McCall, who, with himself, continued the business up to 1880, when Mr. McCall retired, leaving the business to be carried on by the two remaining partners. This well-known firm employs nine travellers, whose routes extend over the Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and Manitoba. A stuff of twenty-seven salesmen, clerks, etc., is employed in their wholesale house, which is situated on Front Street. It has a front of 32 feet, is 110 feet deep and five storeys high. Arrangements are being made for the erection of another warehouse as the present premises are too small for the growing trade.

Paterson, McKenzie & Co., wholesale dealers and importers of millinery, Berlin and other wools, dress trimmings and fancy dry goods. The business was established in 1872, and was first located "at 58 and 60 Wellington Street West, where they remained until the present year, when they removed to their present warehouse, 11 Wellington Street West. The building has a frontage of 26 feet, depth 125 feet, and is four storeys high. Five travellers and a staff of fifteen clerks and salesmen are employed. The firm is composed of L. Paterson and G. McKenzie. Mr. Paterson was born in Scotland, and came to Canada in 1848, locating in Toronto in 1868. Mr. McKenzie is a Canadian by birth.

Photographers' Supplies.

Lyon & Alexander, importers of photographers' goods, manufacturers of mouldings, frames, etc., no, 112 and 114 Bay Street. This business was established by E. J. Palmer in 1851, and was purchased and taken possession of by the present firm ia 1878. They employ ten hands.

Provision and Cummission Merchants.

II. W. Cuff, 48 to 32 St. Lawrence Market, pork and provision dealer, packs a large amount of pork, cures hams and bacon, which he was the first to ship to the old country, in 1854, which he continued until 1865. He also deals in butter, cheese and eggs. lie was born in Bath, England, and settled in Toronto in 1848; and took a lively interest in starting cheese manufacturing in Canada, and inducing farmers to embark in the enterprise.

Francis Gai.low (of the firm of Gibb & Gallow, wholesale merchants) is a native of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. He came to Canada in the year 1857 and settled in the City of Toronto. He assisted Ins father (William Gallow) in the market gardening for two years, and the following eight years he spent n the wholesale grocery business. In 1S69 he entered upon his present career >n conjunction with Mr. Lawrence Gibb, in the wholesale provision trade and commission, which -s carried 011 at their premises, 83 Colborne Street.

John Garton, dealer in smoked and cured meats, 406 Queen Street East, is a native of Yorkshire, England, and came to Canada in 1861. He located hi Hamilton one year before his settlement in Toronto. He is engaged in smoking and curing meats for the trade, his property having a frontage of 100 x 217 feet.

Mr. Lawrence Gibb (firm of Gibb & Gallow, wholesale merchants) was born n the City of Edinburgh, Scotland, February 27th, 1832. He emigrated to Canada in 1857, and came direct to Toronto, He commenced first as grocer and baker on Queen Street West, which business he continued for several years. In 1869 he formed a partnership with Mr. Francis Gallow, and the present prosperous business at 83 Colborne Street is the result-In 1862 Mr. Gibb married Mary Gallow, sister of his partner :n business.

William Hague, provision dealer, 174 Queen Street East. Is a native of Stillbridge, Cheshire, England. His father, John Hague, was a cotton-spinner in that town. In 1856, Mr. Hague came to Toronto, and estab-1 shed business at 202 Queen Street East, in a small way, and m one of the only two shops then east of Sherbourne Street ; and about 1877 removed to his present stand, where he does a business of about $50,000 annually.

G. L. Kavanagh & Co., Church Street, produce and commission merchants. This business was established in 1878 at 63 Colborne Street, and was carried on there until 1881, when the firm moved to tlieii present quarters. This firm make a specialty of pork-packing and brokerage. Mr. Kavanagh was born in Toronto.

[ames Park (pork packer, etc.) was born in Glasgow, Scotland (1831), emigrated to Canada in 1853 carne direct to Toronto. He began in the grocery business with Mr. William Hogg (son of the founder of Hogg's Hollow) on Yonge Street, with whom he remained about two years. On leaving Mr. Hogg, he commenced a grocery business for himself at the corner of Agnes and Chestnut Streets (then called Sayer Street), at which place he continued for five or six years. lie then removed to St. Lawrence Arcade, Nos. 41 to 47, where he is located at present, carrying on a flourishing business as pork packer and general provision merchant. Added to this he has another store at 95 Front Street, where pork packing is carried on under the name of James Park & Son, and also another store at 161 King Street West. Mr. Park was married before he left Scotland.

Seed Merchants.

J. A. Simmers, (Anton and Hermann Simmeis,) importers, growers and dealers n seeds and farmers' supplies, 147 King Street East. In 1856 this business was started by J. A. Simmers, who, born in Saxony, Prussia, in 1827, settled ui Toronto in 1854. In 1873 he was appointed Consul for the German Empire, and died in 1883. Tile business is now conducted by his sons, Anton and Hermann, who employ eight clerks and one travelling salesman. They have a seed garden consisting of five and a-half acres, situated just outside the city limits, where are grown all kinds of seed, which are tested before being offered for sale.

Steele Bros. & Co., importers, growers, dealers and exporters of all kinds of field, flower and garden seeds, corner of Front and Jarvis Streets. This business was established in 1873, at 2 3 Fast Market Square, and increased so rapidly as to necessitate removal to more commodious quarters at the present location. During the working season employment is given to about one hundred hands. Goods are shipped to all parts of the Dominion as well as to the United States and to England. The firm imports seeds from Europe and the United States. The bulk of their staple, agricultural and vegetable seeds, are grown specially for themselves by experts in seed culture, and are tested in a hot-bed in their establishment before being sent out. They export clover seeds to a large extent to Britain and the Continent, where they command a high price. The building, -which is 34 x 120 feet, and four storeys high, is accommodated by engine-power, elevator, etc. They have their own materials for manufacturing and printing all requisites for their trade in coloured work, etc.

Shirts, Collars and Cuffs.

A. II. Sims & Co., 27 Front Street West, manufacturers of shirts, collars and cuffs. This is a branch of the Montreal house, which is one of the largest shirt manufacturing firms in Canada, employing over three hundred hands. The Toronto branch was established in 1877. Their goods are sold only to the trade.

Tea and Coffee.

John W. Cowan & Co., importers and wholesale tea and coffee merchants, 52 and 54. Front? Street East, first located at 25 Church Street, where they established their business in 1876. The present warehouse has a frontage of 60 x (jo feet, and ,the business employs three travellers who solicit orders in every district of the Province. The firm is composed of John W: Cowan and A. R. McFarlane, the former of whom is a native of Ireland. Mr. Cowan is also connected with a firm engaged in the manufacture of chocolate, trading under the name of Cowan, Musgrave & Co. This place is situate at 7 and 9 Temperance Street, and employs from twelve to fifteen hands.

J. Keer (Major-General II. M. S.), tea merchant, 58 Church Street, commenced this business in 1883, and imports direct from India, the choicest brands only passing through his hands.

James Laut, wholesale and retail tea merchant, 281 Yonge Street, established his business in 1878, i» London, Ont., removing to Toronto to the above premises in 1881, where a frontage of 30 x 80 feet and a building of four storeys high attracts public attention. An agency of 300 members have charge of Mr. Laut's trade, which, through their energy and perseverance, has been extended from Montreal to Sarnia.

Minto Bros., wholesale tea merchants, 73 Colborne Street. This firm is composed of John and William Minto, who commenced their business in 1874, doors higher than their present location. They import stock direct, and their goods find a market all over the Province. Both brothers are natives of Scotland, and after their arrival in Canada spent several years in Montreal previous to their settlement In this city.

W. Montgomery, wholesale dealer in teas, coffees, etc., 108 Front Street East; business established in 1883. Trade principally confined to city. Mr. Montgomery was born in Ireland and came to Canada in 1873, and has been resident in Toronto for the past eleven years.

James Watson, coffee and spice manufacturer, 121 Bay Street, started business in 1867. He employs eight men. Mr. Watson was born in Scotland in 1833, and came to Toronto in 1853.

R. S. Watt & Co., wholesale and retail dealers in teas, etc., 878 Queen Street West. This business was established in 1879, on the corner of Yonge and Elm Streets, from which place they removed to Adelaide Street, and from thence to York Street, where they carried on business until the early part of the present year. Their travelling staff is composed of sixteen members, and the warehouse gives employment to eight men, who ship goods throughout the Province. Mr. Watt was born in Scotland and came to Canada in 1869.

Wall Paper.

Fairclotii Bros., importers of English, French and American wall papers, artists' materials, etc. Business established m 1857 as G. S. Faircloth & Son. They first located on Adelaide Street, afterwards removed to Victoria Street, at this tune carded on house painting, decorating, etc. In December, 1881, the firm moved to their present quarters, 256 Yonge Street, and added the paper trade to their business, since which time they have been known as Faircloth Brae. The firm is composed of J. M. & G. W. A. Faircloth. ihe store has a frontage of 13 x 100 feet, and is three storeys in height. Employs a staff of fifteen to twenty hands in the business.

Wool and Hide Dealers.

Tjj Heinricii & Sox, wool and hide dealers. This firm is composed of Tobias Heinrich and his son George, the last-named entering the business in 1879. The business was first established in 1869 by the father, who is a native of Germany, and came to Canada in 1854. located in several places before he finally settled in Toronto m i860, and from this date to the period of his commencement in business he acted as foreman for Mr. E. Leadley.

E. Leadley & Co., wool and hide dealers, corner of Front and West Market Streets. On this business being commenced in 1863, it was located at 758 Queen Street West, but was removed to the present site m 1866. The warehouses have a frontage of 35$ x 135 feet with a height of four storeys. The firm deals largely in wool, hides, skins and grain, and own also a pulling factory situate on Queen Street West, and an additional storehouse on George Street. The whole establishment provides employment for twenty-five men. Mr. Leadley is an Englishman by birth, and came to Toronto in 1856, where he has since remained.

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