History of Toronto and County of York in Ontario
Part IV: Toronto: Manufacturing Industries


Agricultural Implements.

The Massey Manufacturing Company, corner of King and Massey Streets, the largest manufacturing firm in Toronto. In 1847 Daniel Massey established the business in a small way at Newcastle. In 1852 he admitted as partner his son, II. A. Massey, who, in 1855, became sole proprietor. In 1857 Mr. II. A. Massey began the manufacture of the Manny Combined Reaper and Mower, and, in 1862, the celebrated Wood's Rake Reaper, being its first introduction into Canada. In 1864 the entire establishment at Newcastle was. destroyed by fire, but afterwards rebuilt. A Massey Mower and Self-Rake Reaper were selected by a Government committee, in 1866, to represent the manufacturing interests of Canada at the great Paris Exhibition held in the following year. In 1867 they were the first in Canada to manufacture and introduce the steel tooth wheel horse-rake with automatic dump. The business was incorporated in 1870 under its present name, with H. A. Massey as president, and C. A. Massey as vice-president and manager. In 1874 commenced the manufacture of Sharp's Rake> wl ich won high honours at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876, and :n 1878 the manufacture of the celebrated Massey Harvester was commenced. In 1879 the entire business was removed from Newcastle to Toronto, where new and extensive buildings had been erected. In 1881 the business and good-will of the Toronto Mower and Reaper Company was purchased. In the same year the factory was enlarged and a knife and bar department added, thus making this the only firm in Canada that manufactured their own knives and sections. They also make their own special tools, employing five men for that purpose. There is a repair department and spacious show-rooms showing machinery in operation. The. main building has a front on Massey Street of 492 feet, with a branch of 258 feet, making a total length of 750 feet, with a width of from fifty to sixty feet. The building is four stories high. There is also a foundry and blacksmith shop, 310 x 60 feet; an engine room and boiler house, 70 x 50 ; a tool room and pattern-makers' department, 40 x 20; a knife, bar and tooth department, 115 x 36 feet and two storeys high. All these are brick buildings. Besides, these there are frame store-houses, stables and driving sheds, and an oil cellar, 27 x 33, All these buildings are heated by steam and accommodated by two private railroad sidings. The machinery is propelled by two engines, one of the Brown & Oarliss pattern of 100 horse-power, being as tine an engine as can be found anywhere. I ive large steam elevators are used for carrying goods from one fiat to another, while all the rooms are supplied with the best tools and machinery, As an indication of the extent to which this business has grown, t may be noted that 4,939 reapers, mowers and binders and 4,000 horse-rakes were turned out m 1882, while in 1883 the output was G,ooo machines and 4,000 rakes, the work of 400 men. On February 12, 1884, Charles A. Massey died, and the 27th of the same month the follow:ng officers were elected: H. A. Massey, president and manager ; C. D. Massey, vice-president; Geo. Medcalf, secretary and treasurer; M. Garvin, assistant manager; W.F.Johnston, superintendent. There is now completed an extensive office building, 52 x 65 feet, four storeys high. The basement is devoted to dining-rooms and janitor's quarters; the first flat to offices ; the second flat for reading-room and library, and the third flat for a lecture room and concert hall. The two upper flats are expressly for the accommodation of the operatives.

The Biscuit Manufacture.

A correspondent sends us the following touching the rise and progress of biscuit making in Toronto:—My first acquaintance with biscuit manufacturing in Toronto was riding a lever called a brake m a building somewhere between Sherbourne and George Streets, on King Street East, in the year 1848. For some time previous to that date—how long I cannot say—Mr. Cubitt made and peddled hand-made crackers and " horse-cakes" around among the stores. I do not think that more than a hundred weight of flour was made into crackers a day in Toronto at that time. John Nasmith, corner of Adelaide and Jarvis Streets, made a few biscuits for his retail trade ; and Daniel Cleal about that time bought a machine for biscuit making, but seldom used it, except for making what has since been known as "hard-tack." A little later one Edward Lawson began the manufacture of biscuits on a rather more extensive scale, as did also Mr. Nasmith, Mr. Lawson finally selling out his Toronto business and removing to Bolton Village, where he proposed making flour and biscuits to supply the rising city. Dodgson, Shields & Morton bought out Mr. Lawson's Toronto business in groceries, baking and confectionery, and pushed it with vigour. About that time Mr. Nasmith put in new and improved machinery, and did a good trade for the time. In the year 1858 a new aspirant appeared on the field, viz., William Christie. In the fall of that year an exhibition was held in the old Exhibition grounds, a few yards south-east of the Lunatic Asylum ; they were then the new Exhibition buildings of which Toronto was justly proud. An effort was made by all the biscuit-makers in the city to carry off the much-coveted "First Prize" for "the best collection or biscuits," offered by the "Arts and Agricultural Association of Upper Canada." Mr. Christie was the fortunate winner, a fact which at once brought him into prominence, although he manufactured on a very small scale and did a small portion of the business of Toronto, dividing it with those mentioned above. In 1868 William Christie and Alexander Brown commenced biscuit-making on a rather more extensive scale than had heretofore been done by Mr. Christie alone, under the name of Christie, Brown & Co., at 626 Yonge Street (old number). William Hessin, a confectioner, concluded to add biscuit-making to his other business shortly after—about 1869 or '70. A little later on Robertson Bros, also added biscuit-making to their confectionery manufacturing. I overlooked the mention of James Girvan, successor to David Maitland, who was a maker of biscuits in addition to bread-making. Mr. Girvan was contemporaneous with Mr. Nasmith, Dodgson, Shields & Morton, and G. S. & A. Wills who also tried their hands at the biscuit business, commencing about 1865, as well as a number of others, viz., George Coleman, George Constable, L. Gibb, Beaty be Sleiman, and Mr. Siatter, but all found more profitable occupation of their capital in other businesses, except William Ilessin and William Christie. The former still continues the business along with his confectionery, etc., and the latter—under the name of Christie, Brown & Co.—devotes his attention exclusively to biscuit making. The progress of the business will be seen when the fact is known that the quantity of flour now used in the manufacture of biscuit is close on twenty thousand barrels per annum, finding sale from the Rocky Mountains to Prince Edward Island.

Blue Manufactory.

Mich\el A. Harper was born in the County Monaghan, Ireland, March 17, 1850. He early learned the business of a general storeman, and also filled the position of travelling salesman for a Belfast house for two years. In 1871 he came to Toronto, and in 1881 established the manufacture of blue, receiving a diploma at Toronto in the same year, a bronze medal in 1882 and a silver medal in 1883. He employs three men.

Boat Builders.

Wm. Coloring (of Goidring & Sons, boat owners), was born in Sussex, England, iii 1812. and settled in Toronto in 1832. He has always been engaged in the boating business. At present he owns three boats. His office is on the Esplanade at the foot of Frederick Street.

George Wharin, boat builder, Esplanade and Front Street, was born in England, and came to Canada in 1831 with his brother James. He learned the trade of boat-building from Robert Rennardson (who was one of the first to follow that industry in Toronto) and worked for liirn about eighteen years. In the year 1872 George and his brother J tines commenced business for themselves, manufacturing boats, etc., and dur ng their career had the honour of constructing those boats with which Edward Hanlan won his principal races, chief of which may be mentioned the "Canada"—the one used 011 the Thames in England—and the "George Wharin,'' which he used at Philadelphia during the U. S. Centennial. In the beginning of the year 1884. James died, since which the business has been entirely m the hands of George Wharin. He usually employs six men, and constructs boats for exportation to all parts of the world. He manufactures a patent hollow oar, which is giving great satisfaction; also a patent rowlock and patent roller seat.

Boiler Makers.

Currie, Martin & Co., boiler makers, Esplanade, foot of Frederick Street. This business was started in 1852 by Nci1 Currie, bei lg the first of the kind in Toronto. It came into the hands of the present firm in 1880. About twenty-five hands are employed.

Brewers.

John Ball, brewery, 129 Vanauley Street. The premises were erected and business established by Mr. Craig, in 1844, on land owned by Mr. Henry Sproat. Win. Lennox & Co. and Charles Sproat succeeded the original founder until t868, when the business was sold to Mr. Ball, who, since he has had possession, has largely extended the working capacity of the brewery to meet the requirements of increasing trade. Malting is carried on in addition to brewing and gives employment to from seven to ten men. rhe main buddings are 80 x 200 feet, with cellars under the entire premises. On St. Andrew Street the buildings are 14 x 200 feet, with shed accommodation for waggons, etc. Mr. Ball has been an alderman for six years, chairman of the Board of Works four years, and chairman of Markets,

Health and 'License Committees. He settled in Toronto in 1849, and formerly did a large grocery and provision trade in the city, working three separate stores at one time.

The Copland Brewing Company oe Toronto, Parliament Street, was established m 1830. President : H. L. Hime, Esq. Secretary and Treasurer, James E. Millett. Brewer, William Haldane. Assistant Brewer, H. C. Haldane. The travelling agents are Mr. John Millett and Mr. J. W. C. Bedson.

Cornnell's Brewery, 737 Queen Street West. This brewery was first established by John Farr in 1819, being the first and oldest brewery in Toronto. It was called at that time the " Farr Brewery." It was leased to John Moss and John Wa.Uis, M.P.I5., in 1854, who carried on the business until 1867, when Mr. Moss died. John Cornnell then entered into partnership with Mr. Walh's. Mr. Wallis tiled in 1872, when Mr. Cornnell obtained full control. He died in 1879, and the business was managed by his son, Jno. S. G. Cornnell, and A. Jardine, executor of the Estate. Mr. Cornnell was in the City Council for several years; also a Justice of Peace untd his death. He settled in Toronto m 18^.7.

The East End Brewery, at the rear of River Street, was built in 1864 by Mr. Defries, and in 1868 was purchased by the present owner, Thomas Allen, who was born in the County Armagh, Ireland, in 1830, and settled in Toronto in 1851. Mr. Allen s now serving his fifth term as alderman from St. David's Ward.

Ontario Brewing and Malting Co. The brewery (125 x 125 feet and elevator 120 x 45 feet, and seventy-seven feet high) is at from 281 to 289 King Street East. The business was established in 1882, under the style of the Queen City Malting Co. I11 1884 the present extensive buildings were erected and the name changed to the Ontario Brewing and Malting Co. The elevator, which is entirely fire-proof, has a storing capacity of two hundred thousand bushels. Taken altogether, the building covers a space of ground two hundred and sixty feet square, and extending from King to Front Streets, facing on Ontario Street. Fifty men are employed in malting some three hundred thousand bushels annually. Three engines of ninety horse-power are used. As an indication of the extent of the business, it may be noted that, m 1883, two hundred and sixteen thousand bushels of malt were exported to the Uin'ted States. The capital stock is $250,000, and tlie officers are: W. J. Thomas, President ; T. B. Taylor, Vice-Presi dent, and Thomas Taylor, Secretary and Treasurer.

Reinhardt & Co., brewers, 87 to 93 Duchess Street. This brewery was established in 1859 by John Walz, and came into the hands of Mr. Rein-hardt >n 1881. He manufactures only lager beer, anil employs fifteen men and two travellers. He was in tne employ of Thomas Davis for five years before commencing business for himself, and is said to be the real introducer of the manufacture of lager beer into Toronto.

L. Reinhardt was born in Bavaria in 1843, and came to Canada in 1876. He was the first one who manufactured lager m the City of Toronto, and was first employed by Mr. J. Davis for some years. He then started in 1880 their business, known as the Reinhardt Brewery, located on Duchess Street. He ships his beer all through Canada, and has increased his trade from eight hundred gallons daily to two thousand rive hundred. The firm is composed of L. Reinhardt and Ignatius Kormann.

George Severn, brewer and maltster, 815-819 Yonge (Yorkville brewery); established by his father, John Severn, in 1832, who died in 1880. George and Henry Severn became renters in 1854, continuing till 1864, then continued by their father till 1879, when George Severn became proprietor. There are from eight to nine acres in the property. The buildings occupy, brewery 80 x 225, five storeys; malt-house 35 x 1x5, containing three storeys. Cellar room the whole extent of the brewery. Employ rive hands in the bottling department, rive in brewery, three in malt department, two travelling salesmen, and one clerk. Does all his own malting. Brews annualiy about two hundred thousand gallons. His father, John Severn was born in Derbyshire, England, 1807; settled in Toronto in 1830.

Brick Manufacturers.

Thomas Beaty, proprietor of Beaty's brick-yard, Leslieville, came to Canada wi*h his people when young, and settled in St. Ann's, New Brunswick. He resided there until 1850, and afterwards drove a horse and caleche in this city. He engaged first in the nursery business, and has had a varied career. He kept an hotel fourteen years, and ran a line of busses. It was in 1880 he established his present business, where he owns about eighteen acres of land, employs thirteen hands, and manufactures about one million bricks per year. He married Ellen Winnett, daughter of John Winnett, of London, Ont.

Booth & Pears, trading under the head of the Yorkville and Carlton Brick Manufacturing Company, brick-makers, Avenue Road, canily into the possession of their business in 1880. it having been established thirty years before. They employ sixty men, and make four and a-half million bricks a year. They also have a brick yard at Carlton, where they make two million bricks a year and employ twenty-five men.

H. Buttell, proprietor of the brick-yard near Clinton Street, where he employs about twenty-two hands, and turns out annually two million of bricks (common stock). Our subject is a native of Oxfordshire, England, and came out in 1857. He learned the business at home, following the same since his arrival here.

Central Prison Brick-Yard is one of the largest in this city ; annual output about three millions per year; employing about sixty convicts.

George Cook, brick manufacturer, Leslie\dle, was born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England, and came to Canada in 1851. For several years he worked at his trade, and h's first establishment in his present business dates from 1874. I he yard at present gives employment to about ten hands, who turn out about eight hundred thousand bricks per year. Mr. Cook owns two farms to which he devotes the greater share of attention, and is about retiring from the brick-making in favour of his son— John Cook.

Patrick Horton, proprietor of the brick works located near Curzon and Clifford Streets, was born in Tipperary, Ireland, and came to Canada :n 1847. He has been connected with the manufacture of brick for thirty-seven years, havng been i» business for himself s nee 1874. He commenced first on Leslie Street, but three years later he bought and took possession of his present premises, where he employs about ten hands and turns out about one million bricks per year.

Thomas Nightingale, brick manufacturer, is a native of Skipton, Yorkshire, England, where he was born in 1828. He came to Canada with his parents m 1831, they settling first on a farm at Willowdale. Thomas lived at home till the year 1855, when he commenced farming on his own account, and three years later commenced the manufacture of bricks. He began the latter industry 1.1 a small way, but the success he met with in that branch was such, that, he decided to give up farm ng, and devote his whole attention to which he did, and has since successfully carried on that business. Mr. Nightingale was the first in Toronto to make sewer pipes from clay, and now does a great trade in that line. He employs thirty-five hands, and his out-put has amounted to §50,000 annually. He married Margaret Townsley, daughter of James and Mary Townsley, who came to Canada in 1830.

Leonard Tears, brick manufacturer, is a native of Yorkshire, England, and came to Toronto m 1851. For the first two years after his arrival he laboured at brick making in the yard of Mr. Townsley. In 1856 he commenced to make brick by contract, which he continued for five years. He went to Quebec in 1865, where he remained two years, completing a contract for the making of brick for a firm there. He again returned to this city and opened out in a small way for himself, and by dint of perseverance and industry his business has increased to such an extent that the firm—me Yorkville and Carlton Brick Manufacturing Company—now turn out about six million bricks annually. Mr, Pears has been in the Yorkville Council, and is the owner of a fine property in North Toronto.

James Price, brick manufacturer, Leslie Street, is a native of England, where he learned his trade of brick maker. On coming to Canada in 1869, he engaged first in farming, but eventually returned to his own trade at which he worked until 1878. About this time he took an interest in the firm of Price & Co., which continued under a company until January, 1884. Since that date Mr. Price has carried on the business by himself and employs from eight to ten men, who turn out from eight to nine hundred thousand bricks annually. Mr. Price visited the Old Country in 1874, bringing back with him his present wife.

Joseph Russell, proprietor of brick yard on the Kingston Road, was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, and brought up if) Monaghan, Ireland, where he resided forty-one years. He came to this city in 1849, and in 1857 he established himself in brick-making, which he has since continued. He employs eight hands, and the yearly output of his yard aggregates upwards of nine hundred thousand.

John Sheppard was born n Yorkshire, England, in 1817, and came to Toronto in 1835. He learned the trade of a brickinaker, and in 1851 commenced to manufacture bricks at Yorkville. He has since added tile-making to his business, and in the summer season employs twelve men, turning out over a million tiles annually. He was married n 1843 to Sarah Stibbert.

William Townsley was born in Yorkshire, England, in 1827, and came to Toronto with his fathers family in 1829. In 1855 he commenced at Yorkville the manufacture of bricks and brick machines, the latter of which he patented. He died Nov. 22, 1877, leaving his business to be carried on by his wife, Forbes Ann Watt, to whom he was married in 1857.

David Wagstaff, brick-maker, Kingston Road, is a native of this city, being the son of Robert Wagstaff, who came to Canada a soldier in a regiment sent from England to assist in quelling the Rebellion of 1837-8. He remained here and followed the occupation he had been accustomed to in the early portion of his life—that of brick-maker—and continued at that until his death, in 1844. David also learned and followed his father's trade until 1864, when he commenced business at his present location, which he has since continued successfully to conduct. He employs ten men and turns out one million bricks annually. In 1865 Mr Wagstaft married Matilda Sear, daughter of Charles Sear, of English birth. The handsome brick residence where our subject now resides was built in 1883.

Brush, and Broom Manufacturers.

E. W. Barton, broom manufacturer, 848 Queen Street West, succeeded to the business established by his father in 1863. He became proprietor in 1870, and employs from fifteen to twenty hands in the manufacture of his goods, and in 1878 commenced to make brushes of all descriptions. He has one representative, who introduces his goods throughout the Provinces. Mr. Barton is alderman for St. Stephen's Ward.

Chas. Boeck & Son, brush, broom and wooden-ware manufacturers, 80 York Street. The building where the business is conducted has a frontage of 30 x 200 feet and is four storeys high, the front premises being used for manufacturing and the rear for storage. The business was originally established, in 1856, for the making of brushes alone and was the first of its kind in Toronto, the broom and wooden-ware industry being added in 1878. The firm have full control of the Newmarket Pail and Tub Works. The manufacture of brooms is carried on at 150 Adelaide Street, where twenty hands are employed; seventy-five hands are engaged at the York Street factory. Four travellers look after the interests of this firm.

Ontario Brush Manufactory, 106 Front Street East, Sanderson, Bailey & Pillow, proprietors. Established in 1880. Employ from fifteen to twenty five hands and one traveller, and introduce goods all over the Dominion.

James Wilson, brush manufacturer, was born in Burnley, Lancashii-England, and came to Toronto in 1863, when he established his present business. In 1882 he was burned out. He then employed fifteen hands • now he has only seven. Mr. Wilson is prospering in his business and attributes his success to the National Policy.

Carriage and Waggon Makers.

T. Brewer, waggon-maker and carpenter, No. 8 Gould Street. Busi ness was established in 1882.

Wm. Briscoe, waggon and sleigh-maker, 139 Queen Street West, established his business m 1842 and now employs n'ie men. He was born in Staffordshire, England, 1816, and settled in Toronto in 1842.

Carriage. Manufactory, 14 and iG Alice Street, two doors west of Yonge, J. P. Sullivan, proprietor. Established in 1879, and employs from eighteen to twenty-two men. Makes all kinds of carriages and sleighs, as well as hook and ladder trucks for the Eire Brigade. His works are new and of brick, built in 1883, 52 x 85 feet in size and three storeys with basement. Mr. Sullivan was born in Pr.nce Edward's County, Canada, and has had extended experience in his calling, having worked several years in New York and New Haven, U. S.; returned to Canada ;n 1872.

Carriage Manufactory, W. Mahaffy & Son, proprietors, 130 Front Street East. Established in 1883, and employs from five to eight hands ; does general waggon-making, horse-shoeing and blacksmithing.

Matthew Guy, steam carriage and waggon works, 103 and 105 Queen Street East, established his business in 1871. He employs about twenty men. His specialties are cartage, grocery, express and delivery waggons and railroad lories.

F. Jobin, No. 93 Richmond Street West, manufacturer of carriages and waggons, etc., both light and heavy; established in 1879. Employs fourteen men; does custom work and repairing in the retail business. His wood and blacksmith shop is 100 x 30 feet. Paint and trimming shop, 60 x 37 feet.

Corset Manufacturers.

The Crompton Corset Company, 78 York Street. Incorporated on the 19th of March, 1880. President, F. Crompton; Vice-President, T. James Claxton; Secretary and Treasurer, John Walker. This establishment gives employment to about three hundred and fifty hands, who are engaged in the making of hoop-skirts, corsets, bustles, etc. The travelling department includes five representatives. The firm has a branch house in Montreal, the management of which is entrusted to T. J. Claxton & Co., who look after the interests of the company east of that city, while the Toronto office attends to the business west. They received a gold medal in 1881 and 1882, and also silver and bronze wherever their goods have been exhibited. They manufacture fourteen different lines of goods,-their specialty being "The Coraline Corset," for which they hold a Dominion patent.

Electricians.

Electric Light.—The first electric light machine in Toronto was constructed by J. J. Wright, in the summer of 1882, at the premises of the Rawbone Manufacturing Company, 81 Yonge Street. Mr. Wright now has three machines supplying light on King and Yonge Streets. He employs the arc system of lighting, devised by himself, and covered by patents. One of the advantages of this system is that the lights can be turned on and off independently of the machine. He has examined all the different electric light machinery in the Un. :ed States, and experimented with Professor Thompson, of the Philadelphia High School.

T. J. Frame & Co., 120 King Street East, manufacturers of telegraph and electric goods, harness ornaments, and dealers lM electric supplies, and opticians' goods, etc. This firm was established in 1879 by T. J. Frame, who in 1883 admitted T. C. Elwood as a partner. The business is wholesale, and gives employment to fourteen men.

Furniture Manufacturers and Dealers.

Gilmour & Tweedie, manufacturers of furniture, 75 Richmond Street West. Established in 1883; employ five hands and do a wholesale business. Bedroom sets a specialty.

Robert Hay & Co., furniture manufacturers, 19 and 21 King Street West. This old established firm was originally known under the appellation of Jacques & Hay; but on the retirement of the former, in 1872, it became known by its present title. They employ on an average five hundred and seventy-five hands, most of whom are engaged in the manufacture, of furniture. About three hundred thousand feet of lumber are annually used for this purpose, from which is manufactured about §500',000 worth of furniture. Charles Rogers, one of the partners connected with the above firm, was born ui Glasgow, Scotland, in 1816, and came to Canada in 1851, and entered the service of the firm under the old dispensation. He was a carver by trade, and took charge of that department. After the retirement of Mr. Jacques in 1872, Mr. Rogers became a partner of the firm. George Craig, another member of the above firm, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, 1819, and came to Canada in 1842. He was from the time of his arrival associated with the firm as machinist and in 1872 became a partner.

Iron Founders.

p2mvarl> Beckett, iron-founder, Queen Street West, is a native of Staffordshire, England, came direct to Toronto in 1843 and has been in business here ever since. At one time he did a large and extensive trade; but commercial panics and other causes led to a collapse from which he honourably issued, but with diminished capital. Mr. Beckett's business motto is sound: "No man is ever exempt from the payment of a just debt when he is able to pay in the future." At present he only employs eight men at his foundry.

Matthews & Bell, proprietor of cornice works, 30 Adelaide Street West. Firm composed of Asa Matthews and Walter Bell, '/hey manufacture galvanized iron cornices, window caps, dormer windows, eave-troughs, and general tin and iron work.

Richard Rabjohn, iron and brass founder. Tecumseth Street. Established in Hamilton in 1874, a Toronto agency. Moved to Toronto in 1880. Employs from twenty to fifty hands. Manufactures ornamental goods in bronze, brass and iron. Received thirteen first-class prizes in Hamilton in 1876 in ornamental bronze, brass and iron work, also in Toronto, London and other places has received first-class prizes.

St. Lawrence Foundry Company, 206 to 222 Front Street East. Established in,1851 by Wm. Hamilton, father of the present manager. In 1879 the present company was formed. John Leys, president; A. B. Lee, vice-president; Wm. Hamilton, manager and secretary. Employ about one hundred and fifty hands, with capital stock of $100,000. Water and gas-pipe and building and general casting specialties.

Jewellery Manufacturers.

P. W. Ellis & Co., manufacturing jewellers, 31 King Street East. This business was established at 4 Toronto Street m 1877, and was moved to its present location in 1880. Employment is given to one hundred hands and three travelling agents. Messrs. Ellis & Co. have the only factory of any importance in the Dominion. They also have a wholesale department, in which they handle watchmakers' and jewellers' tools and supplies, also lines of American and English Jewellery, Watches, Diamonds and Precious Stones.

Knitting Factories

Joseph Simpson, proprietor of the knitting factory, Esplanade East, was born at Charlestown, South Carolina, United States, 1825. His father, M. M. Simpson, was of German extraction ; his mother was a daughter of William Cohen, of Nova Scotia. Mr. Simpson's parents died when he was but a mere lad, and he was thrown upon his own resource he attended the public school at Chariestown until he was sixteen years of age, then engaged in mercantile business in the State of Georgia until 1864, when he carne to Toronto and embarked, in the manufacture of woollen underwear, without having had any previous experience. He first purchased from Mr. Burton, on the Dundas Road, a carder and spinning-jack of one hundred and twenty spindles, and began business. His business rapidly increased, and a few years later he purchased the most improved machinery, and from time to time has added to the same until at the present time he has eighteen carding machines, seven spinning jacks, and eighteen knitting machines, upon which he turns out from seventy-live to eighty dozen garments per day, of every grade and variety; his establishment is the only one of the kind in Toronto. He employs about one hundred and twenty hands, seventy-five of whom are ladies. He manufactures shirts and drawers of wool and union. His shop is situated at the foot of Berkeley Street. He takes the wool or raw material from the sheep's back, and after being cleansed, it is carded, spun, coloured, and then knit upon the most improved form of spiral knitting machine into a long seamless sack, which is afterwards cut up into the desired length for the garment; sleeves are added, and it is then transferred to the shaping and drying room, where each garment is placed upon wooden forms and stretched to the proper shape and size, then dried and finished. Ilis building is of brick, 55 x 145 feet upon the ground, and three storeys in height; the third floor is used for carding or working the raw material, the second floor for spinning and knitting, and the first floor for finishing, store-room and offices. He has the very best machinery manufactured. He has the pioneer establishment of Canada, being the oldest in the Dominion. He consumes about twelve hundred pounds of wool and , cotton per day; the value of his manufactures for one year has exceeded one hundred and fifty thousand dollars.

Leather, Fancy Goods, etc.

Charles Chamberlain (American Novelty Works) was born at Richmond Hill, York County, 1845. His father, Ryal Chamberlain, was born in the United. States in 1796; he came to Canada in 1814, and settled at Richmond Hill, where he engaged ;n the business of farming and building, which he carried on there until his death, August 5th, 1867. The mother of the subject of our sketch was a daughter of Colonel James Fulton, a U. E. L., who served in the War of 1812. He was born at St. John's, and came to settle in York County in the year 1792. They were the first family who located oh Yonge Street, a family of the name of Miller being the second

Colonel Fulton first went to Elgin Mills, but eventually settled is Markham. He died in 1834. When twenty years of age, Mr. Chamberlain began business in Toronto as builder, of which trade he had acquired a knowledge from his father. He continued in this business until 1875, when he commenced as a property speculator. A great many buildings have been erected in various parts of the city by Mr. Chamberlain, notably the block where he at present resides, called Chamberlain's Block. He has also built in the north-east part of the city one hundred houses, forty-three on Guilder-sleeve Avenue, of which he sold twenty-four to C. F. Guildersleeve, of Kingston. During the present year Mr Chamberlain has entered upon quite a new line of business to that he has hitherto conducted. At the American Novelty Works, 90, 92 and 94 Duke Street, are manufactured children's toys and useful domestic articles, baby carriages, velocipedes, express waggons, wheel-barrows, sleds, etc. A large amount of cane and willow is used in the construction of these articles, which is imported from the United States. The establishment is in charge of a most skilled workman, and the work turned out excels anything seen in this market, and equals any in the world. The American Novelty Works is the largest of its kind ;n Canada. Mr. Chamberlain married Esther, second daughter of Edward Smith, of Whitby Township.

A. K. Clarke & Co., leather manufacturers, 133 to 159 Eastern Avenue, office and salesroom, 28 Front Street East. This business was removed here from Peterborough in 1882, and employs forty-five hands. The factory is 40 x 90 feet and four storeys, and has a large storehouse attached, and engine-house 15 x 30 feet, with a fifty horse-power engine, Armington & Sims' automatic cut-off pattern, made by Doty. As a specialty they manufacture black and coloured sheep, calf and morocco, as well as all kinds of fane) leathers. The firm has agencies in Montreal and Quebec cities.

Frederick E. Dixon, manufacturer of leather belting, 70 King Street East, is a native of Toronto, being the youngest son of Alexander Dixon, born in Carlow, Ireland, in 1792, and came to Toronto in 1830, commencing business as a saddlery hardware merchant. In 1840 he built the premises at 72 King Street East, where he afterwards conducted his business. This building was erected in front of the old Jail and Court-house block, and running through to Court Street, covered the spot where Lount and Matthews were executed for Participation Rebellion of 1837. The late Mr. Dixon was for several years Alderman of St. George's Ward. He died in 1855. F. E. Dixon, the present head of the firm of F. E. Dixon & Co., commenced business at 81 Colboinc Street in 1872, under the Style of Dixon, Smith & Co. In March, 1883, lie removed to his present premises, 70 King Street East, the firm in 1877 having changed to F. E. Dixon & Co. Their principal manufacturing specialties are the "Star Revit Leather Belting," also the "Patent Lap Joint." Goods of all kinds and various sizes are sent by this firm to all parts of the Dominion, from New Brunswick to British Columbia, having three travellers constantly on these routes. The factory machinery is driven by steam-power, and they employ on an average about fourteen men. Mr. Dixon was formerly an officer in the Queen's Own Rifles, and was gazetted Major in 1866, retiring in 1869, retaining rank.

Julian Sale & Co. Firm composed of Julian Sale and W. J. Somerville. Business established in 1874 W J- Sale. Manufacturers of pocket-books, satchels, bill cases, and all kinds of fancy leather and plush goods—exclusively for the wholesale trade throughout Canada. Employs about twenty hands. This was the first firm to engage exclusively in their line of goods in the Dominion. Address: 169 Bleeker Street.

P. Strauss, leather manufacturer, etc., 436 King Street East, is a native of Belgium, and came to America with his parents in 1845. In 1876 he located in this city and engaged in his present business, viz.: manufacturing mats from all kinds of skins, and including also the trade of wool-buying. Twelve hands are employed by Mr. Strauss in this business, which is the only one in the production of this class of goods in the city.

Lime and Stone.

D. D. Christie, proprietor of stone quarries and lime manufacturer. The works and quarries are situate three miles west of Milton Station, on the C.P.R., and there from thirty to forty men are employed. The material finds its chief market in Toronto and the surrounding districts, though considerable quantities are shipped to other localities. He has three kilns, with a capacity of nine car loads (3,600 bushels) weekly. In the year 1883 the stone shipped from the quarries amounted to three hundred car loads.

J. & G. Farquhar, contractors and lime merchants, 70 Esplanade East. This firm manufactures lime and cement at "Limehouse," near Guelph, and during the past year have sold over fifty thousand bushels of lime in Toronto alone, besides a similar quantity collectively to the other towns of the Province. They also import a vast deal of stone, and take up contracts for the making of roads, having paved several streets in the city.

Edward Terry, dealer in Portland and Thorold cements, fire-brick, sewer pipes, lime, piaster, etc., 23 and 25 George Street. This business was first established by T. W. Coleman, and was taken possession of by the present proprietor about twelve years ago. Mr. Terry was born in Kent, England, in 1839, and came to Canada in 1857 and located in Toronto, where he has since resided. He has the city agencies for Thorold cement and New Brunswick Plaster of Paris, the latter of which he makes a specialty.

Machinists.

James Findlay, 50 Esplanade, machinist, manufacturer of -steam engines, shafting and general machinery, established business in 1871, and employs from six to eight men. Is the patentee uf a car replacer, or railway dog; also of an improved hose fastener. Mr. Findlay was formerly an engneer on the Grand Trunk Railway.

Frederick Idenden, machinist, Duke Street, was born at Hythe, England, and learned his trade in Brighton. He came to Canada in 1870, and worked first as journeyman for Dickey, Neil & Co., with whom he stayed three years. He then entered the shop of Fensom & Co., elevator manufacturers, where he has charge of the mechanical department, comprising a force 01 twenty-eight men, where is turned out good and efficient work. Mr. Idenden was married in England. He is a member of St. George's Lodge of Freemasons; attends the English Church; and his political views are Conservative.

James Martin, mechanical engineer and machinist, 15 Sorauren Avenue, Parkdale, was born in Dundee, Scotland, in 1820, and is the son of Peter Martin. He came to Canada in 1848, and located in Toronto. He was sent out from Scotland to Montreal to fit up two locomotive engines, the second and third in Canada, on the Lachine Line, manufactured by Kimmond & Co., of Dundee, Scotland. He afterwards engaged in the St. Mary's foundry for some time, and came to York in the fall of 1848, and entered the service of the late F. H. Medcalf, machinist, Queen Street East, Toronto, where he remained a considerable time, and then went to Brampton, Ontario, and entered the employ of Haggart Bros., foundrymen. After three years he came back to Toronto, and engaged in the Scho Foundry, from which he entered the service of the Grand Trunk Railway contractors, and remained there till near the completion of the line, when he went to the St. Lawrence Foundry, where he was some nine years; after which he started business for himself in the engine and machine line, and carried on in Toronto the works known as the Ontario Engine Works for some fifteen years, when he left the business in the hands of his son James. He represented the Ward of St. David in the Municipal Council,

Toronto, for two years, 1874 and x875- He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and Independent in politics. After a married life of forty-four years, his wife, Mary Mudie, of Lochie, Scotland, died in Park-dale on the 19th of October, 1884. Of Irs family four sons and two daughters survive.

William Polson & Co., 81 Esplanade Street East, engineers, machinists and machinery brokers, makers of engines and boilers. Steam yacht-machinery a specialty. Established in 1883, and employ from twenty to thirty hands.

Mineral Waters.

Clark Bros., mineral water manufacturers, 34 and 36 William Street. The business was established in 1879, was located at 229 Queen Street West, removing to their present premises in 1883. The property has a frontage of 41 x 126 feet, and the manufactory gives employment to sixteen hands.

John Verner, soda and. mineral water manufacturer, 124 Berkeley Street. The business was established in 1867, the present owner purchasing in 1881 from A. Burns, and in 1883 from James Walsh. The factory is 40 x 100 feet, and two storeys high, and employ from ten to fourteen hands. Mr. Verner came to Canada in 1881.

Charles Wilson, manufacturer of aerated waters, 481 Sherbourne Street, was born in Ireland, and came to Canada with his parents 111 1839. He was engaged in this business in Montreal previous to his settlement in Toronto in 1875. His place has a frontage of 30 x 86, three storeys in height, and gives employment to sixteen hands. Mr. Wilson has a medal from Philadelphia, and one from Sydney ; his business extends from Port Arthur to Kingston.

Miscellaneous Manufactures.

James Adams, sail maker, Turning's wharf, s a native of London, England, where he learned his trade. He came to Canada in 1840, and first was engaged at his trade in Quebec, afterwards removing to Kingston, where he stayed seven years. He came to Toronto in 1851, and established himself in business on Timing's wharf, but was burned out after he had been there three years. He next removed to a tannery building which then occupied the site of the present Walker House, where he remained four years, returning again to Timing's wharf at the expiration of that time, where he has since been extensively engaged as a sail manufacturer, tilling large contracts for Government, w tents, flags, etc. He's the only one in this hue of business in Toronto.

Dominion Saw and Lead Works, 253 to 271 King Street West. Established in 1870 by Jas. Robertson, of Montreal. This firm has increased its business to such an extent that they now employ fifty hands. They manufacture all kinds of saws, white lead, putty, lead pipe, shot and colours. A. McMichael is Manager.

Messrs. T. Fane & Co., bicycle manufacturers and importers. Sole makers of the celebrated "Comet" bicycle, the only machine manufactured in the County of York. Also sole agents for the well-known " Invincible " and other first-class English bicycles and tricycles. Messrs. Fane have earned for themselves a wide and well-deserved reputation.

The Fensom Elevator Works, 34 to 38 Duke Street, John Fensom, proprietor, established in 1872, employs about twenty-five men ; manufactures hand, hydraulic, and steam elevators. He does business not only m Toronto, but in adjoining ciiies. Mr. Fensom settled in Toronto in 1846, and for several years carried on the business of a machinist.

Graham & Co., proprietors of the Graham File Works, 73 Adelaide Street West, Toronto, manufacturers of files and rasps. The following list of awards at the exhibitions named testify to the reputation of the productions of this firm : First prize and bronze medal at Toronto, 1879 and 1882; first prize at Kingston, 1882; and at Guelph first prize in 1883. Sales last year $9,000. Give employment to ten hands. Mr. T. Graham, founder of the firm, was born near Sheffield, England, in 1834, where his Ancestors had been engaged in the file trade for a century and a-half. Mr. Graham came to Toronto and established his business here in 1874, from which period to the present time he has devoted himself to the devolopment of this trade.

Grosvenor, Chater & Co., paper makers. Their paper works are in England and Wales, and established as early as 1690. Their Toronto branch was established at 26 Church Street in 1882. CannilT Haight, manager, does exclusively a wholesale business, supplying jobbers.

George Iebotson & Son, manufacturers of cutlery, 12 Francis Street, started business in 1868. Three men are employed. Mr. Ibbotson learned his trade in Sheffield, England, and came to Toronto in 1862.

Lauder Bros. 39 Adelaide Street West, manufacturers of steam gauges, vacuum gauges, engineers' and plumbers' brass goods, etc. Established in 1881; employ four men.

H. Sells & Son, manufacturers of apple cider and cider vinegar, established in 1881. They were located at 55 Adelaide Street ; but they removed to their present quarters, 952, 954. and Queen Street West, where they are also engaged in manufacturing Sell's improved corn huskers and eider mills, controlling the trade in that line, having patents on rive different mills, Which they have managed for the past twenty years. They are also manufacturers of Sell's patent friction clamp, which can he used for straps, ropes, etc. The factory has a frontage of fifty feet and is four storeys in height.

Julius Silverstein, manufacturers of tassels and fringes, being the only one in this line of business m the Province. Established in 1880 at No. 29 Front Street. Employs a staff of forty-one hands. Mr. Silverstein only sells his manufactured goods to wholesale houses. His trade has grown from the smallest dimensions, and is now doing a business of over $40,000 per year. Mr. Silverstein was born in Hungary, and came to Canada in 1880, since which time he has been resident in Toronto.

W. J. Sutton & Co., hair cloth manufacturers, 962 Queen Street West, was established in 1882, the firm being composed of W. J. Sutton, sen'r, and W. J. Sutton, jun'r, who are both of English birth. Previous to commencing business in this city they were for twelve years engaged in the States. Their factory is one of the first in the Dominion, where eight hands are employed, and five hundred yards of hair cloth is produced weekly, woven by seventeen of the finest improved American looms.

Taylor Brothers, paper manufacturers, warehouses and offices 30 West Market Square. In 1845 John Taylor & Bros, erected their first mill on the Don River, and from that modest commencement may be dated the connection of the name of Taylor with the manufacture of paper m this city. On the death of John Taylor the firm became Thomas Taylor & Bro., and on the retirement of Thomas and George, the business was assumed by the three sons of George, v: John F., George A. and William Taylor, who now compose the present firm. They at present own three mills and employ one hundred hands, their output being four tons every twelve hours.

R. Thorne & Co., 79 Richmond Street West, manufacturers of woven wire, spiral spring mattresses, and exclusive manufacturers of "Johnson's" waggon gear and Newton's patent shaft coupling. Established their business in 1880, being the first of the kind in the city. Employ from six to twelve hands, and three travelling agents. The firm received the highest award given in 1882, viz., a bronze medal.

The Toronto Gun and Climax Skate Manufacturing Company, 86 Yonge Street, was established in 1883. Twelve men are employed. The goods are sold on commission al) over Canada, besides whiofc there is a good business done in the gun repairing line. The following are the officers :—Orlando Dunn, president and manager; John Hoskins, H. S. Strathy, John Dunn, and W. C. Adams, directors.

Elijah Westman, manufacturer of butchers' tools, saws, etc., 177 King Street East. This manufactory is the only one of its kind in the city, and gives employment to six men. Mr. Wesiman also keeps general hardware, and superintends all work done in his shop.

Westman & Baker, printing press manufacturers, 119 Bay Street. This business was established in 1874 by James H. and Samuel R. Baker, both natives of Toronto. They are the only makers of this class of work in Canada, and turn out Gordon presses, Beaver's cutting machines, Baker's binding machines, and other work of a similar kind. Mr. West-man is a native of Toronto, was born in 1848, and learned the trade of machinist with John Fensom. Mr. Baker was born in Toronto in 1846, and learned his trade with Dickey, Neil & Co.

Mouldings and Picture Frames.

Jamfs Cash & Co., manufacturers of mouldings and picture frames, 11 Colborne Street. This business was first established on Gerrard Street by James Cash, in 1873. The present co-partnership was formed in the spring of 1884. They employ from ten to fifteen hands and do a wholesale business.

The Cobban Manufacturing Company, 47-61 Hayter Streeet. This business was established by C. G. Cobban in 1874, and came into possession of the present firm in June, i88i,*being composed of the following: John Bacon and Frank J. Phillips. About 110 hundred and twenty-five hands are employed in the manufacture of mouldings, looking-glasses, frames and all kinds of cabinet work. The firm also imports plate, German and sheet-glass, making a specialty of plate-glass and silvering. In 1882, they received a silver medal for mirrors at the Industrial Exhibition. Toronto. The building has a frontage of 200 x 50 feet, and contains three storeys, besides which there is a large yard for the storage of lumber, etc. This firm ranks as one of the largest in the Dominion, having a trade which extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean.

Overalls.

Latham & Lowe, manufacturers of clothing, 35 Scott Street, established their business in 1881. They employ 100 hands, and two travelling salesmen, who traverse the counties from Halifax to British Columbia.

Paints and Oils.

McKenzie, Musson & Co., Toronto Varnish Manufactory, corner of Strange Street and Eastern Avenue. This business was established in 1873. Their manufactures include all kinds of varnish and japans, with a specialty of a high-class carriage, cabinet-makers', musical and japanners' instrument varnishes.. Their producing capacity is from four hundred to live hundred gallons daily, and they are the sole firm in the cit in this line. Two travellers introduce their goods over Ontario and a portion of the Lower Provinces. They were awarded extra prizes at the Provincial Exhibitions of 1874, ^78 and 1879; diploma in 1880; bronze medals in 1881, 1882, 1883 and 1884 at the Industrial Exhibition, being the highest prizes given at those exhibits.

The People's Oil Company, 5 and 7 Church Street, was established in 1882 by W. J. Nichol. The building, which is of brick, is 100x40 feet. The specialties are N.P. engine machine oil, and gilt-edge burning oil. The business, which amounts to $25,000 annually, has doubled since it was started. Mr. Nichol contemplates enlarging to a considerable extent.

A. G. Peuciien, paint manufacturer, corner of Front and Princess Streets. In the spring of 1879 this industry was commenced in a small way on the Esplanade. It attained such proportions that it was doubled each succeeding year. In 1883 Mr. Peuchen erected his present commodious factory, which is 64 x 100 feet and four storeys high. He employs fruni twelve to fifteen men and four travelling salesmen.

Queen City Oil Company, 30 Front Street East, was established in Toront-i by Samuel Rogers & Co., in January, 1877, under the. name of the Queen City Oil Works, which was changed to its present style in

1882, with Samuel Rogers as manager. The works were on the Esplanade till 1882, when they were removed to their present location. The manufactory is situated 011 Sherbourne Street, and is a brick structure 66 x 119 feet, with a wing 60 x 22. There are two brick warehouses on Princess Street, being respectively 60 x 22 feet and 40 x 80 feet, the latter having a wing 25 x8o feet. There are also offices and cooper shops. Eighteen men. are employed at the works ; nine in the office, and twelve on the road m Ontario. At Montreal there :s a branch warehouse, where a large quantity of oil is sold annually. The business has increased from time to time until at present it reaches fully half a million of dollars a year. All kinds of lubricating and refined oils are manufactured, and sold in every part of the Dominion. The company owns six tank cars, which are constantly kept busy on the road. In 1883 they received gold medals at Toronto, Guelph and London.

Pianos, Organs, etc.

Agency of the Speight Manufacturing Company, 501 Yonge Street, C. Chapman, manager. He is a native of Lincolnshire, England, and came to Canada in 1846. He has been manufacturers' agent for the last twenty years, handling pianos, etc.

James Coleman, organ builder, 173 Dalhousie Street, is a native of the Isle of Wight, England, and came to Canada in 1848. He settled in Toronto in 1851, and commenced as carpenter and builder, which business eventually developed into the present firm of organ builders, trading under the name of Coleman & Sons.

Crossin Piano Manufacturing Company, 85 Yonge Street. Established in 1883. Employ about thirty men, and turn out about three instruments per week.

The Daniel Bell Organ Company was established on King Street in 187^. In 1881 the business was removed to 56-64 Pearl Street, where the manufacture of the Excelsior Organ is carried on. Forty men are employed in turning out from fifteen to eighteen organs weekly. In 1884 Mr. Joseph

Priestman became owner of the business. The factory is three storeys in height, and has every accommodation for doing good work.

Gerharpt Heintzman, piano manufacturer, 86 York Street. Mr. Heintzman first commenced business in 1878 on Little Richmond Street, where he made his first ten pianos, doing all his own work. In the following year he moved to 365 Queen Street, where he remained till 1881, when he removed to his present location. He has so extended his business that he now employs from fifty to sixty hands, and turns out eight pianos a week. He makes a specialty of the Upright Piano. At the Industrial Exhibition of 1881 he received a silver medal for producing a superior quality of tone in the Upright piano. This was repeated in 1882 when he also received a bronze medal for elaborate design and finish of case. In 1883 received an illuminated address for excellent exhibit. Mr. Heintzman contemplates making still further enlargements to his factory. He employs a force of the very best workmen, among whom may be mentioned Jacob F. Ouosig, tone and fine action regulator; O. Martin, foreman in the action department; Mr. Louis Sclireiner, foreman in the varnishing and polishing department.

Theodore A. Heintzman, piano manufacturer, 117 King Street Wes'. first established his business on York Street in i860. In 1862 he moved to the corner of Duke and George Streets, and in 1861 located at his present place He now employs about one hundred and fifty men. and makes ii: >in twelve to fifteen pianos weekly. Four travelling salesmen are employed, besides local agents throughout the Province. Mr. Heintzman was born in Berlin, Prussia, in 1817, and in 1850 settled in New York City, where he was foreman in Lichte & Newman's piano manufactory for two years. He the \ removed to Buffalo where he remained till he came to Toronto. From his early youth he has been a practical piano-maker.

E. Lye, 18 St. Albans, manufacturer of pipe organs. Established his business in a small way in 1865 on Yonge Street, and moved to his present location in 1874. He J°es work principally to order for churches.

Octavius Newcombe & Co., manufacturers of square and upright pianos, 107 and 109 Church Street ; warerooms corner of Church and Richmond Streets; piano-case factory, 15 Queen Street East. This business was established in 1871 by Mr. Newcombe and two others, and continued until 1878 when the present firm was formed, the present commodious factory being soon after erected. The leading upright styles are the Boudoir, the Salon and the Cabinet-Grand. The Square pianos are also made in different styles. The firm employs four travelling agents.

Wagnfr, Zeidler & Co., key-board manufacturers, and dealers in piano and organ materials, factory 59 to 63 Adelaide Street West, offices and warerooms 116 Bay Street. This business was established in 1879 by Carl Zeidler, and in May 1880 was first carried on by the present firm which now gives employment to forty-five men. Mr. Zeidler was the first in the Dominion to establish this particular line of business. He was born in Berlin, Prussia, in 1852, and settled in Toronto in 1878.

S. R. Warren & Son, manufacturers of church organs, etc., corner Wellesley and Ontario Streets. This business was established in 1830 b -S. R. W arren, in Montreal, and was removed to this city in 1878. The main workshop is a building two storeys in height, measuring 80 x 100 feet: office and voicing rooms are 35 x 100, and thirty-seven feet in height. The establishment also contains engine and boiler house, store and dirt rooms (operated by Patent Common Sense Dry Apparatus), this block being 40 x 3 > feet. The buildings are heated by steam, thirty horse-power boilers, and fifteen horse-power engine, and the business gives employment to about thirty men. Then pipe organs received the gold medals in 1879/80 in Toronto; silver medals in Montreal in 1861 ; and ten diplomas at various fairs and different dates. There are nearly a thousand of the firm's organs in use between Nova Scotia and British Columbia.

R. S. Williams & Sons, manufacturers of pianos ; factory 31 to 41 Hayter Street; office and salesrooms, 143 Yonge Street. This business was established in 1854, *** a small way, from twelve 10 fifteen hands being employed. It has been increased from time to time to such an extent that at present employment is given to about one hundred and fifty skilled workmen, who turn out about twenty pianos and six organs per week. In 1854 this firm was the first to introduce the making of melodeons, subsequently introducing harmoniums ami organs, being the first in the Dominion in that line. Their factory is 40 x 230, and is six storeys high. They have salesrooms at 229 Dundas Street, London, besides local agents in other places. Ten travelling salesmen are employed.

Purap Manufacturers.

Northey & Co., purnp manufacturers, proprietors and sole makers of " Northey's Patent Steam Purnp," patented in 1878. Thomas Northey first established his business in Hamilton and removed it to Toronto in 1878. Tohn P. Northey, the son of the patentee, carries on business at the present lime, and employs from twenty-five to fifty hands and two travellers. The works are situated at the corner of Front and Parliament Streets.

Ontario Pump Company, corner Spadina Avenue and Cecil Street; 'resident, Mr. O. R. Peck. The business was established in 1873 for the  manufacture of wooden pumps. In 1882 was commenced the manufacture of iron pumps also; and recently, in addition, the firm began to make automatic. windmills of one to forty horse-power, for use in pumping or forcing water grinding grain, cutting wood and running all kinds of machinery. 'They employ in all about twenty-five men at the works, and have about „hirty-five agents in different parts of the Dominion, sending their machines, etc. to all districts between British Columbia and the Maritime Provinces. Size of the factory 200 x 30 feet, with two and three flats. Mr. O. R. Peck, President and Manager, is the eldest son of William Peck, a native of Windfarthing, Norfolk, England, who came to Canada about 1840, and commenced farming in Leeds County. Mr. O. R. Peck married Alice, fourth daughter of the late John Hitchcock, of Sudbury, Suffolk, England.

Planing Mills, etc.

W. Burke, manager of planing mill, 75 Richmond Street West. This mill was first built in 1869, was burned in 1873, and was partly rebuilt the

same year. The present building is built of brick and stone, three storeys high, with basement, and extends 208 feet on Sheppard Street and 164 on Richmond. It contains twenty different shops, which are rented to various parties. The machinery is propelled by a one hundred horse-power "Corliss Engine," built by Inglis & Hunter.

Henry Fox & Co., manufacturers of sashes, doors and blinds, and all kinds of building materials, 324 to 330 King Street West. The business was established in 1871. Messrs. Fox & Co. are also builders and contractors, and during the building season employ a much larger force than ordinarily, which is from twenty-live to fifty men. They also do an extensive business in the manufacture of show cases.

II. Joslin & Co., planing-niill, Severn Street, commenced business in 1878 on Ontario Street. They moved to their" present premises in 1883. They make sashes, doors and blinds, employing fifteen to twenty-five hands. The machinery is propelled by a twenty-five horse-power engine.

Kennedy & Co., planing-mills, McDonnell Square, manufacturers of sashes, doors and blinds. The business was established by Mr. Walton in 1872, the present firm obtaining possession about three years ago. Thirty hands are kept employed in this factory, and amongst the various materials supplied, builders' materials and supplies may be noted as a specialty. The firm uses annually about one million five hundred thousand feet of lumber, besides planing custom work to a like amount. In the year 1882 they dressed nearly five hundred thousand feet of lumber for the Manitoba market.

Moir & McCall, 26 Sheppard Street, manufacturers of sash doors, blinds, mouldings, flooring and sheeting, established their business in 1872, and employ in this department about twenty-five hands. The firm also conducts a budding and contracting trade in which it employs from twenty-five to forty hands.

George Rathbone, 1038 Queen Street West, proprietor of planing mill, where are manufactured sashes, doors, blinds, etc. Established in 1881, and at present employs from twenty to thirty hands. Dresses custom lumber and keeps a general stock of house furnishing.

John Simmington, proprietor of planing mill and circular saw works, Esplanade, established his business in 1879; the machinery in his building being driven by a fifteen horse-power engine. He makes a specialty of the manufacture of cigar boxes. Mr. Simmington settled in Toronto in 1857, and was for many years engaged in ship-work.

The Toronto Planing Mill Company, corner Niagara and Tecumseh Streets, was established in 1879 un Lisgar Street, by Messrs. W. II. Essery & Reed, and formed into a joint stock company some four years later, under the Presidency of James Tennant, with a capital stock of $100,000. They employ fifty hands, who are engaged in the manufacture of sashes, doors, blinds, and hard and soft wood flooring. The size of the main building is 140 x 70 feet, and is two storeys high. In addition to a substantial boiler and engine room of brick, there is another shed 140x30 feet, and a dry kiln 19 x 70 feet (Rundell's). The machinery is propelled by a two hundred horse-power engine, with three boilers. The yard is accommodated with two switches which connect with the railway. Lumber, kiln-dried, dressed and re-shipped, a specialty.

J. P. Wagner, contractor, etc., was born in Rhine Province, Prussia, 1825"' and settled in Rochester, N.Y., in 1837. He early learned the trade of a builder, and subsequently became a contractor. He came to Toronto in 1855, and undertook the erection of the Rossin House, which he completed in 1897- Since then he has been steadily engaged as a builder and contractor, and has erected many of the better buildings and .residences in Toronto, among which are the houses of Mr. Perkins on College Street, and of Mr. McMaster, Bloor Street, and Walker's store, King Street; he also finished the Central Prison. in connection with his business Mr. Wagner has a manufactory of sashes, doors, blinds, etc., at 59 to 63 Adelaide Street West. He is also senior partner in the Dominion Piano and Organ Keyboard Company, and senior partner fin the Dominion Show-case Manufacturing Company. . In the three businesses there are on an average about one hundred and twenty hands employed.

John Wood was born in Kent County, England, in 1815. He early learned the use of tools, and became a thorough mechanic in different lines, principally as a carpenter and millwright. He settled in Toronto in 1844, and in 1870 started a planing-mill on the corner of Front and Erin Streets, 43 x 100 feet, the machinery of which is propelled by a thirty horse-power engine. The firm of John Wood & Sons also manufactures boxes and packing cases. In 1835 Mr. Wood married Elizabeth Steers, who was born in Kent, England, in 18x5. Of his family three sons and three daughters are living, viz.: James, Philip, Amos, Emily, Sophia and Correna.

Scale Makers.

Ontario Scale Works, 123 Berkeley Street, S. E. Durnan, Proprietor; established, May, 1883. He manufactures all kinds of scales from counter to platform. Local trade.

C. Wilson & Co., Toronto Scale Works, 45 Esplanade. This is one of the oldest businesses of the kind in the Dominion, having been established in 1851. Employment is given to twenty-live men and eight travellers. Mr. C. Wilson was born in Co. Armagh, Ireland, in 1818, and settled in Ottawa in 1840, obtaining a position in the department of the Surveyor-General. He came to Toronto in 1849.

Stained Glass.

Dominion Stained Glass Company, Burke's Block, 77 Richmond Street West. N. T. Lyon, President; John Harrison, Manager in cutting department; W. Wakefield, Manager in lead, glazing, etc., department. This business was established in 1882, and is at the present time one of the leading firms in the Dominion. They do a large business in cut glass, and an extensive amount of church work, and employ from fifteen to twenty hands. Mr. Lyon commenced the manufacture of stained glass in this city in 1863, having then entered the employment of Mr J. McCausland, with whom he remained eighteen years.

Joseph McCausland, glass stabler, house, sign and ornamental painter, established his business in 1852, and added the stained-glass works m 1857, being the first of the kind in the city. He is now employing over fifty hands. Mr. McCausland was born in County Armagh, Ireland, in 1829, and came to Toronto in 1836.

Stone Works.

Toronto Stone Co., 95 Queen Street East. Campbell, O'Brien & Co., proprietors, manufacturers of all kinds of artificial stone, crocks, arches, keystones, etc. Concrete floors a specialty. Established 1870 ; came into the present hands in 1873. They received the first prize at the Ontario Industrial Exhibition in 1883 for concrete flooring.

Surgical Appliances.

Charles Cluthe, surgical machinist, inventor and sole manufacturer of the patent perfected Spiral Spring Truss for cure of rupture. Any invention tending to lessen human suffering, or assisting to ameliorate the unfortunate condition of those who are crippled or deformed, is deserving of patronage, and the inventor is worthy of being ranked among the benefactors of his day and generation. Toronto, in the fifty years of her existence, has produced many men of sterling worth, while others have taken up their abode within her boundaries and done work reflecting credit upon themselves and on the place of their adoption. Such a one is Mr. Charles Cluthe, the well-known .surgical machinist of 118 King Street West. Tie is thoroughly acquainted with the business in all its details, having served his apprenticeship to it in his fatherland, Germany. He landed on this continent seventeen or eighteen years ago, and having worked at his trade for some time in several of the leading cities of the States—New York, Cincinnati, Indianapolis—he came to Canada in 1870, commencing business in a small way among his compatriots in Berlin. Here he acquired the reputation of being a conscientious, hard-working man, and his business increased in ts proportion to such an extent that after three years he determined to remove to Hamilton. Mr. Cluthe's good luck accompanied him there. Gradually he extended the field of his operations, making periodical visits to outside towns, and by judicious advertising, which is "the keystone of success," from possessing a merely local reputation, he begat to acquire a provincial one. Then it was that he recognized the necessity of locating at some central place, where he would have the best facilities for shipping goods and carrying on his operations. Accordingly about four years ago he located in this city, where he keeps seven men constantly at work in making different apparatuses for the relief or cure of deformities of the human frame. Chief among these is his patent Spiral Spring Truss for ruptured persons. The untold suffering from this complaint goes without saying ; thousands are unable to pursue their daily toil, and endure tortures of a terrible nature from hernia or rupture. It has therefore been Mr. Cluthe's object to invent an instrument which should relieve the suffering and restore them to health and strength. His long experience in treating cases of this kind, especially among farmers and working people, led him to experiment and make various improvements, so that he has been enabled to perfect a truss which challenges competition. The very best spring wire is used for its manufacture. The top plate, which revolves freely, and gives to every side motion, turns on a solid brass shoulder three-sixteenths of an inch, resting on a washer on either side in brass, nickle-plated, making the lightest, strongest, coolest, and most perfect truss pad in existence. In speaking the tongue acts as a valve in the mouth, which causes a pressure immediately on rupture. This pad is so perfect as to imitate instantly the motion of the tongue on rupture. It is so arranged as to have down-up pressure as holding with the finger. When pressure is brought to bear on it a perfect contraction of the opening made by the rupture is the result. For instance, press the hand with ringers and thumb extended over the rupture, then draw fingers and thumb together, bringing the flesh with them, and an exact illustration is afforded of what the spiral pad does. In addition to this the air can circulate freely under and around the pad in fact, as regards ventilation, the pad is not to be excelled. The charge for this instrument is moderate—cheap, in fact, to the sufferer, as thousands of persons in this country and the States can affirm. Mr. Cluthe has agents all over the Dominion, and a branch office at Buffalo, N.Y. He pays periodical visits to London, Hamilton, St. Thomas, Peterboro', Ottawa, Kingston, Belleville, Owen Sound, Stratford, Guelph, and other places, and at each of these does a large business. It is estimated that since he commenced operations in Canada, nearly 50,000 trusses have been made and sold by him. In speaking of the instruments he manufactures reference should be made to the machines for curing curvature of the spine, distorted or disjointed bones, bad arms, legs, club feet, etc. They are marvels of simplicity, and the benefit derived from them is incalculable. Those who are so fortunate as to possess sound bodies may perhaps question the fact that instruments such as these can fulfil the functions ascribed to them, but if they take the trouble to call at Mr. Cluthe's establishment, opposite the Rossin House, that gentleman wall doubtless be willing to exhibit his large and varied stock to the incredulous. Managing his business on legitimate mercantile principles, honourable and liberal in his policy, never refusing to afford substantial assistance to the suffering poor, it is a pleasure to refer to his establishment as a representative one in its line, and to the proprietor as a man of whom any place might be proud in calling hin one of her citizens.

Tanneries.

Beckett & Wickitt, tannery, corner Cypress and Front Streets, office and warehouse, 30 Front Street, East. This business was established July, 1881. The size of the buildings is respectively 40 x 80 feet and 40 x 65 feet, all four storeys in height. They tan all kinds of common leather, and as a specialty make coloured bag leather. They have also secured Dobson's patent for the manufacture of grain, upper and lace leather, which is considered the best wearing material made, the firm being the sole manufacturers of this kmd in the Dominion. They were awarded a silver medal of merit in 1873. They employ about forty men and run fifty-five vats. The tannery was originally located in Whitby Township, being started there by Mr. Wickett in 1869, who was awarded a silver medal at the Philadelphia Centennial in 1876. J. B. Beckett, the first-mentioned name in connection with the above firm, was born is Devonshire, England, in 1828, and settled in Canada in 1846. He is a miller by trade, and for some years managed the mill of the Hon. John Simpson at Bowmanville, and while engaged there was awarded the first prize at the Exhibition held in London, England, in 1851, for the best barrel of flour. He subsequently owned mills at Whitby, and while there was awarded a silver medal and diploma at the Paris (France) Exhibition of 1867. He was Reeve of the Township of Whitby for twenty years, and was highly esteemed in that section as a friend and neighbour. He settled in Toronto in 1882, and joined Mr. Wickett in the above business.

Window Shades.

W. G. Black, manufacturer of tents, awnings, window blinds, etc., 8 King Street East, established his business in this city in 1880, having conducted a similar business in Hamilton several years. He is a native of Glasgow, Scotland, and came to Canada in 1851. Mr. Black employs six hands in his manufactory, and during last year cut over 4.000 yards of material for awnings alone.

MacFarlane, McKinlay & Co. (Union Window Shade Company), 3: and 33 St. Alb an Street. This Ann manufacture and deal largely in ornamental oil shades, shade cloth and spring rollers, tassels, cords, fringes, shade pulls and ornaments. The business was first established in Woodstock, Ontario, in 1878, by Mr. MacFarlane who removed to this city n 1880. They employ thirty-five hands, and two travelling agents, who secure orders from Halifax to Winnipeg. In the years 1882-3 the firm received a silver medal at the Toronto Industrial Fair ; also bronze medal in 1882. They received two bronze medals and diploma at the St. John, New Brunswick, Exhibition in 1883. From a small beginning the business of this firm has rapidly increased, and at present they do fully $60,000 annually. Their specialty is the Hartshorn spring roller, of which they hold the sole agency in Canada. Their building is 45 x 200 feet, with a height of two storeys.

M. J. Ottman & Co., 417J Queen Street West, trading under the name of "The Toronto Window Shade Company," manufacturers and dealers in plain and decorated oil-finished hand-made cloth shades and spring rollers for stores and dwellings. The business was established in 1882, and has extended greatly since its commencement, doing a rapidly increasing trade in the rural districts. The members of the firm are practical decorators and designers—no small advantage in these days of competition. Mr. Ottman is a native of the United States.

John Wood, manufacturer of window shades, 464 Yonge Street.


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