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Canadian Savage Folk
Chapter III. Church and Camp


The aboriginies of America  have ever been impressed with religious influence. Looking out over the broad sea of the Infinite, the great questions of life have troubled their hearts. In the stillness of the forest and amid the immensity of the prairies, they have asked, "Whence came we?" and "Whither are we going ?' Impressed with a sense of their dependence upon some higher power, they have sought him in the sun, and hoped to propitiate their gods who dwelt in the strangely-shaped stones that dotted the prairies, the contorted trees upon the banks of the rivers, or who presided over the boisterous rapids of the wild mountain stream.

Devoted Christian men, filled with enthusiasm for the welfare of their fellowmen, red or white, followed in the footsteps of Champlain in their zeal for the salvation of the souls of the Indians. From the shores of Spain, France and England honest, learned and faithful teachers of righteousness found their way across the stormy Atlantic, to the shores of the new world, where the natives of America greeted them as friends, and made them welcome to their hearts and homes. Intrepid missionaries, like Brebeuf and Jogues, came to New France and following the trail of the natives of Canada, along the rivers and through the forests, sought to tell the savages the story of the ages, that they might win them from the warpath to become humble disciples of the Cross. Las Casas, the Roman Catholic protector of the Indians, followed the adventurous Columbus to the homes of the red men, and taught them zealously the way to life. When unable to enter the camps of the hostile Indians, he taught Indian traders the story of God's love from creation's primal day to the ascension of the Son of Man, and translating it into the tongue of the natives and setting it to music, instructed the traders to sing it in the camps. When the day's trading was over the traders sat upon the ground and sang the wondrous song, keeping time upon native instruments of music. As the Indians listened with intense earnestness they urged the singers to sing it over again, and continuously they repeated it every night for a whole week. The Bible song and story did its work effectively, for the chiefs requested Las Casas and his. brother missionaries to visit them and teach the people more of these spiritual truths. Obedient to the call, they went and won the hearts of the natives for Christ and his religion.

John Eliot, the Protestant apostle of the Indians, left his English home and came to Massachusetts eleven years after the Mayflower landed with the noble band of pilgrim fathers. The seal of the colony was an Indian holding a label in his mouth, with the inscription, "Come over and help us."

A deep impression was made upon the mind of John Eliot on beholding the condition of the natives, and he threw himself with great energy into the work of aiding them in material and spiritual things. He studied the. language of the natives, and began translating tracts and portions of the Bible. He was one of the three members chosen to prepare a new version of the Psalms of David in English metre, which was published in 1640, and, as the first book printed in the English-American colonies, is known as the Bay Psalm Book. He began his missionary labors among the Massachusetts Indians, and it was about 1643 that he earnestly set about studying their language. He translated Genesis, Matthew and a few Psalms, which were printed between 1655 and 1658. The New Testament was finished at the press in 1661, and the whole Bible in 1663. The Indians, old and young, read it with avidity. A native church was organized, and the students from Eliot's school were so successful in declaring the Truth to their fellows that there were fourteen praying towns in existence and more than a thousand native Christians. A primer, grammar, catechism and several small religious books were prepared, so that the Indians were supplied with a native literature, and those who desired to study the language could do so by the aid of the grammar. War, disease and absorption swept the Indians off, the language gave place to the use of English, until not a single descendant remained.

Twenty-six copies of the first edition of the Bible and twenty-eight of the second are known to be in existence, and others may yet be traced, the sole remnant, with a few copies of his other works, of the arduous labors of this devoted man, who died at Roxbury in the eighty-sixth year of his age, with a prayer on his lips for the success of the Gospel among the Indians. To the Bible in the Massachusetts language belongs the honor of being the first Bible printed on the American continent.

Large portions of the Bible have been printed in many of the native languages, and the whole Bible has been issued in the Massachusetts, Cree, Sioux, and Greenland Eskimo languages.

Dr. S. R. Riggs labored among the Sioux for fifty years, passing through the trying period of the Minnesota massacre, and lived to see schools and churches established among his people. With the assistance of his fellow-laborer, Dr. Williamson, he translated the Bible into the language of the Santee Sioux, and its teachings have sustained and guided the people amid the temptations and hardships of a nomadic life.

In our Canadian North-West, James Evans invented the syllabic system of the Cree language, and H. B. Sinclair and Henry B. Steinhauer translated the Bible into the Cree language. Dr. Mason and his wife, assisted by Sinclair and Steinhauer, translated the Bible which Dr. Mason took with him to England and was published by the British and Foreign Bible Society. Translations of the New Testament have been made for the use of the Cree Indians by missionaries who have labored among them, including Bishop Horden, of Moosonee, and a Roman Catholic version by Father Lacombe. Archdeacon Hunter and his wife translated the greater part of the New Testament in the same language. The different subtribes included in the Cree Confederacy are supplied with native literature to a greater extent than any of the Indian tribes in Canada.

The Ojibways have not been forgotten by those who labored among them and sought their welfare, having the New Testament in three separate translations, and a large portion of the Old Testament. There have been several zealous translators among the Ojibways since the days of Jones, Jacobs and Dr. O'Meara. As the natives sat around the camp fires in the forests of Ontario, they read and listened to the teachings of the great Book, and many a swarthy son vowed to follow the Man of Nazareth and become a new man. Touched with the sacred fire which fell upon their souls, they travelled long distances to attend camp meetings, and many notable scenes were witnessed by the worshippers who assembled in the leafy temple to sing the praises of their God.

Dr. Silas T. Rand, the eminent Micmac scholar and missionary, labored for many years among the Micmacs of Nova Scotia translating hymns, prayers, and religious tracts for the use of the Indians. He compiled an elaborate dictionary of the language, and translated a large portion of the Bible. Among the Six Nation Indians the New Testament, and a portion of the Old has been translated into the Mohawk language. Among the Indian tribes of our Dominion portions of the Bible have been translated into Seneca, Iroquois, Huron, Pottawotomi, Malicete, Abnaki, Shawnee, Blackfoot, Ottawa, Delaware and Eskimo; and in the far north, in Taculli, Tukudh, Slave, Chippewayan, Beaver and Tinne.

When Chief Joseph, of Oka, was cast into prison, he spent his solitary hours in translating the gospels and some hymns into the Iroquois tongue. Some of the Cree Indians have learned to read the Bible in a few days by the help of Evan's syllabic characters, as they sat by the camp fires when out on their hunting expeditions, taught by the members of their own tribe, without the intervention of the white man. When they have separated to travel in different paths, they have divided their Bible in portions, that each might have a share and be able to enjoy the consolations of reading the Book in the solitude of the northern woods. They have carried these sacred books with them wherever they have gone, not as a talisman, to guard them in hours of danger, but as a guide and teacher, to lead them in the way of truth. The hardy sons of the great snowland have listened to its precepts from the lips of intrepid missionaries, who have followed the Indian trails along the Yukon and Peel rivers. In the snow hut of the Eskimo the Book has been a harbinger of peace, bringing light and joy to darkened minds. No more thrilling tales have ever been told than those we have read and listened to, of the long snow journeys of the faithful and isolated missionary toilers who have sought out the lone lodge on the prairie, and the scattered camps along the rivers and in the forests, to read to the aged savage folk the story of grace and love, unseen and sometimes forgotten by their brethren in the cities of the east, but they sought not, and indeed cared little, for the applause of men; the work was too impressive, and the intensity of their zeal sustained them, as they taught for immortality, like Apelles, the sculptor, and longed only to live and toil for men.

The influence of the Bible has been felt far and near among the wigwams and lodges of the red men, and the savage folk have learned through its teachings to forsake the dreary paths of error and superstition, rejoicing in a hope that is stronger than death, as it reaches the land beyond the river. In the home of the Northern Lights, and under the shadow of the Rocky Mountains, the light of the celestial land has dawned upon the souls that were weary of sin, and out of darkness have they been led into the light and glory of God. When the mists have rolled away we shall see the tears of thousands of American aborigines who have found their way to God through the study of the Christian revelation in the translations made into the Indian tongues.


The answer to the question of population in relation to native races is not uniform, and must be qualified, as there does not exist a pure race, for all are in a great measure mixed, changed by contact with tribes and individuals, influenced by the language and customs of other people, and therefore in a slight degree in a state of transition.

There are stages of progression and retrogression among nations and tribes, and the same is true of confederacies and races. During the spring time of a nation there is rapid development, increase in population and buoyancy of spirit, evidenced by activity in commerce or war, or the advancements of the arts of peace. So soon as a superior power breaks the spirit, by fair or foul means, the alluring fancies of a false civilization, undermining the morals of the people and destroying the patriotic zeal, the nation, or tribe, rapidly "decays. There is witnessed a tendency to extinction among all savage nations, and notably amongst the American tribes who are the heirs of a deteriorating civilization.2 Upon the eastern coast of Yucatan lies the Island of Cozumel, where three hundred and fifty years ago, when the Spanish conquerors arrived, the population numbered one hundred thousand, besides fifty thousand pilgrims annually visited the shrines. A mere handful of people now reside there, while vestiges of ancient dwellings are strewn among the soil.^ Witness the tendency to decay amongst the aboriginal population of the State of Guatemala, which numbers now about half a million souls of pure or nearly pure blood, whereas, at the conquest the native population was denser than at present.^ No less an observer than David Zeisberger, who spent fifty years among the Indians, believed that the struggle between civilization and barbarism would ultimately lead to the extermination of the Indians. The tribes amongst whom he labored were not as populous in his time as in previous years, arising in a great measure from war and immorality.3 The Mound-Builders and Cliff-Dwellers have disappeared. The descendants of the Pueblos are a mere handful to the numerous hosts of ancient days. The Toltecs, after having extended their sway over the remotest borders of the Anahuac, became greatly reduced by famine, pestilence, and unsuccessful wars, and finally disappeared silently and mysteriously, leaving no remains of their history, but what may be gathered from the legends of the natives which succeeded them.f Evidences of decay are seen amongst the tribes on every island and continent. Within the past hundred years every vestige of the native population of Tasmania has disappeared, and the native Australian, with the various tribes on the coasts of Australia, must soon be numbered amongst the things of the past.j Lady Brassey, in her " Last Voyage of the Sunbeam," says, of the natives of Australia : " The aboriginals are rapidly dying out as a pure race, and most of the younger ones are half-breeds." In 1835 the natives of Van Diemen's Land numbered two hundred and ten, and in 1848 only thirty-eight survived. The Hawaiians are doomed in a very short time to pass away, leaving a hybrid race to perpetuate their memory for a few decades, when they, too, will become absorbed by the more powerful races. When Captain Cook explored the islands he fixed the number of the people at four hundred thousand. In half a century they numbered one-half; and thirty-seven years ago, when the first accurate census was taken, there were only eighty-one thousand four hundred and fifty-three. In 1878 there were only forty-four thousand and eighty-eight natives; in 1884, only forty thousand and fourteen, and now there remain thirty-six thousand.

The Maories of New Zealand—once a strong, healthy and manly race—and the Laplanders are on the eve of extinction.

The Fijians are declining in numbers, as shown by the greater number of deaths than births recorded in the registers of the little towns kept by native scribes; yet, we hope that such a fine race of people may be saved from total extinction. The calculations made by the Board of Health of several of the leading cities upon the American continent reveal to us the fact that the death rate amongst the negro race is very high, much greater than amongst the white people, and unless steps are taken to prevent this loss there must follow a slow but sure evanishment of the colored race.

Many of the council fires of the American tribes are extinguished, the railroad traverses the sites of the Indian villages, and the location of the mission chapel, where flocked hundreds of red men to listen to the missionary, is now of interest to the I antiquary. "Along the Tuscarawas and the Walkosding, the Muskingum, Hockhocking, and Sciato, not a solitary Indian lodge remains; from the waters of Lake Erie to the bluffs of the ' Beautiful River,' not a remnant of the Lenni-Lenape can be found."

The towns of praying Indians in the Massachusetts and Plymouth colonies have passed away. Of the two thousand five hundred converts, under the care of John Eliot and his co-laborers, not a descendant of unmixed blood remains to-day. Some of the tribes of Indians were almost exterminated during King Philips war. Less than thirty years after John Eliot's death, the Indian church in his beloved Natick became extinct, and the native language was no longer used for the records of the town.4 Only a mere handful remain of the powerful Garratine, or Penobscot, and Passamaquoddy tribes in the State of Maine.

There are some writers who maintain that the Indians are j increasing in number. From the changed conditions of the ( tribes we should naturally expect a large and steady increase. Instead of the ravages of war, tribe fighting against tribe, warriors continually on the warpath in quest of scalps, there is peace. The periods of want followed by savage feasts continued day and night without cessation are now replaced by regular supplies of good food. Unskilful "medicine men " have no occupation except among the non-treaty Indians, who still wander in the unsettled parts of the country, for the practical surgeon and physician attends to the needs of the sick upon the Reservations; and where, in former years, large numbers died from the most common and simple diseases, few now fall a prey to these ailments. The records of the Indian Departments show an increase in population, and the untrained observer is apt to conclude from this, that the red men are becoming very populous. Upon the analysis of the census returns depends the answer to the question of increase or decrease.

A singular freak of nature is witnessed amongst the Semi-noles, who are increasing, in the fact that although there are Indian and negro half-breeds, there are no white half-breeds, and though they are a polygamous society, there are more male children than female born, and already there are more males than females amongst them. What the effect of this will be in the future it is hard to say.

The majority of the people in the Old and New World are in full sympathy with the growth of the red race, and are unanimous in their agreement with the sentiments of President U. S. Grant, who wrote, "I do not believe our Creator ever placed the different races of men on this earth with the view of the stronger exerting all his energies in exterminating the weaker."

There are numerous scientists and philanthropists who reiterate the utterance of Goldsmith, "It is undeniable that the American race is tending to extinction." Such a pessimistic theory as this is not pleasant to contemplate, but if it is borne out by facts, nothing but good can come from it. There must inevitably follow a change of policy in agreement with the ultimate issue which may hasten or retard the progress toward the end, as is deemed best in the interests of the race and society. What are the facts in relation to some of the United States Indians ? When Lewis and Clarke visited the Hidatsa Indians they were said to number two thousand five hundred . in Catlin's time, about 1830, there were only one thousand five hundred, and in the Indian Bureau Report of 1888, there remained, all told, five hundred and two persons. Dr. Barrows' estimate of a decrease of two hundred and sixty thousand since 1820, and of two thousand per annum during the past eighteen years, appears startling. We do not think the estimate of five hundred and twenty-six thousand five hundred and ninety-two in 1820 and two hundred and fifty-six thousand for the present time can form a true comparison, because of the difficult}?-in the early years of the Indian Departments obtaining a correct census. In the early days of missionary work among the red men, the Methodist Episcopal Church numbered many thousands within some single tribes, and there were schools and churches all over the land, but in 1885, there were only two thousand four hundred members on twenty-three different missions, and these comprised the whole field of operations, with seven thousand five hundred in the Indian territory.

Fragments of the tribes are to be found in the Indian territory, but these represent large and powerful bodies of Indians which once existed in the land.6 Morgan estimated the Iroquois in the seventeenth century to number not less than twenty-five thousand souls. Pennsylvania was essentially the home of the red men in the days of William Penn, where numerous tribes dwelt, but within a few years white settlers became numerous, purchasing land from Thomas and John Penn, who had their land office at Philadelphia in 1745, and toward the limits of the State there roamed broken remnants of former nations, even dwelling together in the same wigwams. Zeisberger found Mohicans, Shawanese and Delawares living together on the Susquehanna. The advance of the white man drove the Delawares into the recesses of the western wilderness.J: The French Colonial authorities, in a report made to the home Government in 1736, asserted that there were no less than one hundred and three nations, comprising sixteen thousand four hundred and three warriors, and eighty-two thousand souls, under their control.

When Principal Grant travelled over Manitoba and the NorthWest he wrote: "It maybe said that, do what we like, the Indians, as a race, must eventually die out. It is not unlikely. Almost all the Indians in the North-West are scrofulous. But, on the other hand, in the United States and in Canada they exist, in not a few cases, as Christianized, self-supporting communities, and have multiplied and prospered."

In Alta, California, the white population in 1831 did not exceed four thousand five hundred, while the Indians of the twenty-one missions amounted to nineteen thousand, and in 1842 the white race had increased to seven thousand, and the red men had decreased to about five thousand. The Hon. B. D. Wilson, of Los Angeles, in his report to the Interior Department in 1853, stated that " In 1830 there were living in the twenty-one missions in California some twenty thousand or thirty thousand Indians, living comfortable and industrious lives under the control of the Franciscan Fathers." There are not five thousand Indians to-day in that country.

There has been a great decrease among the Indians of Puget Sound since the advent of the white people amongst them.

In 1881 there were in the United States two hundred and forty-six thousand four hundred and seventeen Indians; and in 1891 two hundred and forty-four thousand seven hundred and four, amongst whom we must class some half-breeds, as these are found generally amongst the tribes in these later days.

When we study this question among the Indian tribes of Canada, we are met with some facts not to be found in the United States, especially the antagonism of the races, the renewal or breaking of treaties, the removal of Indians from their Reservations through the demands of the white people for the fine tracts of land, the wrong treatment of the Aborigines by vicious white men, and justice not being granted the injured in the courts of law; but in the matter of decrease we find the same influences at work.

Relics of the extinct race who were the Aboriginal inhabitants of Newfoundland, the Beothuks or Boethies, have been found lately on Pilley's Island, Notre Dame Bay. This tribe was a branch of the powerful Algonquins, and from the remains of skeletons, and specimens of beautifully finished arrow-heads, axes, gouges and other stone implements, it is shown that the Boethies were not intellectually of a low type. They hunted 011 the island for ages before the coming of Cabot, but they found a deadly foe to aid their inveterate enemies, the Micmacs, in the white man, and the contest waged fiercely until not a single member of the tribe remained. The native population which Cartier met in 1535 is believed to have been exterminated or driven westward before the return of the French under Champlain in 1603. The Jesuit missionaries found the Hurons in 1639 occupying thirty-two palisaded villages, and Brebeuf reckoned their number in 1635 to be not less than thirty thousand. Even at that early date the country westward from the Ottawa to Lake Simcoe had become depopulated through the wrath of the Iroquois. The Eries were completely exterminated in the war with the Five Nations, which terminated in the year 1653. Not a member of this powerful tribe was left to perpetuate their name.

Albanel, one of the Jesuit Fathers, states that in 1070 Tadousac was almost deserted, the Indians having decreased through small-pox and other diseases, and through want caused by other Indian tribes driving them from their hunting-grounds, so that where formerly he saw from a thousand to twelve hundred Indians, now he saw not more than one hundred. The Attikamegues or White Fish Indians were nearly all swept a way8 by the Iroquois, and the Indians at Three Rivers shared the same fate. Montreal, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, was a rendezvous for the Indians, but few of the descendants of the many thousands now remain. The Attiwendarons or Neutrals were wholly exterminated as early as 1655, and the Hurons were almost destroyed by the powerful Iroquois. Nothing now remains of some of the British Columbia Indian villages but tombs and rotten columns.

There are some tribes in Canada which are increasing, and there are many persons, including missionaries, who believe that the red men are not doomed to extinction. The Haidas, of Queen Charlotte Island, have decreased rapidly during the present century; but Dr. G.M. Dawson, who has been amongst them, thinks that they are not doomed to utter extinction, because of their ability to gain a good living, as they are skilful fishermen, possess a special aptitude for carving, and can perform other simple mechanical arts. We learn from the " Statistical Year Book" of 1889 that the native population is increasing. There is no doubt that some of the tribes are increasing in numbers, judging from the reports of the Department of Indian affairs. As to the actual gain or loss, we shall be able to tell more accurately when we come to examine the census returns in these reports.

Various estimates of the number of Indians in the provinces and districts have been given by different writers. Upon the American continent the entire native population three centuries ago was reckoned to be from ten to fourteen millions; even Catlin, in his day, supposed them to be fully the latter number. In 1835, the Indians of the United States and Mexico were estimated at three hundred and thirty thousand, and on the Upper Missouri and its tributaries as late as 1850 there were said to be no less than fifty-four thousand five hundred and fifty. General Lefroy made a full investigation of this question among the Indians of Manitoba and the North-West, and concluded that in 1843 there were Crees, Blackfeet and kindred tribes numbering nearly forty thousand, while Catlin's estimate of the Crees and Blackfeet on the plains of the North-West alone was twenty-three thousand four hundred. Sir George Simpson's estimate of the Indians in the Valley of the Saskatchewan, in 1842, was about seventeen thousand, which very nearly agrees with the former, as this was one of the most populous districts of the North-West. In 1809 Henry, an Indian trader, said the Blackfeet on the plains had one thousand four hundred and twenty warriors. In 1857 the Indian population of Rupert's Land—i.e, the territory controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company—was supposed to be forty-three thousand ; in the Indian territory east of the Rocky Mountains, thirteen thousand, and west of the mountains, eighty thousand.

Very conflicting are these returns by traders and travellers, and they are not to be relied upon as accurate estimates. Paul Kane, the artist, gave the whole native population of the Northwest Coast of America at sixty-three thousand three hundred and forty. General Lefroy believed the Indians to be decreasing rapidly. In 1852, the native population of Canada was one hundred and twenty-four thousand five hundred and eighteen, but Baron de la Hontan thought the Iroquois alone, in 1690, were about half of that number.

Amongst the semi-civilized tribes of Ontario and Quebec there is a slow but steady increase, but when we visit the tribes which have only lately come in contact with the white people, there is a very rapid decrease. This fact is especially noticeable among the tribes in Manitoba, the North-West Territories and British Columbia. The Sioux at Birtle and in the North-West, and the Indians on Muscowpetung's Reserve are decreasing. The Ojibways of Okanese seem to be stationary, a slight increase having been reported during 1887-88, which was a healthy year. The Stoney Indians who, according to Alexander Henry, numbered at the beginning of the present century several thousands, do not now number one thousand. The Mound-Builders of Manitoba are gone, and some of the Indian tribes are following them rapidly. Let us turn to the reports of the 1 Indian Department and read there the story of the Blue Books.

The following tabulated statement of the native population of the Dominion is taken from the Indian reports of the years given, the census returns relating to the years preceding:


The question which confronts us upon examining the figures in our statement is, Are these statistics reliable, or does there enter into them any degree of uncertainty arising from the habits of the people, their superstitions, the making of treaties, the intermarriage of tribes, or the origin of a race of hybrids ? The nomadic habits of the natives is a serious hindrance towards obtaining accurate returns, and among the treaty Indians, who receive their treaty payments annually, there is a strong temptation to add to the number of persons reported, that they ma}^ receive a larger amount of money. The reports vary somewhat, large additions being made to the census returns in some years through the non-treaty Indians having made a treaty and then being enumerated. Sometimes the non-treaty Indians of a certain district are numbered with the other tribes. Thus we have the non-treaty Sioux, numbered in 1891, to the extent of nine hundred and eighty-five with the Indians of Manitoba and the North-West. Between the years 1874 and 1888 there is an increase of seventy-four thousand one hundred and sixty-eight, caused chiefly by the reports from British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, the Peace River, Athabasca and Mackenzie districts; Labrador and the Arctic Coast being furnished for the first time, the total number in 1888 amounting to seventy thousand three hundred and one.

The statistics from Peace River, Athabasca and Mackenzie districts, Labrador and the Arctic Coast are only approximate. The increase for the whole Dominion is therefore not real, but only apparent. In Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island there is apparently neither increase nor decrease: in British Columbia, Eastern Rupert's Land, Manitoba and the North-West Territories the natives are rapidly decreasing: while in Ontario and Quebec they are increasing.

The increase from 1872 to 1891 for Ontario was five thousand three hundred and twenty-three, and for Quebec three thousand nine hundred and thirty-two. Is this increase real, or is it, too, only an apparent increase ? Let anyone conversant with Indian types visit the Reservations and investigate thoroughly the history of the people, and there will soon dawn

Painted Coffin of the Flatheads.

upon the mind the fact that the red men of Ontario and Quebec are a hybrid race, many of them being half-breeds and quarter-breeds, yet these are all classed together as Indians. There exist few pure-blood red men in these provinces. Here is destruction through absorption, an apparent extinction only, for some of the natives who are receiving a good education are mingling with the white race, and standing well in the front rank. Several notable cases have come under the writer's notice of persons classed as Indians who have occupied good positions amongst their white brethren. Education and intermarriage will increase this absorption. This mixed race may linger on as a separate race, like the gypsies of Britain, through the retention of their language and customs and the perpetuation of the Reservation system. Is the absorption a cause for regret ? We do not think so. The modern Englishman is the descendant of the Anglo-Saxon, Dane and Norman, and the American is a cosmopolitan, indeed. Here are cases of extinction of separate races in a defined locality through absorption. The higher races have duties toward the lower, and both will be benefited by the absorption.

Amongst the tribes somewhat isolated, and meeting for the first time the strong influence of the white race, there is seen a rapid decrease. The Chippewayans living in the district of Isle la Crosse, in Athabasca, are decreasing, the death rate being greater than the number of births, and there remains not more than half the number of the people there were twenty years ago. The Blood Indians, thirteen years ago, numbered three thousand five hundred, and now there are not more than half of that number. This rapid decrease is not quite correct, as there is no doubt that there were not more than three thousand at the former date, the Indians representing that there were more people than really existed, so that they might obtain a larger amount of treaty money. The death rate, however, is much greater annually than the birth rate. The Sarcee Indians numbered, twelve years ago, seven hundred, and now there remain not more than two hundred and fifty, with indications of extinction in the near future.

What are the causes which bring about this rapid decrease, with apparently no means of recovery ? Some of the native tribes decrease through polygamy, early marriages, intoxicating liquors and immorality. The inhabitants of the Polynesian Islands rapidly decreased through infanticide, polygamy, early marriages, labor trade and unlawful diseases;9 the British Columbian Indians through debauchery and disease arising from immorality; the Hawaiians from leprosy, drunkenness, and the diseases arising from contact with civilization; the Indians on the Pacific Coast in the early days from war with each other ;-f- the Indians of Pennsylvania and the adjoining territory through the persecution of white men whose religious belief, as they called it,,demanded the extermination of the red men. J Famine caused many to die, the Nanticokes, from this and other causes, being reduced to four or five families.  Dr. Brinton says that " the Indians have degenerated in moral sense as the result of contact with the white race;" || and the unanimous verdict of missionaries and travellers is that the Indians have decreased through contact with civilization, the encroachments of the people demanding their land, and eager for their extermination.

Hunter, in his narrative of his nineteen years spent among the Indians, ascribes their decrease to wars arising from trespassing on the lands belonging to other tribes in search of game, the civilization of the white people causing the Indians to indulge in luxuries, and follow the white man's vices, the destruction of the game through the white man's demand for furs, the loss of their land causing a declension of national pride, and finally, intoxicating drinks.

Paul Kane attributed the decrease of the Indians whom he visited chiefly to the indulgence in intoxicating drink. The Haidas lost three hundred people in 1868 through small-pox. One or two thousand years ago the Ohio Valley was peopled by an industrious population of some Indian stock with a fair degree of civilization, who were assailed by an alliance of Hurons and Algonquins, almost wholly exterminating them. The survivors were either incorporated with the conquering tribes or fled southward and found refuge among the nations lying between the Ohio Valley and the Gulf of Mexico.

The war of the Spaniards with the Indians reduced them sadly. They were beaten with the Spanish lash, brought into the most abject state of slavery, being made beasts of burden, and when their strength failed they were slain. Small-pox destroyed large numbers of them. Hispaniola had one million natives in the days of Columbus, and when this and other islands fell into the hands of the English there was no trace left of the original population. The lowest estimate made of the natives destroyed by the Spanish conquest is no less than ten million persons.^ War, small-pox and other diseases and immorality destroyed several of the Jesuit missions.^ The Indians of Puget Sound have decreased through drunkenness, diseases consequent upon licentiousness, consumption, small-pox and whooping cough and measles among the children. Many have died from diseases arising from the transition from a savage to a civilized state of life, dwelling in houses instead of tents, and the wearing of European clothing, causing the accumulation of filth and, therefore, disease; whereas in the modes of savage life, with the nomadic habit of the people, the filthy camp was left, and the Indians spent much of their time in the water, which kept them in a healthy state. Amongst the natives of the Canadian North-West the changed conditions of life, fondness for unwholesome food, the filth of the houses and camp, and disease and degradation arising from immorality have been some of the chief causes of their rapid decrease. General Lefroy attributed their decrease to the substitution of inferior European clothing for their robes of fur, the use of stimulants, gradual loss of native arts and appliances, abortion and sterility in females, induced by the use of potions, the deterioration of their dwellings, consciousness of decline, pressure of new necessities, and a sense of superiority of their white neighbors. Dr. J. C. Tache, late Deputy Minister of Agriculture, in his introduction to the census of 1871, made the following observations regarding this question: "The broad facts which spring from the examination of the conditions of the savage state in this country are, that the most fertile soils are not those which, in general, yield most support to those engaged in hunting; that the fisheries, and specially on the Maritime coasts, are the most abundant of the natural sources of supply found by man in a savage state. It is the Indians most favorably situated in respect to soil and climate, who supplemented the food obtained by hunting and fishing by cultivation. On the other hand, the Eskimos, whose territory is restricted to the waste and desolate shores of the frozen sea, managed to derive a rough abundance from the ice-bound waters.

"That Indian populations, living exclusively by hunting and fishing, cannot increase beyond certain very restricted limits, governed by a ratio between the number of inhabitants and the superficies inhabited. Below this ratio they descend periodically, by famine, disease, or war, oscillating in this way between an almost determinable maximum (the circumstances being known) and an indeterminable minimum. The mildness of the climate has a great bearing on this question, if not in actually adding to the natural resources, at least in lessening the wants.

"That Indian populations, keeping to the habits of hunting tribes, diminish in number in the ratio of the extent and frequency of their relations with civilized nations, by the destruction of their primitive means of existence, and the introduction of vices and diseases, or by absorption in the creation of a half-breed race."

The observations of the writer for the past twelve years, among the Indian tribes of the Canadian North-West, have led him to conclude that the decrease arose during the early years before the advent of the white race from tribal wars; but after the settlers arrived small-pox claimed a very large number, amounting to thousands among the Crees, Blackfeet-and Sarcees. Liquor introduced during the buffalo days, when the traders were on the plains, aroused the Indians to quarrel with each other, and many were killed; some died during the famine of 1878, when the buffaloes left the country, and since that period consumption and vice have claimed a large number. The new mode of life on a Reserve, dwelling in filthy houses, badly ventilated, has induced disease; the idle manner of living, being fed by the Government, and having little to do; the poor clothing worn in the winter; badly cooked food; the consciousness that as a race they are fading away, and the increasing strength of the white race, has caused such a depression of spirit that many of them may be said to die of a broken heart.

The mortality among the children from diseases common to the white children is very great. The two chief causes, however, are immoral diseases and depression of spirit. From our investigation of the whole question, we have come to the conclusion that when the Indians first come into contact with civilization they decreased rapidly, and if the tribe is numerous it may be able to rally, and thus be saved from total extinction : the small tribe gradually succumbing to the deteriorating influence. If the relations of the two races are not antagonistic, but are of such a friendly character as to encourage the stronger to seek the elevation of the weaker, the feeling of an exterminating influence at work entertained by the weaker will be removed, and a recognition of equality being established, ensuring confidence, will work so strongly upon the natives that the transition state being bridged over safely, a period of increase will follow. The position of the red men will be such that there will be an intermingling with their white neighbors, and as the result of intermarriage, according to the Indian custom or that of the white people, there will spring up a race of half-breeds. The slow settlement of the country will keep this half-breed race in possession of their language, customs and Reservation system; but so soon as there is rapid advancement, there will follow a voluntary absorption, and this will prove to be a benison to both races, uniting them in language, customs, privileges and toil. Compulsory absorption is not agreeable to our political sentiments, but as the races are drawn closer together, they will gradually unite, and this will ultimately solve the problem of the perpetuation of a separate race within the bounds of the Dominion.


When the tide of emigration reached the far west, the red men were in a serious mood at the encroachments upon their territory, and no longer engaged in scenes of savage warfare with hostile tribes, they sat in their lodges during the long evenings in groups talking about their grievances, and discussing the queer ways of the white men. The stories of brave men and glorious deeds were forgotten for a time in the new subjects which filled their minds, and they lent a willing ear to the curious tales related by the adventurous warrior, who had penetrated farther than his fellows, into the secrets of the power and success of the men and women who were .seeking homes on the prairie land. The savage folk had come in contact with trappers and traders, men in the employment of the Hudson's Bay Company, miners and bull-whackers and the Mounted Police, but the newcomers brought their wives and children with them, determined to reside in the country, and this compelled the Indians to ask one another what they would do on the prairie to subsist, seeing that the buffalo had gone to return no more. One or two of the natives had been taken east on a visit before the tide of emigration set in, and when they returned they related the most wonderful tales of the vast populations, great wealth and skill of the white people, but the natives did not believe them. They did not charge them with deliberate falsehood, but asserted that they had been enchanted by the white medicine men. Curiosity led some of the boldest to pry into the affairs of the emigrants, and after a while large numbers of young and old were to be seen gathered around the primitive-looking dwelling of the pale-face. As the busy housewife prepared the noon-day meal or baked bread, the house suddenly became darkened by a crowd of the natives peering in at the windows. The native women laughed as the white woman made garments for her children. It seemed strange to them that the cloth should be cut into so many small pieces and then sewed together again. The sewing machine and clothes wringer afforded much amusement. The men travelled long distances to gaze upon the fire-waggon, their significant name for the locomotive, and when the first steamboat sailed up the Belly River to Lethbridge, a large number of the Blood and Piegan Indians went to satisfy their curiosity.

Great was their astonishment at these evidences of the ability of the white men, and whilst believing in their native superiority, they were free to acknowledge that the white men were superior to them in some things. They looked upon the white men as brothers, and applied to them the same communistic belief as they obeyed and taught themselves. Whenever they asked for a gift of tea, tobacco or money, and they were told that the individual was a poor man and had none of these articles, the invariable answer was, Write a letter and I will go to the trading-post and get them.

The fact of having to pay on account never seemed to enter their minds. They were amused when they saw potatoes cut up and planted in the ground, and when they were learning to farm and put the potatoes in the ground, they went day after day looking for signs of growth, and at last getting tired waiting, dug up the seed and ate it. One of our friends employed some Indian families to plant his potato field, and gave them the potatoes for that purpose. They were very slow in getting the work done, and after being paid, the rancher was surprised and angry to find that they had peeled and eaten the potatoes and planted the parings. Fortunately it was a wet season and a good crop of potatoes was the result.

The customs of the natives appear not more strange to the white man, than do the customs of the white race to the Indians. A village ball, where men and women danced together, was a scene that threw the Piegan Indians, who were spectators, into a fit of laughter. They could understand men dancing alone and appreciate it, but to see men and women together was to them a subject for fools. The Blood Indians talked and laughed over the strange marriage customs of the white people. When a detachment of infantry came to Macleod during the second Riel Rebellion, one of the chiefs came to the mission-house and, alternately, spoke with laughter and scorn of the little men without horses. They could not understand the individuality of the white men, each laboring for himself, and apparently not caring for his brother-man, as they were firm believers in the brotherhood of the red men, and sought to put into practice the teachings of the wise men of the lodges. Even the dress of the white men was a puzzle to them. When an Indian received the present of a hat, he cut the crown in shreds, which hung over the sides as ornaments, allowing the air to reach his head to keep it cool. A pair of pants given to him were cut in twain and made in the Indian fashion, and were worn with the breech cloth. The white man was a puzzle to him, and his customs were very queer. The savage folk ignored the customs of the white folk, and their suspicions were aroused on many occasions. When the native children were urged to attend school, and the adults to assemble for religious services, they wanted to be paid for allowing the children to be taught, as they felt that some unknown advantage was sought by the white people in the education of the children. Having an educational system of their own, they thought that they should receive something for allowing the white man's culture to displace their own.

Accustomed to war, and always expecting their enemies to take advantage of them, they could not believe that it was possible for men to leave their homes and settle among the natives to teach them without having some selfish motive, and looking for some advantage. This belief was strengthened by the first wave of emigration, when the Indians sold their beautiful moccasins and various articles of native manufacture, receiving as compensation, from despicable white men, counterfeit money, and for articles worth three and four dollars a highly-polished single cent. Sometimes they applied to the white people the terms "fools" and "white savages."

Elated by the dream of sudden wealth the white folk travelled westward, delighted with the novelty of camping out, singing as they went,

"We'll have a tent
Upon the banks of some wandering stream,
Whose ripple, like the murmur of a dream,
Shall be our music."

Some of these tenderfeet had read about Indians, and their ideas about the noble red man threw a halo of romance around the scenes of western life, and when they gazed upon the real men and women, and found the glowing descriptions of prairie life and red men did not agree with the actual vision, oftentimes there came a revulsion of feeling, and hatred dwelt where the romantic ideal had formerly reigned. The pilgrims from the east gazed in astonishment at the scantily clad wanderers from the camp, and in their ignorance concluded that these were ideal red men, and genuine specimens of#the savage folk. They studied them from the standpoint of the white man, ignorant of the beautiful languages and traditions, the significant religious ideas, social and political customs, and the native independence and heroism of the dwellers in the wilderness. With childish sentimentality they treated the red men as savages, and unable to pierce the shadow of their customs, they laughed at the queer ways of the people of the lodges, concluding that wisdom was the heritage of the white race. Simple tenderfeet! Could they have reserved their verdict until they had studied the ways of the savage folk from the Indians' standpoint, they would have learned that native culture and independence were to be found in the lodges, and nations and peoples are savage to one another. We are all savages in the estimation of somebody. When we are able to note the points of similarity, and not dwell on the differences, we are drawn closer together, and we are able to understand and appreciate one another.

There are no people who delight to listen to an eloquent speaker more than the natives of the prairies and forests. The most respectful attention is given to the person addressing the audience, never interrupting him with manifestations of dissension or applause, but they seriously listen to what he has to say, and if deeply moved by his eloquence, they will close the assembly after he has concluded that some time may be given to weigh calmly the arguments set forth. The harangue of a leader of a war party is not always so treated, but if the speaker is a stranger, perfect stillness reigns, and all eyes are fixed upon him, drinking deeply the truths which he is endeavoring to utter. When Tecumseh, the great Shawnee warrior visited the tribes to unite them in a grand confederacy against the white race, he always addressed them in dignified language, making an impassioned appeal, which touched the hearts of his dusky audiences. As he rose to address the people, he stood calmly for a few moments and surveyed the audience, then, without any preliminaries, spoke to them upon the question which had brought them together. His gestures and language w^re born of the forest and the intense feelings which moved his soul. Hunter, in his "Memoirs of a Captivity Among the Indians," gives the substance of an address given by Tecumseh to the Usages, which must necessarily be imperfect, from the fact that it was written from memory some years after it was delivered.

Tecumseh said: "Brothers, we all belong to one family; we are all children of the Great Spirit; we walk in the same path; slake our thirst at the same spring, and now affairs of the greatest concern lead us to smoke the pipe around the same council fire.

"Brothers,—We are friends; we must assist each other to bear our burdens. The blood of many of our fathers and brothers has run like water on the ground to satisfy the avarice of the white men. We, ourselves, are threatened with a great evil, nothing will pacify them but the destruction of all the red men.

"Brothers,—When the white men first set foot on our ground they were hungry, they had no place on which to spread their blankets, or to kindle their fires. They were feeble, they could do nothing for themselves. Our. fathers commiserated their distress and shared freely with them whatever the Great Spirit had given his red children. They gave them food when hungry, medicine when sick, spread skins for them to sleep on, and gave them grounds, that they might hunt and raise corn. Brothers, the white people are like poisonous serpents, when chilled they are feeble and harmless, but invigorate them with warmth, and they sting their benefactors to death. The white people came among us feeble, and now we have made them strong, they wish to kill us or drive us back, as they would wolves and panthers.

"Brothers,—The white men are not friends to the Indians, at first they only asked for land sufficient for a wigwam, now nothing will satisfy them, but the whole of our hunting grounds, from the rising to the setting sun.

"Brothers,—The white men want more than our hunting grounds, they wish to kill our warriors, they would even kill our old men, women, and little ones.

"Brothers,—Many winters ago there was no land, the sun did not rise and set, all was darkness. The Great Spirit made all things. He gave the white people a home beyond the great waters. He supplied these grounds with game, and gave them to his red children, and he gave them strength and courage to defend them.

"Brothers,—My people wish for peace, the red men all wish for peace; but where the white people are there is no peace for them, except it be on the bosom of our mother.

"Brothers,—The white men despise and cheat the Indians; they abuse and insult them; they do not think the red men sufficiently good tu live. The red men have borne many and great injuries; they ought to suffer them no longer. My people will not; they are determined on vengeance ; they have taken up the tomahawk: they will make it fat with blood; they will drink the blood of the white people.

"Brothers,—My people are brave and numerous, but the white people are too strong for them alone. I wish you to take up the tomahawk with them. If we all unite, we will cause the ris ers to stain the great waters with their blood.

"Brothers,— If you do not unite with us they will first destroy us, and then you will fall an easy prey to them. They have destroyed many nations of red men because they were not united, because they were not friends to each other.

"Brothers,—The white people send runners amongst us; they wish to make us enemies, that they may sweep over and desolate our hunting grounds, like devastating winds or rushing waters.

"Brothers,—Our great Father over the great waters is angry with the white people, our enemies. He will send his brave warriors against them: he will send us rifles and whatever else we want; he is our friend and we are his children.

"Brothers,—Who are the white people that we should fear them ? They cannot run fast, and are good marks to shoot at; they are only men; our fathers have killed many of them. We are not squaws, and we will stain the earth red with their blood.

"Brothers,—The Great Spirit is angry with our enemies. He speaks in thunder, and the earth swallows up villages and drinks up the Mississippi. The great waters will cover the lowlands; their corn cannot grow, and the Great Spirit will sweep those who escape to the hills from the earth with his terrible breath.

"Brothers,—We must be united, we must smoke the same pipe, we must fight each others battles, and, more than all, we must love the Great Spirit. He is for us. He will destroy our enemies, and make all His red children happy.11

"The whiteskins, ignorant of the native customs, are apt to believe that the redskins are greedy, as they have witnessed them incessantly asking gifts from their rich neighbors; but this habit of begging arises from the fact that they are hospitable at home, and expect the same rites accorded them when they are among the white people. They are as hospitable as their white friends, if not more so, according to their wealth. When a small band of their enemies enter their camp and throw themselves upon the good-will of the natives, they will adopt them into the tribe, distributing them among the families, and afford them protection. If a young man has died or been slain another will be adopted to fill his place, who will be treated as a son, and will be expected to perform all the duties of a natural son. At meal times all the persons who may happen to be in the lodge partake, even though some of them may not be friendly to the master of the lodge. No one asks for anything, but is served as a matter of course. Should an enemy partake of food or drink, or put the pipe in his mouth, he cannot be injured by any member of the tribe; but, after leaving camp, if he is again found, he may be slain. This is the reason that travellers, having enjoyed the rites of hospitality, travel as quickly as possible in troublesome times from the camp of the red men."

As we have teachers among us to instruct us in morals, and to incite us to brave deeds by their noble examples, the sages of the camps taught the young men to be brave, generous and kind, honest and truthful in word and • deed. We have listened in the lodges to these aged men, blind and covered with many scars, relating the story of their adventures to the young men, urging them always to defend their people, treat the white people as their friends, and never demean themselves by unmanly acts.12

Hunter narrates a scene similar to those we have often witnessed among the Blackfeet. The Indian warrior, addressing the youth of the camp, said, " Never steal, except it be from an enemy, whom it is just that we should injure in every possible way. When you become men, be brave and cunning in war, and defend your hunting grounds against all encroachments. Never suffer your squaws or little ones to want. Protect the squaws and strangers from insult. On no account betray your friend. Resent insults; revenge yourself on your enemies. Drink not the poisonous strong water of the white people; it is sent by the bad spirit to destroy the Indians. Fear not death, none but cowards fear to die. Obey and venerate the old people, particularly your parents. Fear and propitiate the bad spirit, that he may do you no harm. Love and adore the good Spirit, who made us all, who supplies our hunting grounds and keeps us alive."

The privilege of greatness was conferred on those who were generous, being esteemed for their generosity as great as the I man who had gained honor by his bravery in war. The man who wished to be great must not exercise his generosity toward his kindred who have a natural right to any assistance he can render them, but whenever he found any person in extreme need, especially the aged, who cannot help themselves, he was to assist them without any hope of being compensated for his gifts. Some of the tribes were noted for their generosity toward other tribes who were unfortunate in their crops, or had suffered in other ways. He was esteemed a great man who invited many people to partake of his bounty, and was not slack in showering his gifts upon the people, and who made ( presents of goods or horses to those he saw were in need. He was as brave as the man who feared not an enemy, for he feared not poverty, which was considered an enemy to man. Generous toward the poor, they were magnanimous toward those who were brave and upright, but unfortunately were placed within their power. When Louis XIV. desired some Iroquois Indians to be sent to France to act as galley slaves, measures were adopted to secure some captives by open hostilities, which failed, and then Lamberville, the missionary to the Onondagas, was i unconsciously employed to decoy some of the Iroquois chiefs into Fort Ontario, where they were placed in irons and sent to France. The old men of the Onondagas summoned Lamberville into their presence and an aged chief addressed him:

"We have much reason to treat thee as an enemy, but we know thee too well. Thou hast betrayed us, but treason was not in thy heart. Fly, therefore, for when our young braves shall have sung their war song they will listen to no voice but the swelling voice of their anger." With a spirit of magnanimity they provided trusty guides, who conducted the missionary to a place of security. The kindness of heart shown by the natives finds expression in the death of a son, when the bereaved mother selects from among the captives taken in war a young man of about the same age as her deceased son, whom she adopts into the family. She weeps over him, makes beautiful garments, lavishes gifts and takes the greatest care of the adopted youth. Assiduous in her affectionate attendance upon him, she wins him so completely that he become devotedly attached to her.

The red man is as earnest and sincere in his religious devotion as his brother in white, although he does not express himself in the same manner. He has his profound religious beliefs and elaborate ceremonial which make him akin to men of other nations, and as we study the man and his religion we are compelled to feel that, although we misjudge him through ignorance, he is a man, a thinker and a seer.

The same fondness for fashion which is seen among other tribes and nations is witnessed among the native tribes of our Dominion. Our brothers in white may rail at the deformities of fashion as seen in the small feet of the Chinese women and the flat heads of some of the tribes in British Columbia, and forget the deformity of the toes among themselves arising from wearing narrow-pointed boots. The Flathead matron of British Columbia would lose her reputation as a kind and dutiful mother, if she neglected to use the means for altering the shape of the head of her offspring. Fashion is a harsh ruler, and the man or woman who has not the head formed according to the custom of the tribe cannot attain a dignified position among the people. Some of them, indeed, have been sold as slaves, because they were believed to be inferior beings, lacking intelligence and unworthy of respect. The process of altering the form of the head begins immediately after birth, and is continued for a period of from eight to twelve months, by which time the head has assumed its permanent form, although it may change slightly during subsequent growth. Some of the tribes have their own peculiar tribal head form which distinguishes them from one another.

The alteration of the shape of the head does not seem to lessen the intellectual power of the individual, nor detract from their courage, as the leaders of the tribes practising these customs have been noted for their administrative ability and prowess. During the flattening process there is not evident any degree of suffering, although there might be supposed to be pain attending the compression, but the apparent stupor of the children is likely induced by the pressure of the bandages on the head. There are different shapes produced by this process of flattening the head. There is the simple frontal depression where the forehead is compressed: the lateral form, when the sides are flattened ; the elongated form, where the forehead and sides are flattened, so as to cause the crown of the head to rise toward a point, and other variations made by a combination of these forms. In some forms the back of the head is flattened, and in others the sides of the head bulge outward. The skull is flattened by using boards or pads made of deerskin, stuffed with frayed cedar bark or moss, applied to those parts which are to be compressed. The young woman is highly complimented on the beautiful shape of her head if it accords with the fashion of the tribe, and she is proud of this addition to her beauty. This strange custom was a mark of social distinction, slaves being considered unworthy of the honor.

If we would duly appreciate the red men in their savage condition, not judged by the standard of modern society nor compared with our permanent political institutions, we must place their history and customs side by side with those of the German tribes, who hastened the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. The savage tribes of Germany and the American continent roamed over vast districts, along the courses of rivers and in sections where game and pasture were abundant, claiming a part of the country as their tribal territory, encroaching on the territory of one another, engaging in tribal war, and uniting in a confederacy to meet a common foe. Alike were their marriage customs, in which polygamy was practised, and the bridegroom granted a dowiy for his wife, inaptly termed by some writers as purchasing a wife, although the custom of giving horses and trinkets to the bride's father, and the marriage based on bargain, partook of the character of buying. Adultery was punished among the German tribes summarily by the husband cutting off the woman's hair and driving her naked through the village with many stripes; and among the Indians, bv the husband cutting off her nose, beating her and driving; her from his lodge. Alike the ancient and modern savages felt it to be an indispensable duty to take up the quarrels of their friends and their own tribe, and to make these their own cause. Amongst both it was no disgrace to retreat in battle, stratagem being employed in fighting, and when confronted with a superior force they held it to be the better part of valor to retire. Hospitality, a generous spirit toward friends, lack of gratitude for benefits received, and a natural inclination for stimulants are traits observed among both peoples.

They sang not of love but of war; their dances were not between the sexes, but related to war and religion, and the sages chanted their songs and told their tales of the brave deeds of their warriors. Germans and Indians scalped their enemies, painted their bodies in times of war, sang their war songs, gambled until they had lost everything, even liberty itself: followed their chiefs to death, and buried their warriors who fell in battle with such secrecy that their enemies were unable to discover the homes of the dead. Whiteskins and redskins are removed by centuries of civilization, but in the deeper instincts of human nature, and in all that relates to the best interests of the people, they are not so widely apart. When the years have rolled onward and the red men have enjoyed as expansive a course of training as the white race, the same results will follow, if they survive the absorping process which is now going on, and they abide as a permanent and enterprising race.


Native tribes have passed away from our fair land since the day the white man stepped upon the Canadian shores, and traces of these extinct tribes are still to be seen in the names of towns, villages, lakes and rivers, the existence of mounds, and burial pits, manuscripts of missionaries and travellers, traditions, and in the relics deposited in museums. The history of races once powerful and numerous, which have disappeared, is always sad to read, yet the melancholy interest which is attached to the names of these peoples is of value to those who wish to know something of their own country in its infancy, and desire to profit by the knowledge of the belief and customs of native tribes.

When Cabot discovered Newfoundland he found a powerful and peaceable race of men, tall and dignified, of paler color than the average red man, who are known in history as the Beoths, Beothuks, or Boeothic Indians, a tribe of Algonquin origin.f They were dressed in the skins and furs of wild animals, and used bows and arrows, spears, darts, clubs and slings as instruments of war.

Captain Richard Whitbourne, who visited Newfoundland in the seventeenth century, described them as ingenious and tractable, of a quick and lively apprehension, and willing to assist the fishermen in curing fish for small pay. They constructed canoes of birch bark, which they sewed together and overlaid the seam with turpentine. They manufactured kettles for boiling their meat by sewing together the rinds of spruce trees.

Several attempts were made by the British Government, from 1760, to protect the Beoths, but they failed through the fear of the Indians. By means of presents and kind treatment, a few Indians who had been captured were sent back to their people, but they could not be won, owing in a great measure to their unjust treatment by the trappers and fishermen residing in the country. A Beoth woman was captured in 1819 and brought to St. John's, where she was known as Mary March, and after being supplied with gifts, was sent back to her people with the hope of conciliating them, but she died on the voyage, and her body being placed in a coffin, was left on the margin of a lake, where it was found by some members of the tribe and taken to their home.16 All other attempts to win them failed, as the natives who were seized died of consumption. Their wigwams were constructed in the form of conical lodges, the poles being snugly and tightly covered with skins or birch bark, each wigwam being large enough to accommodate from six to eighteen persons. The fire was placed in the centre of the wigwam, and a hole lined with moss was arranged for each occupant where he rested and slept.

Sweat baths, similar to those used by the Blackfeet and other Algonquin tribes, were used by them, consisting of a small lodge of boughs covered with skins, within which were introduced heated stones, upon which the patient poured water, and the vapor enveloping his naked body produced profuse perspiration. Their burial customs resembled those in use among our western Indians, four methods being employed according to the rank of the deceased. The body was placed in a hut, or laid upon a scaffold, or bent together and wrapped in birch bark and firmly secured in a wooden box which was placed on the ground, or tightly enclosed in birch bark and laid on the ground, and if the soil was not too hard a shallow grave was dug, and a cairn of stones was thrown over the corpse.

They are believed to have been sun or fire worshippers. A gentle race of people were they, delighting in fishing and hunting the deer. Their deer pounds or enclosures were similar to the buffalo pounds of the Crees and Blackfeet, but they added extensive fences and made drives to the large deer corrals, some of which can still be traced, and the skill of these hunters can well be imagined when we learn that a few of them were forty miles long. Ingenious ornaments of bone and ivory, used for decorating the hair, fastening around the neck or to other parts of the person, were made by them. Fire was produced by striking together two pieces of iron pyrites. These interesting people were exterminated by the treacherous rapacity of the white men and the cruel warfare of the Micmac Indians. Tradition says that early in the present century the last of the Beoths escaped to Labrador in two canoes, which is corroborated by the testimony of Dr. Mullock, who says, " I have slight reason to think that a remnant of these people survives in the interior of Labrador. A person told me there, some time ago, that a party of Mon-tagnais Indians saw, at some distance (about fifty miles from the sea coast), a party of strange Indians, clothed in long robes or cassocks of skins, who fled from them. They lost sight of them in a little time, but on coming up to their tracks they were surprised to see the length of their strides, which proved them to be of a large race, and neither Micmacs, Montagnais nor Eskimos. I believe that these were the remains of the Beothic nation; and as they never saw either a white or red man but as enemies, it is not to be wondered at that they fled. Such is the only trace I can find of the Beoths." The last of the Beoths has no doubt disappeared, and this tribe must be numbered among the peoples who claimed their inheritance in Newfoundland, but remain as a name and nothing more.

It must not be supposed that the tribes which once existed, and are now known to us in the relics which we possess, have utterly perished, for though no longer as distinct tribes they confront us, they remain in their descendants who have the Iroquois name throughout Canada and the United States. The Huron-Iroquois originally consisted of the Hurons, who are also called Wyandots, the Tinnontates or Tobacco Nation, the Attiwandarons or Neutral Nation, the Eries and Andas-tes, and the five nations of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas. These tribes spoke dialects of the Iroquois tongue, and inhabited that portion of Canada enclosed by Lakes Huron, Erie and Ontario, as also New York and a part of Pennsylvania. When these tribes were conquered by the Iroquois, and many of the people were incorporated among the conquerors, the Iroquois became the sole representatives of them all, and though some of them have perished as distinct tribes, they still live in the people who bear the Iroquoian name.

The Eries, who probably were the Carantouans mentioned by Champlain, were an offshoot of the Seneca tribe, and dwelt along the southern shore of Lake Erie. They perished in a war provoked by their own cruelty. Very little is known of this tribe, but it is believed that they were overthrown by the Iroquois early in the seventeenth century, and were incorporated among their conquerors. So little, indeed, is known of them, that they had disappeared before the French explorers knew anything of the existence of Lake Erie, for in the earliest French maps an imaginary river connects Lake Huron and Lake Ontario. They have left, as a relic of their existence, an elaborate specimen of rock-sculpture on Cunningham's Island, Lake Erie, which has attracted interest as one of the most accurate specimens of native pictorial writing found in Canada. Through the efforts of the French missionaries, Catherine Ganneaktena, an Erie captive, became a convert to Christianity, and she is remembered as the founder of a mission village on the St. Lawrence.

The Nottawas, who were also called the "Cherohakahs," are a tribe which roamed far and wide throughout Canada, traces of their existence being found in the Nottawa River, which falls into Hudson's Bay at James' Bay, and Nottawasaga in Ontario. Their name is still retained in the Nadawas, sometimes called "Nawtowas," or "Six Nation Indians," and the tradition of " Aingolon and Naywadaha," relating to the Iroquois, is told by Schoolcraft. Small bands of the Iroquois spread toward the south, and among them were the Nottawas, who found a home in South-eastern Virginia. At the close of the seventeenth century the tribe numbered about seven hundred souls, but twenty years afterward only twenty remained. At that time two vocabularies were obtained, which furnish evidence of their relation to the Southern Iroquois tribes. The bay, river, township, and village bearing the name of Nottawa-saga may furnish evidence of the migrations of the Iroquois, and not relate specially to the distinct tribe, yet in the name we have reference to a lost chapter of history, which looses none of its interest because it is unknown.

The Tinnontates, along with other tribes, occupied that fertile section of territory which lies between Lakes Erie and Huron, where they carried on an extensive trade in growing tobacco and manufacturing clay pipes, which they sold to the other tribes. They were called the "Tobacco Nation," or "Petuns," from their cultivation and sale of tobacco.* The distinct name which belonged to this tribe seems also to have been applied to the Iroquois as a whole, for they were known as the "Tobacco People." A large number of clay pipes from the country of the Tinnontates are preserved in the museum of the Canadian Institute. They were an agricultural race, closely allied with the Hurons, with whom they ultimately united, retaining their own tribal organization, and preserving in their descendants the Huron or Wyandot names.

Parkman says, "In the woody valleys of the Blue Mountains, south of the Nottawasaga Bay, of Lake Huron, and two days' journey west of the Huron frontier towns, lay the nine villages of the Tobacco Nation, or Tinnontates."

The Jesuit missionaries, Gamier and Jogues, visited the towns of these people. As the missionaries formed stations and built chapels in the Huron towns, they erected, In 1639, the mission-house of St. Mary's, on the River Wye, to serve as a centre where the priests could always find refuge, and from which they could be sent to any of the towns.*

Champlain visited some of this tribe, who seem to have been located near Guelph, intending to push oft to a great lake of which he had heard, beyond which, he was told, the buffaloes were to be found, whose skins he saw among the Hurons; but dissensions breaking out among his Indian allies, he was compelled to return to Quebec.

The Tinnontates celebrated their great feast of the dead, in common with the other tribes of the Huron Confederacy, by collecting the remains of their deceased friends at intervals of ten or twelve years and depositing them in one common place of sepulture, now called an ossuary, or burial pit.

Brebeuf has given an interesting account of this solemn feast as he witnessed it in 1636, at Ossossane or La Conception, near the modern village of Wyevale. The bodies of the dead, which lay on scaffolds or were buried in the ground, were removed, and the wrappings taken from them by official members of the tribe. The bones were laid in rows, amid the mournful wails of the populace, each family reclaiming its own, and tenderly removing the flesh which still adhered to the bones. After caressing the ghastly relics, these were wrapped in skins of varied value, according to the wealth of the family and rank of the deceased, and were borne to a large house, along with the corpses of those who had recently died. The bundles were fastened to crosspples overhead, and a mournful feast began. The women distributed food among those assembled, while a chief addressed the concourse of people, extolling the virtues of the departed and calling upon their friends to remember and imitate them. At the close of the feast, the bundles were taken down and slung over the shoulders, the lately deceased being borne on litters, and toward the communal pit at Ossossane the sad procession went on its way. As the mourners passed through the forests they uttered weird cries, and when they drew near to a village, the inhabitants came out to meet them with sad countenances, extending to them a mournful hospitality. From the Huron towns came other processions on the same tragic errand, to celebrate the final rites of the feast of the dead at Ossossane, the chief town of the Hurons, on the Nottawasaga Bay. Upon arriving at the place, the bundles of boxes were hung upon cross-poles in bark houses, and on a scaffold erected for that purpose, as well as for supporting gifts in honor of the dead. A wide area several acres in extent had been cleared in the forest, and a pit dug about thirty feet wide and ten feet deep, with a scaffold around it, having cross-poles for supporting the bundles of gifts and the bones. The people resorted to a space close at hand, where fires were kindled and kettles hung over them in preparation for the feast. Funeral games were indulged in by men and women for prizes given in honor of the dead. At the close of the feast the bones and gifts were taken toward the communal pit, and by means of ladders wore hung upon the scaffold. The ladders were removed, and several chiefs stood upon the scaffold haranguing the multitude, extolling the virtues of the dead, while several swarthy natives stood within the pit, lining it with beaver skins. Three large copper kettles were deposited in the middle of the pit, and then the bodies which remained entire were thrown into it and arranged in order by ten or twelve Indians, who w^re stationed within for that purpose.

Darkness coming on the multitude repaired to the village, and in the early dawn returned to the pit, where they cast the bones wildly into its mouth amid discordant shouts from the participants, the men arranging them in order with long poles. When the bones had all been deposited, logs, earth and stones were cast upon the ossuary, and the ceremony ended with a sad funeral chant. These bone pits have been opened in recent years and found to contain as many as nine hundred skeletons.

David Boyle, curator of the Canadian Institute, has located in the country of the Tinnontates, ten villages or town sites, twenty-one ossuaries, one fortified place, and three potteries.18 In the Huron country one hundred and forty ossuaries have been catalogued by A. F. Hunter, and as the average ossuary contains about two hundred skeletons, the population must have been very great. From the number of communal pits containing French relics, it is evident that the feast of the dead must have taken place more frequently than every ten or twelve years. Garnier, the devoted missionary among the Tinnontates, after toiling faithfully, was stricken down and tomahawked, as he was ministering to those wounded in their conflict with the Iroquois. The mission to the Hurons in Upper Canada begun by the Recollet missionary, LeCaron, in 1615, came to an end in 1650, through the overthrow of the Huron towns by the Iroquois and the departure of the remnant of the Tinnontates and Hurons along with the missionaries. The Tobacco Nation ceased to exist, and their descendants remain incorporated with the Hurons of Lorette.

On the fertile Niagara peninsula which lies between Lakes Erie and Ontario, and on the northern borders of these lakes dwelt the Attiwandarons or Neuters. They received the former name from the Hurons, who dwelt north of them, which signified, according to Brebeuf, "people of a speech a little different;" and the French called them the Neutrals, from the fact that in the war between the Iroquois and Hurons they remained at peace with both parties. They had a few towns beyond the lakes mentioned, east of Niagara and between the Iroquois and Erie tribes. It is not certain whether they were an offshoot from the Huron or Iroquois,-their language differing slightly from the Huron. They were friendly with the French and Hurons and were at peace with the Iroquois; but in the war which Champlain started against the Iroquois he had as his allies the Hurons, Neutrals, and other tribes, and with the fall of the Huron towns came the destruction of the Neutrals, large numbers of whom were incorporated with the Iroquois. They were overthrown in 1650, although Charlevoix assigns 1655 as the date of their complete destruction.-)- Being close neighbors to the Iroquois and Hurons, they were very demonstrative in their affection for their deceased friends, having great feasts of the dead similar # to that described among the Tobacco Nation. When the Ojibways came eastward they were charmed with the rich lands, forests, rivers and lakes which formerly belonged to the Hurons and Neutrals, and they espoused the cause of the exiled Hurons and fought against the Iroquois. After many bloody battles, in which large numbers of warriors were slain, both sides became tired and a treaty was made. The territory was divided, and the south-western portion, which had been the home of the Neutrals, remained as the hunting grounds of the Iroquois; while north and east of this, the Ojibways possessed the land. Joseph de la Roche d'Aillou, the Recollet missionary, about 1625 founded a mission among the Neutral Nation, apparently on the eastern bank of the Niagara.

The Andastes was another Huron-Iroquois tribe which aroused the anger of the Iroquois, and were exterminated by them, the remnant of the people being incorporated with the Iroquois in the early part of the seventeenth century. The Andastes were known by several names, as Andastogues and Conestogas, the Dutch called them Minquas, and the English Susquehannocks or Susquehannahs. Dr. Shea sa}^, concerning these people: "The Mengwe, Minquas or Mingoes were properly the Andastes or Gandastogues, the Indians of Con-estoga, on the Susquehanna, known by the former name to the Algonquins and their allies, the Dutch and Sweeds; the Marylanders knew them as the Susquehannas. Upon their reduction by the Five Nations, in 1672, the Andastes were, to a great extent, mingled with their conquerors, and a party removing to the Ohio, commonly called Mingoes, was thus made up of Iroquois and Mingoes. Many treat Mingo as synonymous^ with Mohawk or Iroquois, but erroneously." The inland territory occupied by the tribes of the Iroquoian family stretched from North Carolina to Canada, and the Andastes, incorporated among the southern Iroquois, passed out of existence as a separate tribe.

Beneath the wood-crowned height of Mount Royal the palisaded Indian town of Hoehelaga stood, within whose safe enclosure dwelt a friendly tribe of natives, who welcomed Car-tier with lavish hospitality when he came to visit them. The ancient town consisted of a triple row of palisades, having galleries, with stores of stones, whereon the warriors stood in time of danger to hurl the missiles upon their enemies. In the centre of the town was an open square, around which were some fifty bark houses, made of saplings covered with bark, each house about fifty feet wide and about one hundred and fifty feet long, and capable of accommodating several families. On this ancient site of Montreal the natives provided an ample feast for their white guests, the maimed and blind and sick were brought to Cartier that he might heal them, and moved with compassion he read to them the story of the Cross, offered prayer for the souls and bodies of the people, and supplied them with numerous gifts of knives, beads and trinkets. This was in the year 1535. Sometime between 1535 and 1542 Hochelaga was utterly destroyed, and the warlike attitude of the Iroquois made the island debatable land, on which no man lived. From an examination of the two brief vocabularies of the Hochelagan language left by Cartier, we find that Hochelaga, which means " at the beaver dam," is Huron, and some of the Hochalaga words agree with Huron and others with Iroquois, from which we would conclude that they belonged to the Huron-Iroquois family; but Sir William Dawson, who has made a special study of the history of the village, says that the people did not belong to either the Algonquin or Iroquois, but were a remnant of an ancient and decaying nation, which had historical relations with the Alleghans or Mound-Builders. He draws the line between the Alleghans and Hochelagans, but thinks that as the Algonquins lived to the north, the Eries, Neutrals and Hochelagans, had borrowed some of the habits of the Mound-Builders and of the Algonquins, and were not therefore distinct in their customs.

The relics of the Hochelagans, consisting of typical skulls, pottery and flint implements, which are preserved in the museum of McGill University, show no trace of contact with the white man, but occupy a middle position between the Mound-Builders and modern Indians. The pottery of the Hochelagans is superior to that of the modern Indians, but not equal to that of the Alleghans or Mound-Builders. The earthenware pipes of the Hochelagans were .trumpet-shaped and agreed not with those of the Alleghans. The Alleghan copper axes, spears, knives, badges, maces or other ornaments were superior to the stone implements of the Hochelagans. Where formerly the natives raised their crops of corn, and lived in primitive simplicity, developing their savage arts, the modern city of Montreal, busy with a thousand activities of civilized life, now stand, and the traveller or citizen walking along the streets thronged with industrious men and women fails to find a trace of the people who loved ancient Hochelaga as their home, and delighted as other men in the forests and rivers of their native land.

A few years ago the last of the Tuteloes, an aged man named Xikonha, lived on the Grand River Reserve, near Brantford. The Tuteloes were absorbed in the Iroquois Confederacy. Nikonha was married to a Cayuga woman, and was the sole representative of his race. He died at the age of one hundred and six years, in February, 1871. The Tuteloes were at one time a large tribe, living in Virginia, but became greatly weakened through fighting with the Cayugas, Senecas and other tribes. They united with the Six Nations, and came with Brant to Canada after the Revolutionary War. There are still living on the Grand River Reserve several Tutelo half-breeds who speak the language, but the last full-blood Tutelo has disappeared.

The Nanticokes were a tribe belonging to the Algonquin family, who were received into the confederacy of the Iroquois about the middle of the last century. Vocabularies of their language exist, one of which was obtained by the Rev. John Heckewelder from a Nanticoke chief in Upper Canada in the year 1785. The last of the chiefs of this tribe appears to have died in the latter part of the last century. Having been incorporated with the Six Nations they ceased to exist as a separate tribe, and were numbered among the races of bygone years.

When the Jesuit missionaries were instructing the Indians who came to trade at Three Rivers, on the St. Lawrence, many of the natives were won to the faith. From the territory far inland there came to the mission post at Three Rivers some members of a gentle race of natives, speaking the Montagnais tongue, and requesting that a missionary be sent to their tribe to instruct them. The missionaries were delighted with their tractable disposition, and Father Buteux left in 1651 for the district in which they dwelt. These were the Attikamegues, or White Fish Indians. He ascended the river which led toward their territory, and after a weary journey of forty-three days found the people he so zealously sought. Anxiously the people had awaited his coming, and when they beheld him at last amongst them they crowded around to listen to his instructions and accept his ministrations. A rude chapel was built, where they gathered for worship. Buteux returned after this interesting visit, and the following year set out to instruct them again, but the Iroquois intercepted him while making a portage, and slew him. The Attikamegues were almost wholly exterminated, and the remnant sought refuge among the scattered Montagnais.

Throughout the wide areas of the Dominion tribes of red men have gone forth to make homes for themselves, where they might dwell in comfort and peace; but small bands of painted savages have followed them into the deep recesses of the forest to strike them down. There is no doubt that numerous tribes have passed away of whose name or existence we know nothing, the story of these nations being unwritten, and the earth yielding no answer to the questions we repeat. Their languages, customs and civilization are shrouded in the darkness of other years, and we must await the coming of some intrepid seeker after lost races who may be able to discover some slender thread which may lead us through the labyrinthine paths to a certain knowledge of the peoples who made Canada their home in the dim past.


The cross has become so widely associated with the existence and spread of Christianity that the majority of people have ignorantly concluded that it belongs essentially to the Christian religion, whereas upon tablets, rock inscriptions, idols, buildings devoted to religious purposes among the subjects of paganism and in the manuscripts of ancient date it is sculptured and inscribed. It is a symbol of ancient date, having existed in Asia before the commencement of European civilization. It has been found in Egypt and China, Hindostan and Scandinavia, Contact with pagan nations, and the significance of the cross in its relation to the death of Christ no doubt suggested to the minds of the Christian leaders of the third century the usefulness of this system in propagating the doctrines of the Christ among the nations. It has been widely used as a symbol of paganism. Christian missionaries found it among the peoples of India, on the statues of Seva and Vishnu; on the cinerary urns of Greece and Italy; and as the hammer of Thor in the forests of barbaric Germany. The Egyptians had a similar symbol representing the flow of the Nile, and on the famous Rosette Stone it appears as equivalent to the word "life." It is found on the bricks and cylinders of Nineveh, and 011 the colossal tablet in the British Museum, Tiglath Pileser is represented having a cross suspended from his neck.

The early Christian missionaries carried this symbol before them, which impressed the pagan mind and helped the natives in submitting to the faith of the new religion, as well as understanding its doctrines. When the Roman monk Augustine entered the presence of Ethelbert he carried an enormous cross before him, which impressed deeply the mind of the pagan king. The cross was raised to a position of dignity, far removed from its early barbaric use as an instrument of torture, monarchs and princes using it as part of their royal insignia, the knights who crossed the deserts of the sacred land wearing it on their breasts and emblazoned on the hilts of their swords, and even in nature the Christian fathers saw it as an expression of their faith, so aptly expressed by Justin Martyr:

"The sign of the cross is expressed upon the whole of nature. There is hardly a handicraftsman, also, but uses the figure of it among the implements of his industry. It forms a part of man himself, as may be seen when he raises his hands in prayer."

Of crosses as the symbols of the Christian faith there are various kinds, designated the Maltese, Latin, Greek, Eleanor, Calvary and Fylfot. Designated as classes some are known as market-place, churchyard, wayside, monumental, pectoral and knightly crosses. "The English cross of St. George is a plain red cross set erect on a white ground; the Scottish cross of St. Andrew's is a plain diagonal white cross on a blue ground; and the Irish cross of St. Patrick is a plain diagonal red cross on a white ground."

As a pagan symbol the cross became an emblem of war under the cruel customs of the Aztecs, as is shown on the Palenque tablet, where the emblems suggest that the altar was devoted to the god of war. The four gods of the winds were worshipped by the Mayas. They were supposed to support the four corners of the heavens, and to blow the winds through trumpets or wind instruments from the four cardinal points. Under the symbol of the cross they were worshipped, and this was regarded as a tree, which, in the Maya tongue, was called the "tree of life." In times of drought offerings of birds were made to it, and it was sprinkled with water. It was used as a symbol of the four cardinal points.

The cross is the representative in Christian history of what the brazen serpent was to the Jews, and it is a suggestive fact that the serpent and cross symbols exist among the natives of the American continent as a means of expressing religious ideas. The American symbols of the cross are generally surmounted by the thunder bird and decorated with spiral ornaments, which express the ideas of the people in relation to the worship of the sun and of nature.

In the Buddhist cave temples there was always found the shrine with its symbol of a water bubble, to which the creed of Buddha likened the human frame, and was intended to portray the transient nature of earthly things. Upon the square piers in the Egj^ptian tombs, large human figures were sculptured, invariably in a standing posture, the head decked with the lofty priestly tiara, and the body slightly covered with the Egyptian apron round the loins. In the right hand of the colossal statue was the mystic token of the Nile key in the form of a cross, with a handle at the upper part. Long before the cross became the emblem of peace among Christians it was associated in prehistoric structures with sun worship. It exists as a religious symbol among the Ojibways without any reference to the doctrines of Christianity. When Marquette arrived at the Bay of Puans he found a village inhabited by three nations, and saw a great cross erected, which he says was "adorned with several white skins, red girdles, bows and arrows, which that good people had ottered to the great Manitou to return him their thanks for the care he had taken of them during the winter, and that he had granted them a prosperous hunting." The priest w^is no doubt ignorant of the exercises of the midawiwin, as described by Dr. Hoffman, for the cross is one of the sacred posts belonging to the Grand Medicine Society of the Ojibways, and is the fourth degree mida post. It is painted white with red spots on the upper part, the lower part being squared and painted white on the east, red on the west, black on the north and green on the south. In the initiation of the candidate to the society it symbolizes the four days' struggle at the four openings of the Medicine lodge.

The cross is the symbol for a Cheyenne Indian, and is used in the sign language of the natives. In the native picture writing it stands for a Dakota lodge. A square represents a white man's house, and if there is a cross beside it, the signification is that the white man is married to a Dakota woman. It is also used among some Indian tribes to signify "I will barter or trade." Upon the right hand of the cross is depicted the articles desired in exchange, and upon the left the articles offered. The Moki maidens wear their hair in two styles, which, when combined, become developed into the form of the Maltese Cross which is the emblem of a virgin among these people, and this cross appears frequently in the pottery and petroglyphs of the Mokis. Colonel Garrick Mallery remarks that the form of a cross was found in tattoo marks on an Arab boy, and the mother explained its existence, "because it looked pretty." Dr. Schlei-man, in his "Troja," presents a cross simply as a geometrical ornamentation.

Among the Dakota Indians symbolic crosses of the Greek pattern are worn, representing "the four winds issuing from the four caverns in which the souls of men existed before embodiment. The top of the cross is the cold, all conquering giant, the north wind. As worn on the body it is nearest the head, the seat of intelligence. The top arm, covering the heart, is the east wind, coming from the seat of life and love. The foot is the burning south wind, indicating as it is worn the seat of passion and fiery lust. The right is the gently west wind, blowing from the spirit land, covering the lungs, from which at last the breath goes out. The centre of the cross is the earth and man, sometimes indicated at that point by a circle surrounding a dot. On the upper arm an arrow is sometimes drawn, on the left a heart, on the right a star and on the lower a sun."

When the Apache warriors went into a strange district they painted a cross upon their moccasins to keep them from going on the wrong trail. When rain was desired for their crops, the medicine men of the Apaches bore two crosses as they led a procession of men and women in honor of Guzanutii. The crosses were decorated with a snake, small willow twigs, a mirror, bell and eagles' feathers.

Whenever the natives of Gaspe were troubled with a plague the medicine men had recourse to the sun, and they were instructed to make use of the cross in every period of affliction. Upon the island of Cozumel a number of oratories and temples were found, one of which was in the form of a square tower, having four openings, and within this tower was a cross made of lime, which the natives reverenced as the god of the rain. The rain-maker of the Lenni Lennape retired to a secluded spot whenever he desired to practice his art, and drawing upon the earth the form of a cross, with its arms pointing toward the cardinal points, placed upon it a piece of tobacco, a gourd, a bit of some red stuff, and then cried aloud to the spirits of the rains. Among many of the Indian tribes four was a sacred number, and the cross was used in connection with this number as a prehistoric symbol. Upon the medicine pole in the medicine lodge of.the Blackfeet, we have seen the form of a cross made with twigs and the boughs of trees as a symbol of their native religion.

It was used also by some of the Blackfeet as a personal mark upon their blankets to denote their ownership. The Onondagas wore shell disks two hundred years ago, which were ornamented with crosses apparently marked out with compasses. The use of the cross among the Iroquois in late years seems to have been merely ornamental, and without any religious significance. It was the custom of the brave voyageurs of Canada when death occurred among them, as they journeyed, to plant on the grave of each a low wooden cross, to mark the spot. Along the routes of the voyageurs on the Ottawa, on the shores of Lake Nippissing, and away beyond Lake Superior, these crosses were to be seen in the old days when the hardy voyageurs crossed the portages and sailed up the rivers and lakes.-)- Between Silver Islet and Nepigon, on the shores of Lake Superior, there is a pictograph known to travellers as the Jesuits' Cross.

The cross was known to the Mound-Builders, as shown by gorgets taken from the mounds in Missouri, having the form of a cross to symbolize the points of the compass. An ancient monument of porphyry sculptured in bas-relief, taken from a mound in Tezcuco, had upon it an emblem suggestive of a Maltese cross. An ancient earthwork near Tarlton, Ohio, is in the form of a cross, ninety feet long and elevated three feet above the adjacent surface, the sides of the cross nearly corresponding with the cardinal points.

In the Mexican codices are found the symbol of the cross, which shows that it was used as a symbol of sun worship. Among the carved stone figures and idols is the cross of Teoti-huacan, which is an altar in the shape of a cross; the idol pillar of Piaza Mayor, which is in the form of a cross; the temple of the cross on the southern slope of the pyramid of Palenque and the Lorillard tablet, which contains two figures, one representing a man holding a cross in each hand and the other a woman with a cross in her right hand.

The culture heroes of the Peruvians and other races in South America wore long robes sometimes covered with crosses. When the Spaniards arrived in Mexico, they found large stone crosses erected on the coast and in the interior, which were objects of veneration to the natives, who answered in response to the questions of the missionaries, that " one more glorious than the sun had died upon the cross."

The Spaniards found at Vera Cruz a large marble cross surmounted with a golden crown, and they were impressed with the deep reverence of the natives, who adored the cross as a symbol of the god of rain.

The existence of many of these prehistoric crosses we arc unable to account for, but there may be something akin to them in the memorial and market crosses found in England. As a symbol of religious worship, the natives used the cross, but there may have been others erected as ornaments or for historic purposes. When Eleanor, wife of King Edward I., died, she was carried in a casket to London, and upon the funeral journey, wherever the casket rested, the king caused a cross to he built. There were twelve Eleanor crosses erected, three of them still remaining. Market crosses were first used in market towns, for the priests went there on great market days to preach. Boundary crosses marked the line between different places, and preaching crosses were used as pulpits, one of which stood in front of the old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, where some of the Reformers preached the doctrines of the Reformation. Pagan and Christian can lay claim to this symbol of religion as a relic of antiquity whose origin is unknown, which lias been adopted as an expression of religious belief by many nations and tribes, and in its use there are embodied ideas and feelings which are sacred to all, and therefore to be treated with respect and reverence.


There is music in the souls of the people of every race and tongue. It may be expressed in very weird strains, or in the most commonplace tones, but there will be harmony, pleasant to the ears of those whose hearts are in sympathy with the people and the language they speak. The stolid countenance of the red man hides the gentler passions of his nature, and we are almost tempted to believe that the painted savage of the warpath and the peaceful occupant of the lodge, are strangers to the tender emotions of the singing tribes of men. But our fears are chased away as we wander among the lodges, for there we see the instruments of music, and can hear the shouts of the dancers, the gay laugh of youth, and the sweet songs of the women at their daily toil. Songs of life and death, love and war are found in the languages of the Indians. The Spanish conquerors listened to the natives of Mexico singing their songs, and still we may hear the Six Nation Indians chant the Iroquois historical song.

During several important movements in English history, and also during the French revolution, the ballads of the people exerted a powerful influence over the minds of the populace.

Recognizing this fact Christian teachers have embodied many doctrines in songs and hymns written for the Indian tribes in their own language. When Las Casas, the Roman Catholic apostle of the Indians, was laboring among the natives of Mexico he introduced the doctrines of the Christian religion among a hostile tribe by means of songs. With the help of some monks he translated into the language of the people, and in verse, a summary of the leading doctrines of the Bible. He secured the assistance of Indian traders, who occasionally visited this tribe, and taught them the song with its accompaniment on Indian instruments of music. The traders reached the tribe, made some presents to the chief, and spread their wares before the people. After the day's trading was over they called for musical instruments and began their song.

They sang of creation, the fall of man, the life, death and resurrection of Christ, and the judgment to come. The people listened with wondrous awe. Here, surely were ambassadors from the gods. The Great Spirit must have taken compassion upon them to send these teachers. Night after night for a whole week did the people ask the traders to repeat the song, so eager were they to hear and learn. The traders told them of the teachers who sang these songs, and the Indians entreated the priests to teach them more fully the doctrines of the wonderful song. Well do we remember attending an Indian camp-meeting, at Kettle Point on Lake Huron, where Shawanese, Pottawotamies and Ojibways, sang with delightful enthusiasm the songs of Zion in the Ojibway tongue. Some years ago we listened with pleasure to some Sioux children attending the Sioux school at Portage la Prairie,, who sang very sweetly some hymns in the language of the Dakotas. And who that has ever gone to the Indian Reserve at Morley, nestling at the foot of the Rocky mountains, can ever forget the hearty and intelligent singing of the Stoney Indians?

Important is all this, yet it is difficult to translate English hymns into the languages of the Indians, and make them agree with the original metre of the tunes. A thorough knowledge of the language is necessary to make a competent translation, so that all the meaning contained in the words and ideas may be fully and intelligently expressed in both languages. There are a large number of hymn books in the languages of the'red man, such as Ojibway, Mohawk, Oka, Sioux, Eskimo, Chinook, Clallam, Cree and others.

The sacred songs, and the war and marriage songs of the native tribes express few ideas, and consequently the hymns translated by missionaries seem strange to the people, many of the native songs comprising two or three words for a single verse. The Moravian missionaries attempted to establish a mission among the Eskimos of Labrador in 1752, but failed through the opposition of the natives. In 1764, Jens Haven landed on the Isle of Quirpont, off the north-east extremity of Newfoundland, and there held his first interview with the Labrador Eskimos. So soon as he landed he ran towards an Eskimo, and said, in the Greenlandic dialect, " I am your friend.'* From that time the work among the people of Labrador has been continued. The following hymn, translated by the Moravian missionaries, will reveal some of the difficulties of the language.

It is the first verse of "There is a gate that stands ajar."

One of the first hymn books issued for the Canadian Indians was translated by Peter Jones in the Ojibway language, and printed in 1827. It has gone through several editions, and in a revised form is still in use. There have been several hymn books printed for the use of the Ojibways by various translators. Since the advent of the Rev. John West, in 1820, to the Red River country missionary work among the Indians has been energetically prosecuted. Earnest men and women have labored among the Crees, Saulteaux, Sioux, Stoneys, Sarcees and Blackfeet, and away in the far north in the camps of the Athabascan tribes, seeking to teach them the way of life. The Crees have been favored with the. greatest amount of literature, if we except the Eskimos and Sioux.

As early as 1855 Mrs. Hunter, wife of Archdeacon Hunter, prepared a hymn book in the Cree language, using the English letters. Since that date several hymn books have been printed by the missionary societies of the English and Methodist churches, which have been translated and compiled by the missionaries of those churches. These books have been generally printed in the Cree syllabic characters. Bishop Horden and Drs. Mason and Mackay have been the chief translators for the Cree Confederacy in connection with the English Church, and Rev. Messrs. McDougall, German and Glass for the Methodist Church. The following hymn in Swampy Cree, translated by Rev. Orrin German, will show the construction of the language. It is the first verse of "Sweet Hour of Prayer."

Mrs. Hunter was an excellent Cree scholar, as was also her husband, and faithfully did she labor among the Cree Indians. Her hymn book comprised one hundred hymns. A selection of an old favorite, "Jesu, Lover of my soul." is here given, being the first verse:

In the province of British Columbia the Chinook jargon is spoken by the Indians and white people as a trade language, being easily learned and understood in a very short time. Lacking fulness of expression, it has not been used extensively for the purpose of religious instruction. Still there have been published a few books dealing with tlm principles of the jargon^ In 1878, a small book, called "Hymns in the Chinook Jargon Language," was published by the Rev. Marcus Eells, of Skokomish, Washington Territory.

During our residence among the Blood Indians we translated the hymn, " Come to Jesus," into the Blackfoot language; but, as the translation will show, the idea of coming to Jesus was not clear to the native mind, besides the phrase could not be made to suit the tune, and similar ideas had to be expressed. We had first to select the tune, and then take whatever words in the language would fit the metre as nearly as the sense would permit, and thus compose a new hymn. It is not therefore a translation; indeed, few hymns are translations, but a hymn composed to suit the metre. The construction of the Indian languages make it almost impossible to translate hymns, and as the natives employ few words in their songs, when first they listen to a hymn containing words as in use by white people, they are surprised. Such a hymn as the following is more in agreement with the construction of the native songs, because of the repetition of the words and music, than those containing many words


There have been no more devoted workers among the native tribes than the women of culture, who have consecrated their talents to the work of elevating the red men and their families in the camp. They have labored assiduously amid great privations, enduring hardships without a murmur, and though their influence has been abiding and strong, seldom have we heard their names mentioned, or read them on the printed page. We have not seen a biography of one of these saintly heroines of the lodges, though many of them have been worthy of lasting record, and this want is still more striking through the existence of numerous biographies of missionaries to the Indian tribes. Thrilling records have been published of the expeditions, sufferings and successes of the Jesuits in North America, and but faint remembrance is given to the nuns who spent many years of pious zeal at Quebec and Montreal for the education of the Indian children and the care of the sick. In 1844 the nuns reached Red River, after a long and toilsome journey in canoes, and commenced their devoted mission among Indians, half-breeds, and white people, continuing till the present day their labor of love. The wife of John Eliot, the apostle of the Indians, was in labors abundant, helping her husband in his arduous mission, and cheering him in hours of loneliness and opposition. Peter Jones found an excellent helpmate in his work among the Ojibways and Iroquois in the body of refinement whom he won from her English home, and though placed in a lowly position among the natives, she gained their hearts, and, until extreme old age, was their counsellor and guide.

There was not to be found in Ontario, during the early period of missions to the Indians, a more earnest and successful missionary than Mrs. Case, the wife of the Rev. William Case. Think of Mrs. Horden, wife of the Bishop of Moosonee, in her home in the far north, ministering to the wants of the Indians through the dreary winter, nursing the sick and caring for the poor. Mrs. A. R. McFarland, the widow of the first Presbyterian missionary in New Mexico, was induced to commence the Presbyterian mission in Alaska, and for seven months she was the only Protestant missionary in Alaska. When she went there she was the only Christian white woman in a territory as large as France. She labored alone for a whole year at Fort Wrangel, assisted by two Indians from Fort Simpson. In all their difficulties the Indians sought her counsel, having strong faith in her wisdom and sympathy. She nursed them when they were sick, arbitrated in household and tribal quarrels, acted as chairman at public meetings, and was the peacemaker and adviser of the tribe. She buried their dead, and when a white man was condemned to be hanged for murder, she became his spiritual adviser. Her fame spread far and wide among the tribes, so that great chiefs came to attend the school of " the woman that loved their people."

Helen Hunt-Jackson, the gifted friend of the Indian races, labored in another sphere, yet she was none the less a missionary. Born in 1831 at Amherst, Massachusetts, where her father was a professor in the college, she inherited from her parents literary tastes. Her early married life was spent with her husband, Major Hunt, at military posts until his death. Bereaved of her husband and children she lived for a short period at Rome, and in 1872 removed to Colorado Springs in search of health, where she married Mr. Jackson. In her mountain home she became conversant with the joys and sorrows of Indian life, and although a brilliant writer of short stories and poems, she consecrated her pen to the welfare of the Indian race. She began the study of the Indian question in earnest, and the knowledge wrought so deeply into her soul that she longed to give utterances to the " thoughts that breathe and words that burn." Stealing away to the solitude of the mountains, she sat amid the rugged scenery of mountain, waterfall and lonely pass, and there gave birth to the sweet poetic effusions of her genius. She spent three months in Astor Library gathering facts for her famous book, "A Century of Dishonor," a work treating the question of the dealings of the Government with the Indian tribes. This faithful recital of wrong-doing against the red men caused the Government to appoint her a commissioner to investigate the condition of the Mission Indians of California. With soul aflame, the gifted authoress wrote the greatest novel relating to the Indian tribes, the " Uncle Tom's Cabin of the Red Men." " Ramona " won the hearts of the reading public, and literary men and women courted the friendship of the accomplished writer, who had so unselfishly and heroically espoused the cause of the despised race. Its thrilling scenes and faithful descriptions produced a decided change in the opinions generally held concerning the Indians, and many converts were won on their behalf.

"Ramona" was one of the chief causes of the organization and development of Indian Rights' Associations throughout the land. These associations are composed of earnest men and women, including many who are successful authors, whose names are familiar in the literature of to-day. By means of the press, and through the influence of members of Congress justice is sought for the red aliens of the west. Helen Hunt-Jackson had abundant reasons for being proud of the work she had accomplished, but she delighted more in recognizing a guiding hand directing her in her noble mission. Her articles in The Christian Union and Century Magazine, her "Bits of Travel" and "Bits of Travel at Home," sparkled with poetic inspiration, but all these must be laid aside for " Ramona." She was the sympathetic defender of the rights of the red race, and her work lives in the bills passed in Congress in favor of these people, the change of public opinion and the better condition of the western tribes. On the top of one of the lonely mountains near Colorado Springs, where she often went with her writing materials to seek inspiration from the beautiful scenery, she chose a spot for her last resting-place, and there a small mound marks the place where lie the remains of " H. H." and near by the enclosure grows the Indian kinni-kinnick, symbolic of the strong attachment in life and in death between the author of "Ramona" and the red men.

The wise women from the east, the magi of modern times, have travelled westward with their gifts of culture, grace and love, and laid them at the feet of the men and women who sit in loneliness, and with depressed hearts, in the lodges widely scattered on prairie and mountain, and in the cold and bleak regions of the north land. They have gone forth alone as teachers in the native schools, or as wives of missionaries, to train the young and help the women to live useful lives. Nobly have they toiled in the schools amid many difficulties, murmuring not because of their isolation, but happy in the assurance that they were in the path of duty, and in their vocabulary there was not found the word "retreat." They have gathered the women of the camp in the mission-school and taught them how to make garments. In the mission home lessons in cooking have been given, which have added comfort and health to the dwellers in the lodges. The people have thus been trained in habits of industry and economy. Some have profited by these instructions, but where the natives have been compelled to go out on hunting expeditions, the progress has not been so great. Frequently have we seen these queens of the mission-houses mixing medicine and preparing a dainty dish of nourishing food for the sick children, or some helpless occupant of a lodge. Sitting in the smoky lodges, these devoted women have waited upon the sick and nursed them back to life. The native girls and women have confided their heart-burdens to them, and wise counsel has been given which has brought peace to the home and grace to the soul.

As earnest students of science women have lived among the lodges, studying the languages, social habits, traditions and native religions of the Indians. Erminie Smith, Alice Fletcher, Elaine Goodale and other women have labored among the native tribes in the United States in the interests of science, and our lack in Canada of similar workers has existed chiefly through the want of financial support from wealthy institutions to carry on such a work. Philanthropic work has, however, been carried on extensively by Women's Missionary societies, having branches in the villages, towns, and cities which help pay the salaries of women engaged in missionary work, make clothing for the poor on the Indian Reservations, and in other ways assist the work of civilizing the red men.

It is impossible for anyone who has not lived among the Indians to understand thoroughly the isolation and care which falls to the lot of the women who have so devotedly spent some of their best years in striving to elevate the Indian race. Oftentimes left alone with the care of the family, without a single servant to help in the management of the household, and with a small salary, sometimes insufficient to supply the wants of the family and the constant demands of the Indians, is it any wonder that the strain is so great that the nervous' system is weakened, and after a few years the work has to be given up. The missionary enjoys relief through change of occupation, visiting the camps, undertaking long journeys and meeting with mutual friends at different times in the course of a year, but for the lady in the mission-house there is the continued isolation, toiling for years upon the same field without a single visit to friends to break the monotony and give tone to body and mind.

For such faithful workers there is no' press notice, and never do we hear their names mentioned, while the husband and father receives his meed of praise for his worthy toil. Have they been forgotten, or is their work of no avail? Heroically they toil without any desire for recognition or praise. Mrs. McDougall, the aged widow of the sainted George McDougall, has spent .a long life among the Indians of the Ojibway, Cree, and Stoney tribes. She became the helpmate of the faithful missionary in 1842, and from that period has been in close relations with the red men. She has tenderly cared for the sick, counselling, teaching and nursing them. During the winter of 1870, when residing at Victoria, on the Saskatchewan, the dreaded plague of the small-pox reached the Indian camp's, and the inmates of the mission-house were stricken down. The son, John McDougall, was out on the plains securing the supply of buffalo meat for the winter, and the missionary lay at the point of death. Two of the daughters—Flora, aged eleven, Georgina, aged eighteen—and an adopted daughter, Anna, aged fourteen, died within three weeks. As the dire plague passed away, the inmates of the mission-house forgot their own sorrows, in comforting the dwellers in the lodges. Five years of faithful work among the Crees and Stoneys rolled past, and then, in a blinding snowstorm, the missionary laid himself down on the prairie and breathed out his soul to God. The earnest woman, now a widow, murmured not, but continued to care for the souls and bodies of the Indians. In her old age she finds her joy in speaking words of truth and soberness to young and old, and the Stoneys love devotedly the woman who has shared their burdens and wept with them in their hours of sorrow.

A few months after the arrival of Archdeacon Cochran and his wife at Red River, they were driven from their home amid inclement weather by the swollen river. It overflowed the banks, carrying in its course large blocks of ice, the church was flooded, yet the mission family sought refuge on a platform erected above the waters, and actually held service there with some people who had sought shelter with them. Their position was dangerous, and after three days of suspense they left in boats, and pitched their tents on the Snake Indian Hills, where they abode for a month. Amid the discomforts arising from their position, Mrs. Cochran, although in a feeble state of health, retained her accustomed cheerfulness, and manifested patience in her work as a missionary among the native tribe.

These saintly workers in the mission field among the Canadian Indians have stood by the graves of their children and wept, surrounded by dusky mourners, who have sympathized with them in their hours of grief. They have lain for months on beds of languishing pain, with no medical help at hand, save the humble medicine chest or the care of some aged squaw of the camps. After years of suffering they have undertaken long journeys in the depth of winter to secure medical skill, and in feeble health the cariole has been the couch of the gentle patient, as the mission party halted for the night in the depth of the forest, while the blazing fire melted the snow, and the hardy pioneer prepared the hasty meal. The mission-house mother has spent sleepless nights, anxiously waiting for the return of the missionary, who has been caught in the blinding snowstorm and is fighting wind and cold with the spirit of a hero. She has listened to the howling of the blast, which aroused her fears for him who was bearing precious words of truth over the lakes to the dusky denizens along the shores. She has been aroused from her dreams by .the hasty footstep of the messenger bearing sad news of death, and after hours of anguish has at last realized that far from home and friends she was a widow, and the cries of her fatherless children have pierced with intense sorrow her desolate heart. We dare not tell the tales of suffering endured by those who have devoted their lives for the welfare of the red race. It is better far to speak of hope and peace than to dwell under the shadow which lias often hovered over the mission homes of the west. We would rather not speak of any suffering, for others have borne greater burdens than we; but we shall mention one of several instances, and, because we know this better than those of other mission fields, we shall select it from our old home among the Blood Indians.

Upon my return from Macleod one cold wintry day, I was surprised to find my wife suffering intense pain in the middle finger of the right hand. She was pacing the floor in agony, and there was nothing left but to take her to Macleod, a distance of twelve miles, for medical aid. As we were about to start a doctor crossed the river to the Agency, and we gladly walked across on the ice to seek his advice. Upon examination he stated that it was a felon, and must be lanced at once. There was no lance to be found, so taking a new jack knife he cut the flesh to the bone about an inch long on one side of the finger, and scraped the bone. The relief expected did not come, so we returned to the Agency in about two hours, and a similar operation with the same instrument was performed upon the opposite side of the finger. Lotions and poultices were applied for several days, but without one moment's relief. Indians crowded into the house to offer sympathy, and the medicine men and medicine women prescribed remedies. In a blinding snowstorm an Indian was despatched to town for the family doctor, who speedily came, and again the finger was lanced. Several days again passed without any cessation of pain, and with the thermometer registering 36° below zero, we started through deep snow with the children for town, as it was impossible to secure a servant girl. At last a young woman was hired at twenty dollars per month, and as the pain was somewhat lessened, and it was believed that there was no longer any danger, I started for Regina to attend the meeting of the Board of Education.

I was there a few days when a telegram called me home. We were four days on the way, detained by the deep snow on the railroad. Upon reaching Macleod I found my wife there, quite contented, and was surprised at her happy countenance; but the secret was soon learned, when I saw the hand minus the finger which had caused all the trouble. Upon inquiry, I was told that after I left the pain increased, and two medical gentlemen being called in and examination made, it was found that the bones of the finger were dead. Amputation was necessary and urgent, and the finger was removed at the knuckle. The severe strain upon the nervous system was felt for months, and rest was demanded to restore the health. As great suffering has been endured by other saintly women on the mission field, and not a word has fallen from their lips to declare the agony endured. There are tales untold and biographies unwritten as great as have been heard or read by mortals, and these heroines of the Cross have borne their share in making history, yet their names are unspoken, and posterity will only know them by their influence in guiding the red men toward a nobler destiny than it was theirs to enjoy in the days of yore. Their memories are precious to the dwellers of the lodges, who remember them by the euphonic names the natives gave them in the Indian tongue ; but the white man shall never know the brave deeds enacted by his sisters in laying the foundation of an Empire in the West, yet they live in the lives of others and in the memory of God.


There is a wealth of meaning in names. Races of men, who dwelt in lands now occupied by civilized nations, have disappeared, and nothing remains of their history except the names which bear the impress of their modes of life and customs. Palestine, the modern name of the Holy Land, reminds us of the ancient race of the Philistines, who made their abode in the country of sacred memories; and in the Hebrew "Pelesheth" "the land of the wanderers," and the Greek "Palaistine," we find Palestine the land of the Philistines, revealing the fact of their existence there as a people. Traces of the residence of the Celts in the English valleys are found in the names they bear. Upon the new continent the footsteps of the red men-are marked in the local names of counties, towns, mountains, lakes and rivers. The extinct tribes of Eries, Nottawas, and others, have left their names in the territories in whicli they dwelt. The characteristics of the people are recognized in the tribal names, or in the name of the country. Wales is the land of stammerers ; Scotland, the land of the Scots ; Mexico, the sons of the war god, derived from Mexicatl, Mexitl being the war god of the Aztecs. The Eskimos are the eaters of raw flesh; the Assiniboines are the Stoneys, or Stone People, from assin, "a stone," and bwan, "people," which is a name given to them by other tribes, from the custom of cooking their food with heated stones; and the Senecas, who called themselves Sonontowane, meaning "great mountain," were in turn called by the Dela wares "Mountain Snakes." The Delawares were accustomed to call their enemies "snakes"; and in their own tongue sinake means "stone snakes." They employed the name common to the Iroquois tribe, "the mountain people," and added the expression of hostility, which seems to have been accepted in a measure by the Senecas themselves.

The significant names given to kings, as noted in the history of nations, tell us of their disposition and character, besides showing us in a measure the condition of the people. Only in a savage stage of society would it be possible for a king to be named, as in early English history, Ethelwulf, meaning "Noble Wolf." The English applied epithets to their kings, expressive of their character, as Alfred the Great, Edward the Confessor, William the Conqueror, and Richard the Lion-Hearted. Some of the rulers of Russia were nicknamed "Grim," "Terrible," and "Impostor," and among the other great European nations the nicknames of the kings expressed the political and religious phases of society, during the respective reigns. In the progressive stages of civilization among the Indians, there is to be noted a development in the use of names from the totemic, during the early periods of their history until they come to recognize their unity as a tribe, in which they generally designate themselves men or people, all other tribes being regarded as barbarous or inferior. The Nahuas, or Aztecs proper, who spoke the Nahuatl language, called themselves Nahuatlaca, from a sense of national pride, the meaning of the word being the "Superior People," or the "Commanding People." The sense of Nahuatl, according to Brinton, is to speak as one having authority or knowledge, and hence superior, able, astute, which is derived from Nauatile, to have "authority or command," and Nauatlato, an "expounder or interpreter."  The Dene-Dindjid are the Athapascans of the north, who have several names. They employ a general expression for the word "people," or "men," as t^n^, or d^ne', or dindjye', and this is the designation which they apply to themselves when they do not wish to name the district to which they belong. They generally call themselves by distinctive names, which refer to the localities in which they dwell, and the expression t^ne, or d&ie, or the particle ne is used as a suffix, meaning "people"—as Nazku'tenne, the "People of the River Naz," which is on the Frazer River. The Hwotsu'tinni, the "People of the River Hwotsuts^n," are called by the Kiliktons, who are of Tshimpsean parentage, Akwilget, "Well-dressed." .

The Tse-'ke'h-ne, or "People on the Rocks," have several tribal subdivisions in British Columbia, as the Ts^-'keh-ne-az, or "Little People on the Rocks;" the To-ta-t'qenne, or "People a Little Down the River;" the Tse-loh-ne, or " People of the End of the Rocks." The D&i^s call all aboriginal tribes which do not belong to them, Atna, which means " foreigner." The Klamath Indians of South-western Oregon call themselves Maklaks, meaning " man," which is the only term employed for distinguishing this people, although there is the general expression Lutuami, which signifies " Lake Indians." There are numerous euphonic and significant names employed for distinguishing the native tribes of Canada, some of which are used by the people themselves, and others applied by the tribes who belong not to the same race. The origin and meaning of the name cannot always be given by the people, as is the case with the Blood Indians, who use the expression Kaina, meaning "Blood Indians," and Kainakwan a "Blood Indian." I have not been able to obtain from any of the natives the exact meaning of this tribal name. An old man of the camp informed me that it was derived from Akaie, meaning "an old robe," and this was applied to the tribe because, during one period of its history, the people wore old robes. This tribe has two other distinctive names. Aapaitvlpi, "Blood People," from apun, blood and matupe, a person; and SuHiiikejia, or Sum&keqtuqkunema,. which mean that in their contests with their enemies they fought with large knives. The Piegan Indians who, with the Bloods, belong to the Black foot Confederacy, are called in the Blackfoot tongue, Pikune, and in the singular number, Pikfinekwan, from Apikune, meaning a "Half-dressed hide of the buffalo." The Indians say that there was a time in the history of the confederacy when the Piegans, through poverty, were compelled to dress themselves in buffalo robes which were badly tanned, and almost worthless as an article of clothing, and from this circumstance received their distinctive name The Blackfeet proper have as their distinguishing appellation Siksikauo, "Blackfeet." The singular number has always the singular termination kwan as Siksikaikwan, a Blackfoot Indian. It is a compound word, made from the adjective siksin&m, black, and oqkuts, his foot. We have the adjectival particle Siksi, the noun particles kai and kaw, and the personal termination kwan, which make the singular and plural forms of the name. There are two accounts given about the origin of the name. The Indians have informed me that the name refers to a period when the prairie was burned, leaving the ground black and dry. As the Indians travelled over the prairie their moccasins became black, and they were named by the adjacent tribes, Blackfeet. Jerry Potts, the Government guide and interpreter, who is a half-breed belonging to the Piegan tribe, and formerly a chief among them, than whom there is no more reliable authority on these questions, told me that there is another account of the origin of the name.

The tribe lived for sometime in the northern part of the NorthWest Territories, where the soil was soft and very dark. Their moccasins were covered with the black mud as they travelled, and hence they received the name, which has been also given to the confederacy and to the language. The bands belonging to the tribes are known among the white people by the names of their respective chiefs, but amongs themselves there is a native name for each band. Thus we have the Siksenekaia or "Black Elk People." The legend says that a child was born which was very dark, and when he became a man he wore an elk skin. He was made a chief and the band over which he ruled were known as the "Black Elk People."

The band known as Inepoia, the "Sweating People," were named, according to the tradition of the natives, from their ancestors having walked a long distance during sultry weather, so that they perspired freely. The band over which Eed Crow, the head chief of the Blood Indian tribe, presides is called Mamyauye, "Fish-eaters," from raame, "a fish " and aouqseo "he eats." During an' early period in their history, when the tribe was absent on a buffalo hunting expedition, this band, on account of sickness, remained at the mountains, fishing in the streams, where they caught large quantities of fish, upon which they lived. This was a rare thing for the Indians of the plains to do, and even at the present day they seldom eat fish. Indeed, I have known the boys to catch fish in the rivers, which they sold, but never have I seen a Blackfoot Indian partake | of one, except what was given him in the home of one of his white friends. Another name of late origin has been given to i this band. When the brother of Red Crow was peace chief of the tribe and the chief of this band, a friend made him a present of a revolver having six chambers. This circumstance was so striking that thebandwas named Naaye,meaning" Six-mouthed," from the six chambers of the revolver. The name is composed of nao, six and maaye, the mouth. The plural form of the I name, if used for the revolver itself, would be Naayests, " Six mouths." The Oneidas, or " People of the Stone," in early times planted their chief settlement near an eminence where a large boulder of syenite lay. The name is a corruption of a compound word formed of onenhia or onenya, stone, and kaniote, to be upright or elevated. Onenniote is rendered "the projecting stone," and from this is formed the name Oneida.

Horatio Hale seeks the origin of the name Iroquois in the 1 word Ierokwa, "They who use Tobacco," or the "Tobacco People," which seems appropriate from the fact that these people in the early days cultivated tobacco on an extensive scale; or in the word for "bear." which, in the Cayuga speech, is lakwai, and this also seems applicable, as the Algonquins called the Iroquois the Maquas or Bears. Charlevoix gives the origin of the name as follows: "The name of Iroquois is purely French, and has been formed from the term hiro, 'I have spoken,' a word by which these Indians close all their speeches, and lcoiie, which, when long drawn out, is a cry of sorrow, and when briefly uttered, is an exclamation of joy." The Delawares called them Mingo, and the readers of the works of Fenimore Cooper will recognize the people whom he called Mingoes. This is said to be a contraction of the Lenape word Mahongwi, meaning the " People of the Springs," the Iroquois having possessed the head-waters of the rivers which flowed through the Delaware country. The Caniengas or Flint People were styled by the southern Algonquins, Mowak or Mowawak, which has been corrupted into Mohawk, and when used as an appellative signifies "those who eat men," or the Cannibals. The Onondagas are the mountain people from Onontake, at the Mountain, referring to the site of their chief town. The Cree Indians call themselves Nehiyawuk, which seems to be derived from Iyiniwuk, the "True men," or the "Superior race." The Sioux were known to their foes as Nadouwe, or Nadowaessi, "Enemies " or "Snakes," a term of reproach, from which is derived the corrupted form, Sioux; but they call themselves Dakota, which signifies "friend" or "ally." Early in the seventeenth century the French missionaries frequently met with various tribes of the Algonquin stock, and among them bands of the Ojibways. One of these Ojibway bands is frequently mentioned in the "Jesuit Relations" as the Saulteurs, who were located in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie, and were named from their place of residence. La .Hontan speaks of the " Outchepoues, alias Saulteurs." This name is still applied to a sub-tribe of the Ojibways scattered throughout Keewatin, Manitoba and the North-West Territories. Another sub-tribe of the Ojibways is the Mississaugas, or the Eagle tribe, from their totem. The Ojibways are known by the corrupt form of their name as Chippeways. This is said to signify "pucker," and is supposed to be derived from the peculiar pucker of the moccasin, or the custom of treating their captives by roasting them till puckered up. Along with the Ottawas, Pottowotamies and Menominies they are termed, in their traditions, Anishinabeg, meaning " Original people." The Indians dwelling on the Ottawa River were designated by the first French missionaries "The Sorcerers," from their practice of jugglery, and the word Ottawa was loosely applied to all the Western Algonquins, the river receiving its name from the fact that it was the route to the country of the Ottawas. Baraga derives the name from watawask, meaning "bulrushes." It is said that these people called themselves Watawawininiwok, the "Men of the bulrushes," because they dwelt upon the river where grew a great many bulrushes. The proper pronunciation of the name, however, ought to be Odawa. Another of the tribes, sometimes mentioned in Canadian Indian history, are the Epicerni or Nebicerni, better known as the Nipissings. Nibis-sing signifies "at the little lake,"the lake bearing that name being distinguished as one of the largest and most important in the district. A man belonging to Nibissing, living at the little lake, or in the surrounding country, was termed Nibissing-dahshi-ahnine, and people dwelling there were called Nibis-sinineyug, from which no doubt we get the corrupt form Nebicerni. Baraga translates the name to signify, "in a little water," or "in the leaves," but the former explanation from a native belonging to the tribe must be accepted as more correct.

It is a prevalent custom among the native tribes of Canada to confer names upon the white people with whom they have dealings, or who must be distinguished in some way from the general public. Servants of the Government, storekeepers, teachers, missionaries, and persons residing near the Reservations, are designated by a native name. Sometimes a distinguished visitor will receive a name with a good deal of ceremony. As the Indians cannot pronounce accurately the common English names, and they are meaningless to them, some Indian will point out a special characteristic of the man, which may be a physical defect or grace, a trait in his character, or ability displayed, and a name will be given accordingly. A name may be conferred as an honor, with a mercenary purpose, hoping to gain favor and receive a gift. Meaningless names are never given. There is a distinction made between male and female names. The names of males generally refer to power, and the female names to gentleness and purity. These are designated by the kind of animals chosen for the name. Most frequently we hear of Bull's Head, a noble name, exhibiting strength, which was given to Lieutenant-Colonel Macleod, when acting as Indian Commissioner in the North-West Territories; Bull's Horn, Black Bull and Buffalo Bull. The significance of these lies in emphasizing physical or intellectual strength, wise statesmanship and ability to rule men. Another class, relating to power and referring to men, is that which belongs to spirituality. Power over spirits, a man powerful in prayer or eminent in piety, may be called, Three Suns. A clever medicine man will be known as Medicine-Calf; the word for sun being also translated medicine. The Indian, however, has two distinct meanings for the word medicine, as used by writers about the natives. The medicine man uses herbs as medicines, and is in that sense a medical practitioner, but he is also a praying man, and employs incantations for the purpose of calling his familiar spirit to help him in healing the sick. In this sense he has spiritual power, and the word natos, in the Blackfoot language, is translated "sun," and also "medicine." Natoapekwan means, therefore, "medicine man," "praying man" and "missionary;" but is literally the sun man. It is not applied to the white medical man. A missionary will be called Niokskatos, meaning " three suns," from niokskum, "three," and natosiks, "suns," denoting spiritual power. Animals, birds and natural objects are selected with qualities agreeing with the masculine nature, as the deer, for swiftness; the eagle, for flight, and because of its sacred character among the Indians; the mountain, suggesting massive strength; thunder, on account of its mysteriousness and power of impression; and father, as a term of reverence and authority. Feminine names are selected from among those animals suggesting innocence, purity, gentleness and goodness. The idea of power does not enter into this kind of names. Apawakas is a woman's name, meaning " White Antelope," from awakas, an antelope, and ap, a particle, signifying white. This particle is seen in apio, a "white horse," and napekwan, a "white man." The color in this name is symbolical of purity and the animal of innocence and gentleness. Episoaqsi, the "morning star," was a name for a little girl. Little Rabbit Woman, the name of a young married woman. Anatcmum, meaning "pretty," the name for a white boy of about two years of age. Names are also given from some article of dress, or striking feature about the person. They may relate to the disposition, or some notable event in the history of the individual. The names of a few of my personal friends among the Blood Indians will illustrate what I say: Calf-Shirt, Wolf-Collar, Eagle-Rib, Eagle-Shoe, Bull-Shield, Heavy-Shield, Black-Horse, Red-Crow, Low-Horn, Stolen-Person, Yellow-Snake, White-Calf, One-Spot, Bull-Back-Fat, Blackfoot-Old-Woman, Going-to-the-Bear, Father-of-Many-Children.

A child may receive its name from some circumstance in connection with its birth, and some of the children's names are very pretty. Usually among the Blackfeet young and old have two names, especially the male portion of the tribe. When teaching the Indian school I was surprised to hear the children laugh when I mentioned some of the names on the school register, and I soon learned that nearly all the children had two names, a good and a bad one. As an Indian will not tell his name, I found that some of the young folks had given me the ugly names of their companions, and it was these I was repeating when I called the roll. As they grow older the childish names are changed, and a single individual may have many names during his life time. If a man has been guilty of .some mean act, a name will accordingly be given, and if he has performed a brave deed it will be remembered by a new name. This, no doubt, is the chief reason for persons not telling their names, as the mention of them will declare to his fellows the deceitfulness of the unworthy man, and the man of valor does not care to parade his heroism by telling his name. Whenever among young or old I was anxious to learn their names, it was necessary for me to ask a second party to tell me the name of the first, and vice versa.

Some of my native friends desired to learn somewhat of the customs of the white men, and among other things they asked the name of a farmer living near the Reservation. "John Smith," I replied. "What is the name of his oldest son? " "John Smith." They gazed at me in astonishment. "What is the name of the second boy?" "Tom Smith." They looked again, and laughed at the strange custom of naming children, As they heard the names of each member of the family, they inquired how it was possible to distinguish them, as they all bore the surname, and the Christian name seemed to them insufficient to separate one member from another. "What is the name of the man's wife?" "Mrs. Smith." This was too much for their gravity, and they burst into loud laughter. I had then to explain the fact that the woman lost her own surname and took that of the husband, retaining her own Christian name. With laughter, mingled with seriousness, they said, "Why don't the woman keep her own name?" and I joined in the laughter, as I felt that they were excellent advocates of woman's rights, although they did not grant to women the freedom enjoyed among the white people. A married woman among the Indians does not change her name, and there are no surnames, each member of a family having a distinct name. They were still more puzzled when I told them of another man with a family having the same surname, and some of the young folks had the same Christian names.

As the Indians travelled through the forests, along the courses of rivers, and over the lakes they left the impress of their presence in names of beauty, suggesting legends, battles, freaks of nature, or some simple event in their nomadic life. Rivers, lakes, and mountains, and even towns and cities, bear suggestive historic facts in their names, though the corrupt forms make the hidden meaning difficult to trace.

When Captain Bienville de Celoron left Canada with French soldiers and Canadians, Iroquois and Abnaki Indians, to take possession of the Ohio country in the name of the King of France, he carried leaden plates with an inscription engraven on them, to show that the country had been claimed by the French, and these were buried at different points along his route. He coasted along the southern shore of Lake Erie, as far west as the mouth of Chautauqua Creek, where they made a portage to the Chautauqua Lake; and for the first time, no doubt, civilized man gazed upon its placid waters and beautiful shores. On one of the leaden plates, secured surreptitiously by Sir William Johnson, the lake is called Tchadakoiu. Various forms of the name were used, arising from the inability of the French and English to catch correctly the Indian pronunciation, and spelling it phonetically as they heard it from the lips of the Indians. The tribes forming the Iroquoian Confederacy pronounced it differently from each other, and hence arose confusion in spelling it. Sir William Johnson pronounced it Jadaghque, and Cornplanter called it Chaud-dauk-wa. Several interpretations of the name have been given. It is said to mean "the foggy place," in allusion to the mists arising from the lake, " high up" referring to its elevated position; and in the Seneca tongue, Chadaqueh, which, according to Horatio Jones, who was well versed in the language, signifies "a pack tied in the middle," or two moccasins fastened together, and the lake, resembling these objects, was so named. Dr. Peter Wilson, an educated Seneca, related a tradition which made the name signify "the place where fish are taken out," or Fish Lake, derived from gajoh, "fish," and gadahgwah, "taken out." The tradition says that a party of Senecas, returning from the Ohio to Lake Erie, were passing through Chautauqua in a canoe, when they caught a strange fish, which they bore alive to Lake Erie and placed in the water, where, in after years, this kind was found in great abundance.

Another tradition says that it means "the place of easy death," or "where one vanishes away," as a young woman belonging to a party of Indians encamped on the shore, having eaten of a certain root growing on the banks of the lake, became exceedingly thirsty, and, stooping to drink of the clear water, disappeared forever.

Cornplanter alluded to this tradition in a famous speech in the following words: " In this case, one chief has said he could ask you to put him out of pain, and another, who will not think of dying by the hand of his father or his brother, has said he will retire to the Cauddaukwa, eat of the fatal root, and sleep with his fathers in peace."

In The Allegheny Magazine of July 4, 1816, the origin of the name has been thus explained: "The tradition among the Seneca Indians is that when their ancestors first came to the margin of this lake, and had reclined their weary limbs for the night, they were roused by a tremendous wind, which suddenly and unexpectedly brought the waves upon the shore, to the jeopardy of their lives. The aboriginal history, as handed lown from father to son, further represents that in the confusion of the scene a child was swept away by the surge beyond the possibility of recovery. Hence the name of the lake, Chaud-dauk-wa, the radix from which this is formed signifying 'a child, or something respecting a child.' The word is usually spelled Chautauqua; but, according to the pronunciation of the venerable Cornplanter, whose example is the best authority, it should be written Chaud-dauk-wa, the two first syllables of which are long, and the consonant at the end of each is to be distinctly sounded.

The native tribes of Canada have left their tribal names and others formed from their languages in every district in the Dominion. The name Canada has been variously interpreted. It has been derived from the Cree words Kanata or Kanatan, "something which is very neat or clean." The name, as applied to the country, first appears in "Bref Recit de la Navigation faite en," 1535-36, by Captain Jacques Cartier. Cartier, in his glossary of Indian terms, says that the Indians call their town "Canada." There is an old tradition that the Spaniards entered the country before the French, and seeing no signs of any mines had several times repeated the words Aca nada, meaning "nothing there." The Indians repeated this to the French, who supposed this to be the name of the country. It has also been derived from an Indian root word, which signified the " country of big lakes and rivers." Charlevoix says: "Some derive the name from the Iroquois Kannata, meaning ' a collection of cabins.'" Canada, or Kanada, seems in its original use to have been used for a village of tents or huts, and afterwards applied to the whole country.

Lake Champlain was named after the first Governor of Canada, who discovered it in 1609, and defeated the Iroquois |on its banks. It was named by the Indians Patawabouque, meaning "the alternation of land and water," alluding to the numerous islands there; and Kanaderi-quarunte, " the lips or door of the country," as it was the path from the valley of the Hudson to the St. Lawrence. Lake Simcoe was called by the Indians Ouentaron, meaning " beautiful lake." The French, however, named it Lac aux Claies, which became corrupted into Lac la Clie, and for one hundred and fifty years after the French-Huron period, it retained this name. The lake was called by Creuxius, Lacus Ouentaronius; and in some early maps the name Toronto is applied to it. As for the word Toronto, it is said to mean " the place of meeting," and in the Huron language to signify "much or multitude." A Mohawk tradition of an expedition of the Indians to the Bay at Toronto, states that as they looked around they seemed to see trees standing in the water, and the place was named in the Mohawk tongue Karonto, signifying, " trees standing in water," from which is derived the corrupted name Toronto. The name does not appear applied to its present locality till it is seen in a map illustrating the campaign which ended in Braddock's defeat in 1755, when there seems to have been a French fort located there.

Lake Ontario was known as Lake Skanadario, Lac Saint Louis, Lac Frontenac, Lac des Iroquois, and Lake Cataracoui. The name which it now bears signifies, " beautiful lake," and is so understood by an Iroquois of the present day, but its original signification was "great lake." Ontario is derived from the Huron word yontare or ontare, or the Iroquois oniatare, "lake," and the termination "io," derived from the word wiyo, which, in the Seneca dialect signifies "good," and in the Tuscarora, "great." It is also supposed to be derived from the Mohawk word Kentariyoh, meaning, "a placid sheet of water." It was called Ontario as early as 1646, Father Jogues having used that term in addressing a large gathering of Sachems and Indians at the Irbquois town of Osserion, about thirty ljiiles distant from the Dutch town, Rensselaerswyck, now known as Albany. Having spoken to the assembly, and made some presents of wampuM, he presented the Chief of the Onondagas with a thousand beads of wampum, and said, " We wish to salute you in your own country; take this present to smooth the way, and that no on<' may be astonished at our visit. Moreover, we have three paths to reach you—one by the Mohawk, the other by the great lake which you call Ontario, the third by the Huron country."

Ottawa is' called by the Indians Kanatsio, meaning "the kettle in the water," having reference to the Chaudiere Falls. The Mohawks called the neck-like contraction between lakes Erie and Ontario, Ohnyakara, meaning "on or at the neck," derived from Onyara, "the neck or contraction between the head and trunk," and from this comes the name Niagara, which was applied to the whole stream of water between these lakes. The Ojibways have left the marks of their presence in the names beginning with Manito, "the spirit." Manitoulin is "the island of the spirit," from the Ojibway Manito and French File. Manitowaning is "the cave of the spirit," from Manito, "the spirit," and waning, "a hollow or cave." The Indians believed that there was a certain part of the bay which had no bottom, as they had often tried in winter to reach the bottom by letting down a decoy fish made of wood, loaded with lead, and had failed to fathom its depths, as it was inhabited by some Manito or sea-god. Manitoba is " the strait of the spirit," from Manito,"a spirit," and waba, "a strait," the lake having received its name from the strange things heard in the strait which unites the lake with another. The island of Vancouver was named after Captain Vancouver, but the Indian name is Katchutequa, meaning "the plain." Saugeen is a corrupt form of Sahging, meaning " the outlet or mouth of the river," derived from the Ottawa word, Sahkum, which signifies "to come out." Nottawasaga is also a corrupt form of an Indian word, the proper form being Nahdowa-sahging, meaning " the place where the Nahdowag used to come out." The Nah-dowag were the Mohawks or Iroquois. When the Ottawas were at Manitoulin Island, the Iroquois attacked them, and they were accustomed to go out into Lake Huron or the Georgian Bay by the Nahdowa-Sahgi River. Sahgimah, the famous warrior of the Ottawas, was in the habit of watching for the Iroquois at the Blue Mountains, at the place still called Sahgimah Odahkahwahbewin, meaning " Sahgimah's watching place." There he defeated them. The last time he came out to meet his enemies he found them occupying his watching place, and going alone in the evening to view their camp, he saw their arms stacked and the warriors feasting, unconscious of any danger. Returning with his warriors, he found his enemies had gone to rest, and quietly removing their arms, he fell upon the sleeping Mohawks, slaughtering all, but a few whom he saved to tell the story of their defeat. The heads of their slaughtered foes were placed upon poles with their faces turned toward the lake, and the remaining Mohawks, having been placed in a canoe loaded with provisions and ammunition, i were sent home with instructions to tell their friends the story of their fate, and that similar retribution would follow every Mohawk who dared to come to the Blue Mountains. Winnipeg 1 is derived from win, "unclean or fetid," and nipig, "water." The I names of places shed light on the migrations of the native tribes, I and Winnipeg is one of the suggestive names in the history of the Canadian Indians. Winnipeg means " bad smelling water." The Winnebago Indians, a branch of the Dakota or Sioux Confederacy, were called by the French, Des Puants, or the Stinkards, and in the early " Jesuit Relations " there occurs the names Ouinepeag, or Winnipeg. There was a tradition prevailing among the Winnebagoes that they came from the salt sea, or the stinking water. The name and the tradition place Winnipeg or Hudson's Bay as the original home of these people, who were driven out by the Ojibways when they entered the Red River country. The oldest village of the Winnebagoes is said to be Sturgeon Bay, a village on the St. Lawrence. The traditions of the Dakotas say that their ancestors came from the east; i.e., the Atlantic coast; and evidence of language leads to the conclusion that the course of migration of the Indian tribes was from the Atlantic Coast, westward and southward. The traditions of the Algonquins seem to point to Hudson's Bay and Labrador as their place of origin. We cannot, however, tell the point as to the source of these tribes, whether they entered the continent from the north-east or north-west.

A Winnebago tradition says that there once appeared an eagle coming down from Manito's home in the great sky, so large that he covered the big lakes and islands, and he brooded over the face of the earth and waters, and then a great chief and his wife were born. They were the first of any tribe who came straight from heaven, and in course of time they multiplied and wandered away from the islands and shores of the long, wide river in Canada, to the islands of the great lakes. The waters about them they called after their own name, Bay-des-Puans. There are several places bearing the name of this tribe. On Sanson's map, 1656, Lake Michigan is called "Lac-de-Puans"; the Cattaraugus Creek, near Chautauqua, on an old French map of that region, is designated "R. a la Terre Puante"; and the Bay of Puans, or Green Bay, Wisconsin, where Jean Nicolet visited the Winnebagoes in 1639, and Marquette in 1673, found a village inhabited by three nations, " Miamis," "Maskouteus," and "Kikabeux." The Winnebagoes and the Illinois, including the Sacs and Foxes, were the original inhabitants of Wisconsin. A tradition of the tribe seems to suggest Winnipeg as a locality where these people dwelt in the past. "The largest village of the Winnebagoes was at Red Banks. It stretched both above and on the low-lands at the foot of the cliffs. And there is a little river that cuts the low land in two. Here was fought a great battle between the Puants, who owned the land, and a new tribe that came in big canoes. The blood ran in such streams that it made the water in the little river turn red, and so the Indians gave it the name which, in French, means 'Riviere Rouge,' after the battles were over. The Winnebagoes, being wise and great braves, could never be driven away by any other tribe." Making allowance for the form of traditions by a change of residence, through additions which are in the nature of interpretations, the evidence seems to declare in favor of Winnipeg having received its name from the Winnebago tribe residing on the banks of the Red River before the Ojibways entered the country.

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