VAUGHAN is situated
west of Ycnge Street, which divides it from Markham, north of Etobicoke
and south of King. It has an area of 67,510 acres. It ranks third in
size among the townships of York, being a few acres less than Markham,
but it is the second in pcint of population, having 6,828 inhabitants,
according to the census of 1881. Survey was commenced in 1795 by
Surveyor Tredell, and settlers began to come in during the following
year. The concessions are laid out with Yonge Street as the base line,
and are numbered to the west. There are eleven in all, the iotli and nth
being defective. The survey was not completed until 1851, and ten years
afterwards the side lines were re-surveyed. Owing to mistakes in the
early survey of the line in the south-western corner of the township,
considerable litigation was necessary before the boundary was rectified.
The following is a list
of those who received patents in the earlier years of settlement:
Peters, Captain Richard Lippmootl, Samuel Heron, Samuel D. Kiener.
jun'r, Nathan Chapman, Stephen Colby, Lieutenant Abraham Tredell,
Jonathan Willcott, John McKarrby, James Cram, Jacob Fisher, Captain
Daniel Cozens, Bernard Carey, Samuel Street, Hugh McLean, James Ruggles,
William Graham, Nicholas Cower, Robert Franklin.
Priscilla Tenbreck, Garrett Klingerland, Thomas Barry, Hon. Alexander
Grant, Thomas Butter, sen'r, John Tenbroeck.
James Maul, Richard Gamble, Walter Roe.
John McDougall, Thomas Hill, George McBride, Thomas Knight, Dorothy
Porter, Alexander Shaw, W. D. Powell, Thomas Forfar, William Forfar,
John Wiritermute, Hugh Cameron, David Thompson, Annie Dally, James Ledan,
Ann Davis, Peter Kulum, Joseph Hilts, Rachael DeFoe, Daniel Cozens,
Samuel D. Cozens, W. D. Powell, iun'r, William Ilarlong, John Dennis,
Robert Marsh, James Perigo, Mary Lawrence, Alice Osburn, Catharine
Williams, Achsah Souls, Nicholas Miller, Sally Miller, John McDonnell,
Elias Williams, Asail Davis, Eliza Davis, Nathaniel Huson, Rebecca
Iluson, Ann Haines, John Size, Lawrence W illiams, [ohn Wintermute,
Jacob Phillips, Sarah Hodgkinson, Conrad Frederick, Hugh Sweeny, Sarah
Patterson, James B. Macaulay, George Macaulay, Augustus Jones, Samuel
Sinclair, Charles Tremble.
William Bowkets, Michael Korts, William Hol-lingshead Benjamin Cozens,
Joshua Y. Cozens, Thomas Medcalf.
1805— Daniel Soules,
Samuel Sinckler, William Flannigan, Pichard Lawrance, Samuel Backhouse.
Hudson, Ambroise de Farcy, Rene Augustin Comte de Chalus, Quetton St.
George, Alexander McDonnell.
1808—John C. Stokes,
Julian C. Bugle, Margaret Chapman, Jane Wortsell.
jun'r, Eleanor Moore, Louisa Stephenson.
1810—-John Wilson, sen
Small, John Robert Small, Eliza A. Small, Wm. Hunter, Lucy Allen, Haggai
1812—Betsey Ann Holmes,
Alex. Wallace, John Crosson.
Francis Henry Stephenson.
jun'r, J. Augustus Stephenson.
Michael Saigon, James Marchaud.
Hamilton, Augusta Honoria McCormick, Hannah Owen Hamilton, Wm. Monson
Jarvis, S. B. Jarvis.
Several of the names in
the list are those of French loyalist refugees who settled in the Oak
Ridges region, concerning whom particulars have been given in connection
with other townships. Another notable name is that of Captain Richard
Lippincott, one of the U. E. Loyalists who attained considerable
notoriety during the American War. He was a native of New Jersey and a
Captain in the-Loyalist army. Joshua Huddy, who held the same rank in
the patriot forces, having been made prisoner of war, was entrusted to
Lippincott's charge until an exchange of prisoners could be effected. A
relative of Pippincott's named Philip White, a loyalist like himself,
had fallen into the hands of the patriots and been cut down while
attempting to make his escape. In retaliation Captain Lippincott, acting
without any recognized authority, hanged Huddy on April 12th, 1782,
leaving his body suspended in the air with the following paper fastened
on his breast: "We, the Refugees, having long with grief beheld the
cruel murders of our brethren, and finding nothing but such measures
carrying into execution, therefore determined not to suffer without
taking vengeance for the numerous cruelties, and thus begin, having made
use of Captain Huddy as the first object to present to your view; and
further determine to hang man for man while there is a Refugee existing.
Up goes Huddy for Philip White."
act—for the killing of a prisoner attempting to escape was obviously no
provocation for the deed—resulted in a demand by Washington for
Pippincott's surrender, which was refused. A British officer, Captain
Asgill of the Guards, who had fallen into the hands of the Americans,
was selected as a victim in retaliation, and the time for his execution
fixed, but strong influences were brought to bear in his behalf, and he
was finally released. Pippincott at the close of the war obtained as
compensation for his dubious "services" three thousand acres of land, a
large portion of it being in Vaughan. His only child, Esther Borden,
married George Taylor Denison, of Toronto. Pippincott died in Toronto in
1826, m his eighty-second year.
Another of the early
grantees, Captain Daniel Cozens, was also a New Jersey loyalist. He
raised at his own cost a company of soldiers, and at the close of the
war his large estates in New Jersey were confiscated. He received from
the Crown grants amounting to three thousand acres as compensation for
his losses. Captain Cozens is said to have built the first house in the
Town of York. He died in 1801, near Philadelphia.
Surveyor John Stegmann,
whose name frequently appears in connection with the early survey and
settlement of the townships of York, also settled in Vaughan. He had
been lieutenant in a Hessian regiment, and served in that capacity
through the American War, after which he took a leading part in the work
of laying out the new settlements in this locality. His descendants
still live in the neighbourhood of Pine Grove. The name is now spelled "Stegman."
The first saw-mill in
Vaughan was built in 1801, by John Pyons, who came to Canada from New
York State in 1794, and after living for a while in York, settled on lot
32, concession 1, in Markham. The mill was built on the main branch of
the Don, where it crosses Yonge Street. In 1802 he constructed a small
grist mill with a dam over 200 feet long and ten feet in height. The
pond was used to conceal articles taken from the Government warehouse in
York at the time the Americans were in possession of the town, during
the War of 1812. The invaders generously presented the settlers with a
quantity of agricultural implements belonging to the Canadian
Government, and when they left a search was made through the country for
these articles. Many of the residents in this locality consigned their
share of the plunder to the waters of Lyons' Mill Pond for safe-keeping.
John Lyons died in 1814, and his mills and other real estate were
purchased by William Purdy, who added many improvements. His sons, in
connection with their cousin, William Wright, built a tannery and grist
mill. The Lyons' mill was afterwards used as a carding and full-'ng
mill. A fire in 1828 consumed the new flour mill built by Mr. Purdy, and
he sold the whole property to Thorne & Parsons. This firm, in the year
1830, built a new flour mill on a large scale, and also a tannery, and
for many years afterwards a large business was done, the locality being
named Thornhill in honour of the senior partner of the firm. Mr. Thorne
failed in business in 1847, in consequence of heavy losses sustained 011
flour shipped to England, and shortly afterwards committed suicide.
During the period of his prosperity he had added several other branches
to his extensive business. After his failure the property fell into the
hands of David Macdougall & Co. They were unfortunate, the principal
buildings being destroyed by successive fires.
In 1820 Henry White
built a distillery farther up the stream. On lot 34, concession 1,
Nicholas Caber, a German, built a saw-mill in 1825, which was destroyed
by an incendiary fire five years later, being rebuilt the following
year. In 1835 it was bought by John Barwick, who ran it for many years,
and subsequently sold out to George Wright. It was again burned and
rebuilt, and is still in operation. On lot 36, in the same concession,
Barnabas Lyons, a son of John Lyons, previously mentioned, built a
sawmill in the year 1839, which was worked for about thirty years. Hiram
Dexter built a saw-mill 011 lot 37, in the year 1836, which was in
operation for many years. In 1830 John Dexter pat up a saw-mill on the
next lot, which was in use until about 1870. At this point the stream
divides, the west branch passing the village of Carrville and
Patterson's Agricultural Implement Factory. On lot 16, concession 2, now
Carrville, Thomas Cook built a saw-mill in 1850, which was worked for
upwards of thirty years, until the supply of logs failed. O11 tli". next
lot Michael Fisher built a sawmill, in 1820, and the year following put
up a grist mill, which is still in good working order. The small village
of Patterson is situated on lot 21, concession 2, where, in 1854,
Messrs. Patterson commenced operations by the construction of a
saw-mill, afterwards establishing here the extensive farm implement
manufactory to which the place owes its prosperity. On lot 41. in the
same concession, a saw-mill was built by Reuben Purr in the year 1828,
which was worked for about twenty years. Mr. Purr was an excellent
mechanic, and constructed the first fanidng-mill in use north of
Toronto. Rowland Burr, his son, was one of the most noted mid and
factory builders in the early days. lie put up a tlour mill—known as the
Greenfield Mill—on lot 41, which was leased to Mr. Shephard, and was
destroyed by fire about the year 1840. C. E. Lawrence built a saw-mill
on lot 42, m 1834, and six years afterwards built a carding and fulling
mill and woollen factory, which he worked for many years, until his
death, after which it changed hands frequently. James Lymburner built a
distillery on lot 43, which was afterwards conducted by Mr. Kurtz, who
was succeeded by J. Clarke. The latter also built and kept a tavern at
Richmond Hill. On the same lot occupied by the distillery, Lymburner
built a small log r[st mill in 1811, which was afterwards owned by John
Atkinson, who about 1840 put up a new grist mill at a cost of about
£1.000. Mr. Atkinson afterwards fell into financial difficulties, and
his property was purchased by Edward Hawke, of Toronto. This mill is
still in good working order. A double-geared saw-mill was erected on
lots 45 and 46 by James Playter in 1848, which is still extant. Higher
up, on the same branch of the stream, stood a distillery built by James
McDavids in 1844. A saw-mill was built by John Langstaff in 1847, which
was the nucleus of various other industries dependent on the same
water-power, including a foundry and edge-tool factor . Mr. Langstaff
also had an implement factory on another small branch of the Don, in the
immediate neighbourhood. This was constructed in 1850, a steel file
factory being afterwards added.
On lot 50, concession
1, a saw-mill was built, in 1842, by a man named Heslop, and worked for
many years. Peter Prank put up a saw-mill on lot 25, in the second
concession, near Patterson, which was used for about twenty years. In
all, there have been first to last twelve saw-mills, seven grist mills,
and three distilleries, built on the Don and its tributaries in Vaughan
The settlement of
Vaughan was completed about thirty-five years after the arrival of the
pioneers. The general character of the land is clay and clay loam;
19,266 acres being heavy clay, 41,074 acres clay loam, 5,670 acres sandy
loam, and 1,500 acres sand. About one-third of the total area is rolling
land. The low bottom-land does not embrace more than 1 ,ouo acres, and
about an equal area is wet and springy. Thirty-five thousand acres are
regarded as first-class agricultural land, the market price of which
averages about $70 per acre; 20,000 are ranked as second-class, and are
estimated as worth $50 per acre, and the third-class land, including
12,510 acres, is valued at $30 per acre. About one-half of the farms are
under first-class fencing. One-third of the dwellings and out-buildings
are of brick, stone or first-class frame. Under-drainage is not
practised to any considerable extent, only about one farm i« twenty-five
being under-drained As nearly as can be given the proportions of the
area devoted to the staple agricultural products are as follow:—Fall
wheat, 10,600 acres; spring wheat, 2,750 acres; barley, 6,600 acres;
oats, 6,500 acres; peas, 5,000 acres ; potatoes, 700 acres; turnips, 700
acres; other root crops, 500 acres; hay, 6,600 acres; pasturage. 8,000
acres, and orchards, 500 acres. The average yield per acre of these
crops is as follows:—Fall wheat, 15 bushels; spring wheat, 10 bushels;
barley, 18 bushels; oats, 40 bushels; peas, 15 bushels; potatoes, 100
bushels; turnips, 500 bushels; other root crops, 500 bushels; hay, ri
tons. About 11,000 acres is still wooded with pine and hardwood, which
makes the total area of cleared land about 56,500 acres.
In "Smith's Canada" the
population of Vaughan for 1842 is given at 4,300. In 1850 it had
increased to 6,255. that time there were in the township five grist and
thirty-four saw-mills, and the crop of 1849 produced 155.000 bushels of
wheat, 4,000 bushels of barley, 102,000 bushels of oats, 46,000 bushels
of peas, 51,000 bushels of potatoes, and 7,000 bushels of turnips. In
the same year the number of Public Schools in operation was twenty.
According to the census
of 1881 the total yield was 152,996 bushels of wheat, 149,795 bushels of
barley, 242,483 bushels of oats, 75,283 bushels of peas and beans,
103,622 bushels of potatoes, 32,890 bushels of turnips, 48,019 bushels
of other roots, and 8,656 tons of hay.
The population, like
that of several of the townships of York, shows a slight decrease during
the decade 1871-81, for which the exodus to the States and to the
Canadian Norlh-West is partly responsible, but is larger-accounted for
;n the case of Vaughan by the incorporation of Richmond Hill, a portion
of which :s embraced with the limits of the township. In 1871 the
population was 7,657; in 1881 t was 6,828. Of the population in the
latter year those of German origin numbered 993, being mostly the
descendants of old settlers from Pennsylvania. There were 5,248 native
Canadians, file occupiers of land numbered 824, of whom 500 were also
owners. The total area in occupation was 67,848 acres.
In 1881 the live stock
of the township numbered as follows:—Cattle, 2,952; horses, 2,481;
sheep, 4,349, and hogs, 2,207. The principal breeds are Clydesdale
horses, Durham cattle, long-woolled sheep, and Berkshire and Suffolk
hogs. Among the owners of thoroughbred cattle are M. Reaman, Robert
Marsh, William Agar, George Bell, Peter Frank, Jacob Lakmer and sons,
and Edwin Langstaff.
The municipal records
of Vaughan, which have not been preserved farther back than 1850, show
that in that year the council was organized under the new legislation
which then carne in force by the election of David Smellie, David
Bridgford, John W. Gamble, James Adams and John Lawrie as councillors.
At the first meeting held in the township hall in the fifth concession,
J. W. Gamble was elected reeve and David Smellie deputy-reeve, James
Ashdown was chosen township clerk, and Nathaniel Wallace, John Stephens
and William Porter, assessors. At a subsequent meeting, Rev. James Dick
was appointed superintendent of Common Schools at a salary of £20. In
1851 the councillors were David Smellie, D. Bridgford, J. W. Gamble,
Alexander Mitchell and John Lawrie. The election for the offices of
reeve and deputy resulted as before. Mr. Gamble held the reeveship
without intermission untd 1858, when Mr. D. Bridgford, who had been
elected deputy-reeve every year since 1852, succeeded him. In 1859-60,
H. S. Howland was reeve and Alfred Jeffrey deputy. Robert J. Arnold
filled the chair in 1861 and the two following years, with William Cook
as deputy-reeve. In 18G4 H- S. Howland was again chosen reeve, and
continued to hold the position umi] 1868. Alfred Jeffrey was
deputy-reeve during the former year, and Thos. Graham for 1865-7. In
1868 the reeveship fell to Peter Patterson, and William Hartman and
Robert J. Arnold became deputies. In this year All. G. J. F. Pearce, who
had officiated as township clerk and treasurer for nearly ten years,
resigned, and Mr. J. M. Lawrence was appointed to succeed him. Mr.
Patterson held the reeveship for four years. David Boyle was elected
reeve in 1872-3, and W. C. Patterson succeeded to the office in 1874,
and retained it for several years. I11 1875 the number of deputy-reeves
was increased to three by reason of the growth of population. The
principal municipal officials for 1884 are as follows:—Reeve, T. Porter,
Humber; 1st deputy-reeve, William Cook, Carville; 2nd deputy-reeve, D.
Reaman, Concord ; 3rd deputy-reeve, Alexander Malloy, Purple-ville;
councillor, George Elliott, Woodbridge ; township clerk and treasurer,
J. M. Lawrence, Richmond Hill.
Mr. Lawrence is of U.
E. Loyalist origin. His grandfather, John Lawrence, held the rank of
captain in the royalist forces during the American War of Independence,
and at its close he went to New Brunswick, where he remained until 1S17,
when he came to Upper Canada. Mr. Lawrence's maternal grandfather,
Robert Marsh, .settled in Vaughan in 1800.
villages of Richmond Hill and Woodbridge are the most considerable
centres of population in the township. Klineburg, a village about two
miles from the western and three from the northern line, has a
population of upwards of six hundred. Other villages in the northerly
portion of the township are Purpleville, two miles east of Klineburg,
Teston, Maple, and Patterson, further to the east. Vellore is in the
centre of the township, and Elder Mills, Carrville, Pine Grove, Edgeley,
Concord and Brownsville in the southern section. The Northern Railway
traverses the township almost parallel with Yonge Street three or four
miles to the west, and the Toronto, Grey and Bruce, entering it at the
south, near the Humber, takes a north-westerly direction.
The first white child
born in the Township of Vaughan is said to have been Susan Munshaw, who
afterwards became Mrs. Wright.
The School Inspectorate
of North York consists of the townships, towns and villages of the North
Riding, together with that part of the Township of Vaughan north of the
second side-road, which separates between lots ten and eleven across the
municipality. For reporting purposes the whole Township of Vaughan is
included. This inspectorate, therefore, comprises the townships of
Georgina, North Gwillimbury, East Gwillimbury, Whitchurch, King, and
Vaughan, the Town of Newmarket, and the Villages of Holland Landing,
Aurora, Richmond Hill and Woodbridge; this last reporting only in the
northern inspectorate. In these municipalities there are eighty-five
school-boards, who employ from one hundred to one hundred and ten
teachers, with an aggregate salary of over $40.000; an average of $425
to males and $265.62 to females. The outlay on building in 1883 was
over-$8,ooo; on maps, etc., $400; on care-taking, heating, etc., $7,500;
for all purposes over $56,000. The income from all sources in 1883 was
over $62,000--nearly $3,700 from the Legislature; $7,000 from municipal
grants; $32,000 from direct taxation, over $10,000 from C. R. Fund and
other funded moneys, and the balance from 1882. The school population of
this district is about 7,600, of which the attendance at present at
school is forty-five per cent. Twelve years ago the percentage of
attendance was thirty-seven and a quarter. The classification of the
children enrolled in 1883 was as follows: 2,400 in the First Book; 1,600
in the Second Book; 1,800 :n the Third Book; 1,200 in the Fourth Book;
and thirty-five in the Fifth Book. Nearly all are instructed in
arithmetic and writing; considerably over half in geography, drawing,
grammar and object lessons; while music, temperance and hygiene,
geometry and mensuration, algebra, history and elementary physics
receive a fair share of attention, according to the numbers in the
classes for which these subjects respectively are prescribed. Drill and
calisthenics are not entirely overlooked, though they are not taught in
half the schools.
In this district there
are ninety school-houses. Of these, thirty-two are brick and fifty-eight
are frame. In seventy-four cases the premises are freehold and in
sixteen the grounds are rented, while the houses are the property of the
school corporation. Nearly fifty of the houses have been erected since
the year 1871, and thirty have been enlarged or improved so as to meet
the requirements of the Act of that year. Almost, if not all the
school-grounds, are over half an acre, and many are double that size.
School property, which has more than doubled in value in twelve years,
is now worth $150,000, and $90,000 has been expended in the improvement
of school premises in the same time.
The Township of Vaughan
has eighteen school sections and unions with houses in them, and three
unions with houses outside the municipality.
No. 1, union with
Markham or Thornhill, is a brick house, with a frame addition, in the
Village of Thornhill. The average, Vaughan part, 26, Markham part, 29.
Teachers, R. O. Harvey and Annie Hendrie.
No. 2, union with
Markham. Frame house on Yonge Street, lot No. 9. built nearly fifty
years ago, is probably the oldest in the county. Average from Vaughan
part, 4, Markham part, 15. Emma M. Ansley, teacher.
No. 3, Carrville
School, stands on lot 15, half way across the 2nd concession. This frame
building was enlarged a few years ago, and is conveniently arranged for
its purposes. Teacher, James Bassingthwaighte. Average attendance, 38.
No. 4, a union wit In
Richmond Hill, has no school of its own.
No. 5, or Hope School,
stands on the west end of lot 28, in the 3rd concession. It is a brick
building, with a frame addition for an assistant. Average, 37. Teacher,
No. 6, Maple School, is
a substantial brick structure, somewhat awkwardly divided into two
rooms. Teachers, Joseph P. McQuarrie and Jennie Walkington. Average, 50.
No. 7, or Mudville
School, on the east end of lot 6, 3rd concession, is a good brick
building. The average is 32. Teacher, Chester Asling.
No. 8, Edgeley School,
is a good brick house on the west end of lot 7, 4th concession. Average,
41. Teacher, Jacob II. Hoover.
No. 9, Town Hall
School, is a large frame structure on the west end ol lot 17, in the 5th
concession. Teacher, Nellie Franks. Average, 24.
No. 10, a tine, new
brick building, stands on the north-west corner of lot 30, in the 5th
concession. Average 24. Teacher, Robert Moore.
No. 11, Purpleville
School, is a good frame house, with excellent furniture recently
introduced. It is situated on the- east end of lot 27, 7th concession.
Average, 34. Teacher, Wm. Watson.
No. 12, Pine Grove
School, stands on the west end of lot 9, in 6th concession. The building
is frame. Average attendance, 38. Teachers, John W. Franks and Annie
No. 13, on the east end
of lot 6, in the 9th concession, is of brick. Average, 19. Teacher,
No. 14 is a union with,
and has its school m, Woodbndge. Average attendance, 9.
No. 15. near the centre
of lot 15, in the 9th concession, is a line, new brick building, fairly
turnished and kept. Average, 38. Teacher, Thos. P. Hoidge. A small part
of Toronto Gore is in union with No. 15.
No. 16, in union with
7. Toronto Gore, called the Coleraine School, is a brick building,
rather awkwardly placed on the ground, and suffering from defective
foundations. Teacher, Miss McDonald. Average, from Vaughan, 19, from
Toronto Gore, 6.
No. 17, Wleinburg
School, in the Village of Kleinburg, is a brick house, with frame
addition for assistant. Its situation is tine, overlooking one branch of
the Humber. Teacher, Kenneth Beaton. Average, 36.
No. 18, near the middle
of lot 31, in the 10th concession, is a frame house, not well furnished.
Average, 24. Teacher, James Asher.
No. 19, Patterson
School, is a good brick structure, situated on the east end of lot 21,
2nd concession. Average, 28. Teacher, Hesse A. Nicholls.
No. 20, a new frame
house on the west end of lot 31, in the 8th concession, has a good
situation and is kept in fair condition. Average, 34. Teacher, James R.
No. 21 is a union with
the house m Markham, about two miles north of Richmond Hill, on Yonge
Street. Average attendance from Vaughan, 29.