The Royal North-West Mounted Police
Chapter XI


UNDER THE PRESENT COMMISSIONER

Handsome and Useful Contributions of the N.W.M.P. Towards the Armies Fighting the Battles of the Empire in South Africa.—The Victoria Cross.—Great Extension of the Work of the Force in The Yukon and the Far North.—The Memorable Visit of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, and the Conferring upon the Force of the Distinction "Royal".—The Earl of Minto Honorary Commissioner.—Vice-Regal Visits.—The Inauguration of The New Provinces.—The Hudson Bay Detachments.—Something About the Force as it is To-day, and the Work it is Doing.

THE transfer of the Commissionership from Lieut. Col. Lawrence W. Herchmer to Superintendent A. Rowen Perry, and the large contributions made by the force to the Canadian Contingents in South Africa combine to make the year 1900 a memorable one in the annals of the Royal North-West Mounted Police.

Superintendent Perry was promoted Commissioner vice Lieut.-Col. Herchmer retired, August 1st, and assumed the command on August 18.

The new Commissioner is a graduate of the Royal Military College, Kingston, (1) a member of the first-class, that graduating in 1880, in fact. After graduating from the R. M. C., and before being appointed to the .N M M. P., the Commissioner served for several years with distinction in the Royal Engineers, he having won a commission in that corps upon graduation from the Royal Military College.

(1) The Royal Military College, established by Act of the Parliament of Canada, was opened in 1876, with the special object of providing the defensive forces of the Dominion with a staff of thoroughly trained and educated officers and has been an unqualified success from the start, its classes having been always well attended. The success of the system of education adopted is attested by the large number of brilliant officers the college had contributed to the British regular Army, to the Canadian Active Militia, and the Royal N '.rth-West Mounted Police, not to speak of the hundreds of eminent engineers and others engaged in civil occupations, who claim the "R.M.C." as their alma mater. As a general practice, although there is no hard and fast rule to that effect, about one-third the commissions in the R.N.W.M.P. are awarded to graduates of the R.M.C., the others in succession being allotted in about equal proportions to exceptionally qualified officers of the Activc Militia and to non-commissioned officers, who have performed distinguished anil meritorious service in the force. The officers the Royal Military College has contributed to the R.N.W.M.P., have always been distinguished not merely by their exceptional technical knowledge of the military branches of the work in the force, but by great zeal in the discharge of their miscellaneous duties, and exceptional success in the handling of the men entrusted to their charge.

At the time Commissioner Perry assumed command, affairs within the Mounted Police were in a decidedly unsettled state owing to the then recent heavy drafts therefrom of officers, men and horses for service with the Canadian Contingents for South Africa.

The first contingent despatched by Canada to South Africa, which sailed from Quebec, October 30, 1899, at the special request of the British Government consisted wholly of infantry, and thereto the North-West Mounted Police made no contributions of officers or men directly, although several former non-commissioned officers and constables of the force enlisted.

The units to which the N.W.M.P. contributed directly were the 2nd Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles, which sailed from Halifax for Cape Town 011 the "Pomeranian," January 27, 1900; Lord Strathcona's Corps, which embarked at Halifax on the SS. "Monterey," March 10, 1000; Canadian contingent to the South African Constabulary, sailed during the spring of 1001; the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th ''Regiments" of Canadian Mounted Rifles (generally known as the T1 >rd Contingent) which sailed from Canada in May, 1902, and returned in July the same year, hostilities having in the meantime been brought to a conclusion.

The N.W.M.P. had the honor of supplying for the Boer war, no less than 18 officers, and 160 non-commissioned oflicers and men, distributed as follows:— 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles, 11 officers and 134 men: Strathcona Horse, 7 officers and 20 men. A considerable number of ex-officers and men were in both corps.


A. Bowen Perry, Fifth, and Present, Commissioner.

111 of the chief non-commissioned officers of both units were both former members of the force, and in fact the influence of the Mounted Police was so dominant n both corps that they may almost be regarded as the special contributions of the force to the armies carrying on the fight for Empire in South Africa.

Officers and men, upon being allowod to accept service in the various in it«, were granted leave of absence from the Mounted Police, the time serving n South Africa being counted as service with the force.

For the "Third Contingent" five officers and men were granted twelve months leave for the purpose of joining it and the following commissions were granted to members of the force, who with one exception, had already served in South Africa:—Insp. Moodie, Captain; Insp. Homers. Lieutenant; Scrgt. Maj. Richards, Lieutenant; Sergt. Maj. Church, Adjutant. Senrt Hynes, was appointed Regtl. Sergeant Major.

There wore a great number of volunteers,a nd had the Government thought it wise to organize a battalion of N.W M Police, the Commissioner did not doubt but that the force could have been easily increased to 1,000 men by ex-members rejoining for the campaign.

The recruiting in the Territories for the last contingent was done by the commanding officers of the different posts,

The force contributed to the South African Constabulary four officers and thirty-eight N.C.O's. and constables. Supt. Steele, C.B., M V.O., was appointed a Colonel in the S.A.C. and was allowed twelve months leave in order to take up the appointment. Inspector Scarth was appointed captain in the S.A.C. and granted six months leave. Constables Ermatinger and French were given commissions as lieutenants. The N.C.O's. and constables transferring from the N.W.M.P. to the S. A. Constabulary were granted free discharge.

The total contribution to the South African war by the N.W.M.P. was 245. all ranks. No other permanent corps in the Empire was called upon to make such proportionate sacrifices, but as a corps, more's the pity, it reaped no reward.

The Second Battalion of the Canadian Mounted Rifles, raised under authority of a Militia Order of December, 1809, was recruited under the special direction of the Commissioner of the North-West Mounted Police. As about one-third of the 750 men of the North-West Mounted Police were on special duty in the Yukon district, it was impossible to think of recruiting the whole battalion from the active list of the force, so the Commissioner was authorized to accept as many of the non-commissioned officers and constables as could be spared, and to fill up to the authorized establishment with ex-policemen and others when lie and his recruiting officers considered qualified to serve in the battalion. Pay was fixed at the rates prevailing in the Mounted Police. All the posts of the North-West Mounted Police were constituted recruiting stations. The officers of the battalion, who were given rank in the Active Militia, were as follows:

Commanding Olhecr, Herchmer, f ont.-Col L W. (Commissioner N.W.M.P.); "C" Squadron—Commanding Squadron, Howe. Major J. (Superintendent N.W.M.P.); Captain, Macdonell, A.C. (Inspector N.W. M.P.); Lieutenants, 1st Troop: .Moodie, J. D. (Inspector N.W.M.P.); 2nd Troop: Begin, J. V. (Inspector X.W.M.P.); 3rd Troop: Wroughton, T. A. (Inspector N.W.M.P.); 4th Troop; Inglis, W.M. (late Capt. Berkshire Regt.); "D" Squadron—Commanding-Squadron, Sanders, Major G. E. (Superintendent N.W. M.P.)„ Graduato R.M.C.; Captain, Cuthbert, A. E. R. (Inspector N.W M.P.); Lieutenants, 1st Troop: Davidson, H. J. A. (Inspector N.W.M.P.); 2nd Troop: Chalmers, T. W. (formerly Lieut. M.G.A., later Inspector N.W.M.P.), Graduate R.M.C.; 3rd Troop:


Superintendent J. D. Moodie.

Taylor, J. (Lieutenant Manitoba Dragoons); 4th Troop: Cosby, F. L. (Inspector N.W.M.P.) Machine Gun Section, Rliss, D. C. F. (Major Reserve of Officers); Howard, A. L. (Lieut. Unattached List) Adjutant, Baker, Capt. M. • (Inspector N.W.M.P.) Quartermaster,Allan, Capt. J. B. (Inspector N.W.M.P.) Medical Officer, Devine, J. A. (Surgeon-Lieut. 90th Battalion); Transport Officer, Eustace, Lieut. R. W. R.; Veterinary Officer, Riddell, Vet.-Lieut. R.

It will be observed that with very few exceptions all the officers were active or retired officers of the North-West Mounted Police.

For a time, at the front, the battalion chanced to serve under Major General Hutton, who had been some years previously communicated with, with the object of securing his services as Commissioner of the N.W.M.P.

Here is a sample incident which gives some sort of an idea of the service performed by the 2nd Battalion of the Canadian Mounted Rifles and which also shows that the officers and men of the Mounted Police displayed in South Africa the same cool courage and devotion which have crowded the annals of the service of the force on the North-West prairies with so much that is honorable and glorious:—

November 1st, 1900, a column, under General Smith Dorion, moved south from Belfast toward the Komati River. Sixty men of the 2nd C.M.R., the second day of the march formed the advanced guard under Major Sanders. The guide took a wrong direction, and when they came in touch with the enemy the main column had branched off to the right and was nearly two miles away. Expecting early assistance, the small force, although in a most critical and dangerous position, held its ground under severe rifle, fire. After some time, orders were received from the G.O.C., who had received news of the situation, for a retirement. The small party in the extreme advance was commanded by Lieutenant Chalmers, and he skillfully fell back upon his supports, the retirement subsequently being steadily parried out by successive groups. Meantime, the whole party was being subjected to a galling rifle fire. Corpora] Schell's horse was killed, and the animal falling on his rider, seriously injured him, whereupon Sergeant Tryon dismounted and helped the injured man on to the back of his own mount, continuing himself on foot. Noticing this, Major Sanders rode to the assistance of Tryon, and was in the act of taking him up in front of him, when the saddle turned, and both were thrown. Major Sanders, partially stunned by the fall, was making for cover when stricken to the ground by a bullet. Lieutenant Chalmers immediately preceeded to the assistance of his superior officer, and being unable to remove him, was riding to the firing line for assistance when shot through the body, dying a few minutes later.

On September 5, a detachment of 125 men of the Second Battalion which was guarding the railway between Pan and Wondorfontem, east of Middleburg, was attacked by a force of Boers with two field pieces and one pom-pom. Colonel Mahon was sent to their assistance, but before he arrived the Canadians had beaten the Boers off after a sharp fight in which Major Sanders, Lieutenant Moodie and two men were wounded and six men captured. Lord Roberts characterized this exploit as "a very creditable performance. "

January 13, 1900. the Secretary of State for War, accepted the offer made by Lord Stratheona and Mount Royal, two days previously, to equip and land at Cape Town, at his own expense. 500 rough riders from the Canadian Xorth-West as a special service corps of mounted rifles. The Dominion Government undertook the work of orgai izing and equipping this regiment, and on February 1st, authority for the enlistment was granted. The force was enrolled at twenty-three points between Winnipeg and Victoria. Any man experienced in horsemanship and rifle shooting was eligible, but the preference was given to former mcm-bcrsof the Xorth-West Mounted Police and the mounted (Major 5thRoyalScots);Cart-wright, F. L., (N.W.M.P.); Lieutenants. Magee, R. H. P., Graduate R M C.; Harper, F., (X.W.M.P.); Renyon, J. A., (Captain Royal Canadian Artillery); Maekie, E. F.( (Captain 90th Winnipeg Rifles); Fall, P., (2nd Lieut. Manitoba Dragoons); White-Eraser, M. H., (Ex-Inspector X.W. M.P.); Kotehen, H. 1). R.. (N.W M.P.); Macdonald, •L F., (Captain 37th Haldimand Rifles); Leekic, J. E., (Graduate R.M.C.); Courtney, R. M, (Captain 1st P.W.R.F., Graduate R.M.C.P; Poolcy. T. E., (Captain 5th Reg't., C.A.); Christie. A. E.; Strange, A. W.; Laidlaw, (J. E.. (Graduate R.M.C.); Kirkpatriek, G. H.. (Graduate R.M.C.); Tobin. S. 11.. (Graduate R.M.C.);


The Officers and Guidons of Strathcona's Horse.

Standing -Lt. Magee, Lt. Laitllaw, Lt. Christie, Capt. McDonald, Capt. Harper, L(. I'oki ii, I.l Snider. Dr. Keenan, Lt. Hwrlinr. Lt. Courtney, Lt. Strange, Lt Ketchcn, Lt I'ook-y, Lt. Tealle. Adj. Markie.

Sitting-Capt, Howard. Capt. Cartn'srht, Maj. Snyder, Lt.-Col. Steele. Maj. Bclehcr, Maj. Jarvis. Maj. Laurie, Capt. Cameron

Permanent corps of Militia. Pay of officers and men was again fixed at the rates prevailing in the North-West Mounted Police. The command was given to Superintendent Steele, and eight of the other most important commissions were given to officers of the force. The complete list of officers of Strathcona's Horse, who were commissioned as officers of the British Army, was as follows:—

Lieutenant-Colonel, Steele, Lieut.-Col. S. B., (N.W. M P.); Second in Command, Helcher, Major R N W. M P.); Majors, Snyder, A. 11* (R.N.W.M.P.); Jarvis, A. ML (N.W.M P.); Laurie, H. C., (Graduate R.M.C.); Captains, Howard. D. M., (N.W.M.P.); Cameron, G. W.

Quartermaster, Parker, W.; Transport Ollicer, Snider, I. B., (2nd Lieut Manitoba Dragoons); Medical Officer, Keenan, C. B., (Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal); Veterinary Officer, Stevenson, G. P.

The rank and file numbered 512 and were recruited over a territory of over 1,000.000 square miles m extent. Some men had actually to travel 000 miles on the ice of the Yukon River to enlist, and others came for the purpose from the Peace River district.

Strathcona's Horse was the last body of Canadian troops, which was under fire, to leave Africa. Under General Puller thev took part n the brilliant campaign in the north of and beyond Natal, taking part in the capture of Amerspoort, Ermele, Carolina, Macha-dadorp. Lydenburg, Spitz Hop, and Pilgrim's Rest. Returning to Machadadorp on October 7th, they received instructions to turn their horses over to the Imperial cavaln and entrain for Pretoria. It was supposed to be the intention to send them home then, but 011 October 20th, they were rehorsed at Pretoria and sent to assist in the movement destined to open the railway to Potchefstroom. In these operations they greatly distinguished themselves, particularly while acting as advance guard November 10. The Strath-


Major A. E. Snvder, Strathcona's Horse.

conas afterwards joined the force under General Knox in his strenuous pursuit of DeWet.

Several retired members of the force served throughout the campaign in South Africa with distinction in other than the distinctively Canadian corps, notably Constable Charles Ross, who had distinguished himself as chief scout under Superintendent Herchmer during the operations of the Rattleford Column in the Rebellion of 1885. Ross enrolled in an irregular troop and was given a lieutenancy in Roberts' Horse, securing promotion and being eventually accorded an independent command of a Corps of Scouts.

The campaign brought to the Mounted Police, through its officers and men serving in the several contingents in South Africa, numerous distinguished honours, including even the prize covetted by all British soldiers, the reward "For Valor," the Victoria Cross.

The Cross was won at Wolvesprint, July 5, 1000, by Sergeant A. H. Richardson of "C" Division, Battleford, serving in Strathcona's Horse. Sergeant Richardson's act of valor consisted in gallantly riding back, under a very heavy fire, to within 300 yards of the enemy's position, to the rescue of a comrade who had been twice wounded, and whose horse had been shot.

The following honours were also gained by members of the Mounted Police while on service in South Africa:—

To be a Companion of the Order of the Bath—Supt. S. B. Steele, Lt.-Col. Commanding Lord Strathcona's Horse.

To be Companions of the Order of St. Michael and St. George—Inspector R. Belcher, Major 2nd in Command, Lord Strathcona's Horse; Inspector A. M. Jarvis, Major, Lord Strathcona's Horse.

To be Companions of the Distinguished Service Order—Superintendent G. E. Sanders, Major, 2nd in Command, Canadian Mounted Rifles; Inspector A. C. Macdonell, Captain Canadian Mounted Rifles; Inspector F. L. Cartwright, Captain Lord Strathcona's Corps.

To be a member of the Victorian Order (4th Class) — Superintendent S. B. Steele, Lt.-Col., Commanding Lord Strathcona's Corps.

Awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal—Reg. No. 995. Sergt. J. Hynes) Regt. Sergt.-Major, Lord Strathcona's Horse; Reg. No. 895 Sergt. Major Richards, Sqd. Sergt.-Major, Lord Strathcona's Horse; Reg. No. 3263 Constable A. S. Waite, private, Canadian Mounted Rifles.

Lieut.-Col. L. W. Herchmer, was granted the rank of Honorary Colonel 011 the retired list of the Active Militia from May 17, 1901, Superintendents G. G. Sanders and A. C. Macdonall, the rank of Lieutenant Colonels, and Superintendent J. Howe and Inspectors Cuthbert and Moodie, Majors. Several of the junior officers received promotion in the Militia, superior to the rank at which they joined the contingents. The N.W.M.P. officers in Strathcona's Horse all received honorary rank in the British Army.

The following members of the force were rewarded for their services in South Africa by being granted commissions in the British Army and the Colonial Forces:—

Regtl. Rank. Name. Commission.

No.

3188 Sergeant.......Skirving, II. R.....Colonial Forces.

3420 Constable..........Bredin, A. N........Imperial Army.

322S Constable. Ballantine, J. A. ...

3031 Corporal. . . French, J. G.......S. A. Constabulary.

3290 Constable..........Ermatinger. C. P.. .

29S3 Sergeant........Hilliani, K. . . .....Howard's Scouts.

3191 Sergeant-Major . . Church, F.........Canadian Yeomanry.

S99 " .....Richards, J........

3062 Staff-Sergeant ... lvetchen. H. D. B .C.M.R., Winnipeg.

Commissioner Perry took over the command of the Mounted Police from Assistant Commissioner Mcllree, who had been in command after the departure of Lieut.-Col. L. \Y. Herchmer and the 2nd C.M.R. for South Africa, on August IS, 1900.

As soon as practicable he inspected the posts at Calgary, Fort Saskatchewan, Macleod, Lethbridge, Maple Creek and Prince Albert, in order to obtain touch of the force in the Territories, from which he had been absent for some time on duty in the Yukon Territory. He. naturally, found the divisions short-handed and somewhat disorganized owing to the number of officers, non-commissioned officers and men, who had been permitted to proceed on active service in South Africa. A large percentage of each division consisted of recruits from whom the same work could not be expected as from trained and experienced men. He, however, found all ranks anxious to do the. best under the circumstances and proud to have their corps represented on the South African veldt.

The condition of the horses was not satisfactory, and for the same reason, 155 picked annuals had been sold to the Militia Department for South African service. This loss, out of a total strength of 508, could not but cripple the force somewhat. The new Commissioner found a considerable percentage of horses were unfit for further service, and they were cast and sold as fast as suitable remounts could be purchased.

About 84 special constables were carried 011 the strength of the force in the Territories as interpreters, scouts, artizans, teamsters, <&e., and were not trained, therefore, weakening the effective strength of the force.

On November, 30, 1000, the strength was:—Xorth-West Territories, 24 officers, 70 non-com. officers, 417 constables, 41S horses; Yukon Territory, 10 officers, 17 non-coinmissioned officers, 207 constables, .51 horses; South Africa, 17 officers, 43 non-com. officers, 102 constables, lt was estimated that 011 the return of the contingents in South Africa and the discharge of all special constables, the. strength would stand, on February 1 at 850.

The North-West Territories was divided into districts as follows:—

Regina.—Moosomin, Estevan, Saltcoats, Wood Mountain, Moosejaw, Oxbowf Qu'Appelle, Wolsely, Whitewood, Kutawa, Fort Pelly, Yorktown, North Portal, Town Station, Willow Bunch, Nut Lake, Emerson.—18.


Lieut. H. D. H. Slralhcona's Horse.
Promtled from the ranks of the N.W.M.P.

Maple Creek.—Farewell, Ten Mile, Medicine Lodge, Medicine Hat, Town Stat on, Sw ft Current, East Ebb.—7.

Battleford.—Onion Lake, Jackfish. Maefarlano, Henrietta. Saskatchewan.—5.

Macleod.—Pineher Creek, Big Bend. Kootenav. Stand Off, St. Mary's Kipp, Leavings, Mosquito ('reek, Porcupine. Piegan, Town Patrol, Lees ( reek, Herd ('amp.—13.

Calgary.—Red Doer, Gleichen, High River, Olds, Banff, Canmore, Millarville, Rosebud, Morley, lnnisfail. Sarcee Reserve, Okotoks.—12.

Prince Albert.—Duck Lake, Batoche, Rosthern, Fletts Springs.—4.

Edmonton District, (Fort Saskatchewan is the headquarters.)—Edmonton, St. Albert, Wetaskiwin, Lacombe, Peace River Landing, Lesser Slave Lake, Fort Chippewyan.—7.

Lethbridge.—Coutts, Milk River Ridge, St. Mary's, Writing on Stone, Pendant d'Oreille.—5.

Total Districts, S. Total Detachment, 71.

Three detachments had been temporarily established in Manitoba for the winter to protect Crown timber. From Roseau River in south-east Manitoba to Fort Chippewyan, in the far north, 2,000 miles apart, the men of the force were to be found.

In his annual report for 1900, Commissioner Perry remarked:—"The great countries of the Peace, Athabascka and Mackenzie rivers are constantly recquiring more men. An officer is about leaving Fort Saskatchewan to take command of that portion of the territory. The operations of the American whalers at the mouth of the Mackenzie will ere long require a detachment to control their improper dealings with the Indians, and to protect the revenue."

It was perhaps a happy co-incidence that in 1900, white so many officers and men of the force were upholding the authority of the Empire in South Africa, a great injustice, sustained by members of the force for many years, was righted. Contrary to the practice in dealing with the militia corps, the officers and men of the N.W.M.P., who served through the North-West Rebellion of 1885, but did not happen to be under fire, did not receive the medal awarded by Her Majesty's Government for the campaign, and it was not until 1000 that this invidious distinction was wiped out.

His Excellency, the Governor General, accompanied by Her Excellency the Countess of Minto, their family and suite, made an extended official visit through the Territories lasting over three weeks during 1900, and visited Lethbridge, Macleod, Calgary, Edmonton, Regina, Prince Albert, Duck Lake, Batoche and Fort Qu'Appelle.

Escorts, orderlies and transport were furnished at the different points, His Excellency expressing himself pleased with the arrangements.

An escort of one officer and 24 men proceeded from Regina to Prince Albert to take the party over land from that place to Qu'Appelle. The weather was wretched just before starting, and the trip was abandoned by Her Excellency and family. His Excellency, accompanied by a small staff and the escort, left Batoche one Sunday and reached Fort Qu'Appelle on Saturday night, having travelled 200 miles. It snowed and rained alternately, rendering the trails very bad, and increasing tremendously the work of the horses.

On arrival at Qu'Appelle, His Excellency thanked his escort, and October 10, directed the following Order to be published:—

"His Excellency, the Governor General, wishes to express his great satisfaction with the escort supplied to him from the Depot Division. The escort accompanied him through a very trying march, during which His Excellency was impressed by their smartness and efficiency, and he also wishes to thank all ranks for the trouble they took to secure his comfort."

On His Excellency's return to Ottawa, he forwarded, through the Commissioner, a gold pin to each member of his escort, who keenly appreciated the high honor conferred on them.

The following transfers of officers from the force serving in the Yukon took place during 1900:—

Supt. A. B. Perry to depot, Insp. I). A. E. Strickland to depot, Insp. F. L. Cartwright to depot for service in South Africa, Insp. A. M. Jarvis to depot for service in South Africa.

Superintendent Z. T. Wood took over command of the North-West Police, Yukon Territory, on April 18, relieving Supt. A. B. Perry, who vacated the command on that date.

At the end of the year the officers serving in the Yukon under Supt. Wood were;—

"H" Division—Supt. D. C. H. Primose. commanding division, Insp. J. A. McGibbon, attached from depot, Asst. Surg. L. A. Pare, Asst. Surg. A. M. Fraser, Dal ton Trail.

"B" Division—Insp. C. Starnes, commanding division, Insp. W. H. Routledge, Insp. W. H. Scrath, Insp. A. E. C. McDonell, Asst. Surg. W. E. Thompson, on leave, Asst. Surg. G. Madore, Selkirk, Act. Asst. Sarg. W. H. Hurdman.


The Royal Escort at Retina, September 27th, 1902.

The census of the Yukon Territory was taken by the police in April, 1900, and a school census was taken in the month of August. The order for the first, coming as it did at the season of the year when travelling was most difficult, was carried out in a most satisfactory manner. On account of the people being scattered over the country, it meant considerable travelling.

The total population of the district, including Indians, at the time of census taking, was 16,403. Whites, 16,107; Indians, 356. The school census, taken in the Dawson district only, totalled 175 children. Two at noon. A captain's escort, strength 33, commanded by Supt. Morris, with Inspector Demers as subaltern, escorted Their Royal Highness to Government House. Eleven carriages were provided for the Royal party. A guard of 14 N.C.O's and men was stationed at Government House. In addition to these there were tw o staff officers and four staff orderlies. Insp. Cuthbert was detailed as orderly officer to H.R.H. and Sergt.-Major Church as orderly N.C.O., and accompanied Their Royal Highnesses while in the Territories.

The strength at Regina was 73, all ranks, and 60


Presentation of Decorations and Medals at Calvary, decorated by His Royal Highness.

The strength of the force in the Yukon territory on November 30, 1000, was two hundred and fifty-four, distributed at the two headquarters of divisions and 20 detachments.

The event of chief importance to the force in 1901 was the visit to the North-West Territories, in connection with their round-the-world trip, of Their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and \ork The Royal party arrived at Regina on September 27, horses. "C" and "f" Divisions furnished the escort. The Royal train left Regina at 3 p.m. on the 27th, and arrived at Calgary at 10.30 on the 2Sth. After the reception by the corporation officials at Calgary, H.R.H. rode to Victoria Park, accompanied by Ins staff, in full uniform. The Police supplied the horses and saddlery The Duchess of Cornwall and York, accompanied by Her Excellency the Countess of Minto, drove, escorted by a travelling escort of 11 from A Division, under Inspector Baker. Ten carriages were provided for the suite.

At Calgary a provisional battalion had been mobilized composed of troops from Depot "E", "D", "K", and "G" Divisions, ft included 173 men mounted, and band, 15, dismounted. The battalion having been inspected by His Royal Highness, walked, trotted, galloped and ranked past In section, and then advanced in review order.

On the completion of the review, His Royal Highness was graciously pleased to express to Commissioner Perry how glad he was to have inspected a portion of the force, and his great satisfaction with the appearance of men and horses and their steadiness on parade.

On completion of the inspection, the decorations and medals for service in South Africa were presented. Insp. Belcher had the honour of receiving from His Royal Highness the insignia of the Companionship of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. . A large proportion of those who received medals at Calgary were members of the force.

On completion of the presentations, the Duke, accompanied b3r his staff and escorted by a full Royal escort of 117, under Commissioner Perry's command, rode to Shaganappi Point, where a big Indian camp were pitched, and where an interesting presentation of a number of Indian chiefs was made to His Royal Highness.

At 2 p.m. Their Royal Highnesses took luncheon with the officers of the force at the barracks, GO covers being laid. After luncheon, the Royal Party proceeded with a travelling escort to the sports at Victoria Park, and thence to the train, which left Calgary about 4.30 p.m.

From the North-West the Royal party proceeded to British Columbia, and, on account of the absence of mounted military corps in the Pacific provinces, the N W. M. P. were required to furnish an escort. This included 68 of all ranks and. 65 horses, under the Commissioner's command, with Supt. Sanders, D.S.O. as squadron commander. It left Calgary by special train at 6 p.m. the 28th, and, arriving at Vancouver on the 30th, a travelling escort was furnished for a drive by Their Royal Highnesses around the city. At 5 p.m. the horses were embarked on the steamer "Charmer" and at 9 30 the boat left for Victoria, arriving there at 5 a.m. on Oetober 1.

The full strength of the force attended on Their Royal Highness from the outer wharf to the Legislative Buildings and thence to Esquimalt. From Esquimalt a travelling escort under the command of Inspector Macdonell, D.S.O. escorted the Royal Party to the Exhibition Grounds and thence to Mount Baker Hotel to the Empress of India, on which they embarked for Vancouver.

The following letter was received by Commissioner Perry from Sir Arthur Bigge, Private Secretary to H.R,H:—

October 9, 1001.

Dear Col. Perry,—The Duke of Cornwall and York directs me to express to you his gratification at the very smart appearance of that portion of your force which he had the pleasure to inspect at Calgary.

His Royal Highness also wishes to thank you, and all under your command, for the admirable manner in which the escort and other duties were performed during his stay in western Canada.

(Sgd.) Arthur Biggk.

On November the 30th, the strength was:—North-West Territories, 37 officers, 103 non-com. officers, 353 constables, 467 horses; Yukon Territory, 15 officers, 43 non-comm. officers, 44 horses, 220 dogs; South Africa, 2 officers. Flight newr detachments had been established, the strength had been increased in the Athabaska district and an officer stationed at Lesser Slave Lake, in command.


The Royal Equipage (furnished by N.W.M.P.) at the Calgary Review. H.R.H, The Duchess of Cornwall and York arid Her Excellency The Countess of Minto in the carriage.

In the following terms, in his annual report at the end of the year, Commissioner Perry drew attention to the increased duties devolving upon the force, and to the need of increasing the strength:—

"There has been a large influx of \ery desirable settlers, and land has risen very rapidly in value consequent upon the current of immigration which has set steadily this way.

"The rapid increase of population has caused an expansion of our duties which, with our fixed strength, we find great difficulty in meeting.

"When the force was organized in 1873, with a strength of 300 men, the Territories were unsettled, and the control given over to lawless bands who preyed upon the Indians, with whom no treaties had then been made.


H.R.H. The Duke of Cornwall and York and Staff at the Calgary Review.

In 1866, complications with the half-breeds culminated n rebellion, which was successfully quelled. The strength of the force was then raised to 1.000 where it stood for about 10 years, when, owing to the peaceful state of the Territories, the settled condition of the Indians, and the rapid means of communication by railway into the different portions, it was gradually reduced to 750. In 1808, the gold discoveries iK the Yukon, and the consequent rush of gold seekers caused the sudden increase of the force on duty n that territory to 250 men, thus reducing the strength in the North-West Territories to 500.

"A further decrease has now taken place by an addition to the Yukon strength, charged with the maintenance of order m the Yukon, but the services of the police have been required in the Athabaska District, a country of enormous extent with no facilities for travel, but where police work is ever on the increase.

"It may be thought that the settled portions of the Territories ought now to provide for their own police protection, or at any rate that the incorporated towns and villages should do so. Some of the larger towns have their own police forces, but the smaller towns seem desirous of retaining the N.W M P. constables, claiming that they obtain better service, but doubtless they are largely influenced by economical considerations.

"The population of the Territories has doubled in ten years, and the strength of the force has been reduced by one-half. Our detachments have increased from 49 to 79. Although we have only half of the strength of ten years ago, still we have the same number of division head-quarter posts, carrying in their train the staff organization and maintenance of barracks as though the divisions were of their former strength The distinguished services rendered to the Empire in the South African war, by members of the force, emphasize the fact that it has a very decided military value and that in future nothing ought to be done to impart its efficiency."

In his annual report for the following year Superintendent Perry reverting to the same subject, wrote:—

"In my last annual report 1 called your attention to the largely increased demands on the force, and the difficulty I found ifnmeeting them. This year these difficulties have been emphasized. The continued development of the country, the increase of population, the settlement of remote districts, many new towns that have sprung up, and the construct ion of new railways have greatly added to our work. In the train of the immigration has come a number of the cr minal class, which though not large, will probably increase.

"The new settlers are principally from foreign countries, a great number being from the United States. The American settler is much impressed by the fair and impartial administration of justice. He finds a constabulary force such as he has not been accustomed to, but the advantages of which he is (puck to acknowledge, and a country free from all lawlessness and enjoying freedom without license.

"The proposal of the Grand Trunk Railway tthrough the Peace River country, is sure to attract to that district in the immediate future a lot of people seeking for the best locations. The police work is steadily increasing We ought to increase our strength there, and establish a new police district, with headquarters for the present, at Fort Clupewyan. Two of the districts in the organized territories could be combined into one, thus releasing the staff for the new district in the north. The northern trade is steadily increasing. Detachments ought to be stationed on Mackenzie River."

A Pension lhll providing for the pensions of officers of the North-West Mounted Police was passed •luring the session of 1002, the ^onerous provisions of which were much appreciated. The officers, promoted from the ranks, profit largely by it, in that service in the ranks is reckoned as service for pension.

The strength in the Territories in 1903 was 490; 10 under that authorized, but 28 more than at the date of the previous annual report. The force was at the end of 1903 distributed from the international boundary than in any previous year in the history of the Territories. 1 think 350,000 a very conservative estimate of the present population. This rapid development has greatly increased the work of the force, and I have had difficulty in meeting fully the requirements. The rapid settlement of a new country always attracts


General View of the Royal Review at Calgary, September, 1901.

to the Arctic ocean, and from Hudson Bay to the Alaska boundary. There were 8 divisions in the Territories, each with a headquarter post, and there were 84 detachments, with 182 officers and men constantly employed on detached duty.

It is instructive to compare this year's (1903) record of crime with 1893, ten years previous. The estimated population at the latter date was 113,000, and total convictions 614. The estimated population in 1903 was 350.000, and the number of convictions 2,613.

On November 30, 1903, Supt. A. H. Griesbach, having completed thirty years' honourable service, retired on pension. He was the first man to join the force on organization in 1873, and was shortly after promoted Regimental Sergeant-Major. His commission soon followed. Before joining the force, he had seen service with the 15th Hussars, with the Cape Mounted Rifles in South Africa, and with the 1st Ontario Rifles in the Red River Rebellion. He was given the rank of Major during the North-West rebellion. He had the honour of being appointed an extra A.D.C. to His Excellency the Governor-General during Lord Aberdeen's tenure of office. Superintendent Griesbach took with him on retirement the best wishes of all ranks.

In his annual report for 1903 Commissioner Perry referred as follows to the extension of the responsibilities and duties of the force under his command:—

" The increase of population this year has been greater certain lawless and undesirable element, and it is evident, from the year's crime reports, that the North-West Territories are not an exception. The new towns and extending settlements call for police patrols and supervision, and it is quite clear that the point will soon be reached, if it has not already been reached, when this force, with its fixed strength, cannot satisfactorily perform the duties expected by the people of the Territories.

" Our field of operations this year has been tremendously widened. A detachment of five men, under the command of Superintendent Moodie, was selected to accompany the Hudson's Bay expedition in that far distant region.


D.G.S. "Neptune," with Supt. Moodie and Hudson Bay Patrol K.N.W.M.P., aniong the Arctic Ice.

'•Another expedition was despatched in May to the Arctic Ocean, consisting of five men, under the command of Superintendent Constantine. This detachment reached Fort Macpherson, on the Pelly River, early in July. Superintendent Constantine having arranged for quarters, returned to Fort Saskatchewan, leaving Sergeant Fitzgerald in charge. This non-commissioned officer visited Herschell Island in August, and had the honour of establishing a detachment, the most northerly iu the world, at this point.

"Herschell Island is in the Arctic ocean, 80 miles north-west of the mouth of the Mackenzie river. It has been for mam* years the winter quarters of the American whaling fleet, and has been the scene of considerable lawlessness and violence. The reports of Superintendent Constantine and Sergeant Fitzgerald will be found in the appendix. Superintendent Moodie has not been heard from.

"The establishement of these outposts is of far-reaching importance. They stand for law and good order, and show that, no matter what the cost, nor how remote the region, the laws of Canada will be enforced, and the native population protected.

"I venture again to call your attention to the valuable work of the force among the immigrants, who are largely foreign-born. It is of the utmost importance to the future of the country, that they should be started n the right way; that from the first they should be impressed with the fair, just and certain enforcement of the laws, and that they should be educated to their observance. In 1001, 30 per cent, of our population was foreign-born, and I think I am fairly stating the position now, in saving that the foreign-born equal those of British birth (using the term British in its widest sense).

"It is claimed, and rightly, that we are a law-abiding people, that no new country was ever settled up with such an entire absence of lawlessness. Why? Because of the policy of Canada in maintaining a powerful constabulary, which has for thirty years enforced the laws in an impartial manner.

"The North-West Mounted Police were the pioneers of settlement. They carried into these Territories the world-wide maxim, that where the British flag flies, peace and order prevail. I refer to this, because it has been stated that the time has now arrived when their services are no longer required. With this view I do not agree, but, on the contrary, I believe that their services were never so necessary. I have referred to the large immigration, but the country s so vast, that it scarcely makes an impression. There are huge stretches without a single habitation, and a boundary line of 800 miles, along which for 200 miles, not a settler is to be found."

"The force is now distributed from the international boundary to the Arctic ocean, and from the Hudson's Bay to the Alaska boundary.

"There are S divisions in the Territories, each with a headquarter post, and there are 81 detachments, with 182 officers and men constantly employed on detached duty. Of these, 55 are distributed among 21 detachments along the international boundary."

For many years it had been a source of complaint on the part of the North-West: ranchers, that United States


Inspector Cortlniull Slarnes, for many years on duly in the Yukon.

cattle, were allowed to graze <n Canada w tliout restriction, that the owners often deliberately drove their cattle to the boundary, so that they would drift into Canada, where grass and water were more plentiful; that United States round-ups came into Canada gathered and branded their young stock and turned them loose again, and that their 'beef roundups,' in taking up their own fat stock, were not too particular. The complaints came from poi its all along the boundary, from Willow Bunch to Cardstun, some 500 miles, but they were particularly loud and stridemt from the ranchers on Milk River, who suffered most.

In 1903 the Customs Department took action, and notified United States cattle owners that the privileges which they had hitherto enjoyed, could not be continued. They were given until July 1 to gather and take out their cattle.

The effect of this action has been satisfactory. A special officer of the Customs Department was stationed at Coutts to look after this work. The police were instructed to strictly enforce the regulations. Their good work was acknowledged by the special Customs officer.

The police patrols seized several bands of ponies which were being run in by Indians without any regard to Customs or quarantine laws.

"E" Division, Calgary, during 1902-03 distinguished itself by the long pursuit and capture of the young-Wyoming desperado Ernest Cashel. This criminal was arrested for forgery, and escaped from the chief of the Calgary City Police on October 14, 1902. The Mounted Police were then notified and commenced the pursuit. On October 22, Cashel stole a bay pony near Lacombe in his efforts to escape. After this, no word of him was received until November 19, when one I). A. Thomas, of Pleasant Valley, north of Red Deer river, reported the mysterious disappearance of his brother-in-law, J. R. Belt, from his ranch, 38 miles east of Lacombe. Constable McLeod, of "G" Division, investigated, and found that when Belt was last seen, about November 1, a young man calling himself Bert Elseworth was staying with him. The description of Elseworth proved him to be Cashel. Belt's horse, his saddle, with name J. R. Belt on, shotgun, clothes, money, including a $50 gold certificate, were missing. As there were grave suspicions of Belt having been murdered by Cashel, Supt. Sanders put Constable Pennvcuick on the case. A lookout was kept in every direction to prevent the fugitive going south, and every detachment warned. On January 17, 1903, Mr. Glen Healy, of Jumping Pond, lent a horse to a man answering Cashel's description and giving the name of Else-worth; the horse was not returned. The Mounted Police next heard of the man near Morley, then at Kananaskis, where he stole a diamond ring, and abandoned his horse. The search became now confined to the railway. Trainmen and others were warned, and constables sent along the line. In spite of this, Cashel managed one evening to steal the clothes of the trainmen from a caboose at Canmore. Finally, on January 24, Cashel was arrested by Constable Blyth. at Anthracite. On him was found a pair of brown corduroy trousers similar to those in the possession of J. R. Belt, and the diamond ring stolen at Kananaskis. The police found that Cashel had been living with the half-breeds near Calgary for some time, and that he had arrived there early in November, shortly after he was seen at Belt's. Constable Pennycuick visited the breeds and got clothing and other articles Cashel had left there, amongst them was the balance of the corduroy suit owned by J. R. Belt. He also got evidence of a $50 bill the prisoner had. As the body of Belt could not be produced or accounted for, the prisoner was charged simply with stealing A horse from Glen Healy and a diamond ring from the section foreman at Kananaskis. Meantime Constable Pennycuick and others commenced to trace the movements of the accused from the time he had left Belt's to the date of his arrival at the half-breed camp.

On May 14, 1903, Ernest Cashel was sentenced by the Chief Justice to three year's imprisonment in Stony Mountain Penitentiary.

When the ice went out of the. river in the spring, careful search was made for Belt's body in the Red Deer and Constables Rogers and Pennycuick searched the stream in a canoe for several hundred miles, but without success. Supt. Sanders offered a reward of $50 as well. Constable Pennycuick traced Cashel from Belt's place with Belt's clothes, horse, saddle and $50 gold certificate to a point near Calgary. The chain of evidence connecting Cashel with the disappearance of Belt was complete with the exception of sure information as to where Belt was. On July 20, John Watson a farmer living some 25 or 30 miles down the Red Deer river from Belt's place, discovered, while hunting for cattle, the body of a man floating in the river. He secured it and told the police. The coroner was notified and an inquest held. The body, although much decomposed, was fully identified as that of J. R. Belt, mainly by a deformed toe on the left foot, and an iron clamp which the deceased wore on the heel of his left boot. A bullet hole was found in the left breast, and at the end of the hole near the shoulder blade a *44 bullet of the same calibre as the revolver and rifle carried by Cashel.

An information was now laid against Ernest Cashel for murder. The jury brought in a verdict of 'guilty' and the prisoner was immediately sentenced to be hanged on December 15, at Calgary.

Unfortunately, through a combination of circumstances, Cashel, having been supplied with t \o revolvers by a brother permitted to visit him in his cell under judicial authority, effected his escape December 10, five days before the date fixed for his execution. It is the proud boast of the force that within its far-reaching jurisdiction no man has ever been lynched, nor has a known murderer or other criminal ever found safety, and it may be well supposed that great efforts were made to recapture Cashel.

The pursuit was commenced at once, but the Mounted Police were handicapped by the weather, the night being particularly dark and snowing hard. every available man was turned out, mounted patrols covered all the roads, and a thorough search was made of the neighbourhood. Constable Goulter, one of the mounted patrols, shortly after the escape, arrested Cashel's brother on the street; he was evidently expecting to meet, his brother and had a parcel of footwear, obviously for the fugitive's use, and a pocketful of revolver cartridges. Supt. Sanders commanding at Calgary notified the Commissioner also all police divisions and detachments south, east and west. Next day, not having picked up any trace, and being satisfied that the trains were being too carefully watched for him to have got away by that means, Supt. Sanders decided there was nothing to be done but to send parties out and warn the whole country.

On December 12, Commissioner Perry arrived from Regina, accompanied by Inspector Knight, and assumed charge of the operations. Superintendents Primrose and Regin were ordered to place patrols to the south, extending from the mountains and along the Little Row. Reinforcements were ordered from Regina to Macleod; ten N.C.O.'s and men from Regina, six from Maple Creek and one from Edmonton were ordered to Calgary. A reward of SI,000 was offered for the ca}>-ture or information leading to the capture of the fugitive. Worsley and party left for the former and Inspector Knight and party for the latter. Inspector Knight found that Constable Spurr with an Indian tracker, whom Sanders started out on the 11thi from Morley, had been on the tracks of a man in the snow, and had tracked him to a ranch, where the description given left no doubt it was Cashel. Spurr followed him up and found he was making for Calgary. He actually went to a house that Cashel was in, but the old woman and her son who lived there, denied the presence of any stranger. The son was afterwards sentenced to three month's imprisonment for assisting Cashel on this occasion. Inspector Knight searched all houses in that vicinity during the night, and found a pony had been stolen from one place. Next morning the police found this pony near Calgary, and foot-marks leading from the place where it was found into the town. Later the police found that Cashel had stopped during the night at a rancher's named Rigby, six miles west of Calgary, Rigby and all his family being away. Whilst there he changed the clothes he had escaped in and selected a new outfit from Mr Rigby's wardrobe. A note was left, with the old clothes and easily recognized as Cashel's handwriting, which read, 'Ernest Cashel, $1,000, return in six months.' on the 15th, the police heard of a man answering the description at the place of a man called Thomas Armstrong six miles east of Calgary. Cashel had left there in the morning and walked along the. track east. Inspector Knight and party scoured the whole district night and day, and police from Gleichen with Indian scouts worked west along the railway, but without success. During the 16th, 17th and 18th, the country north, south and east of Armstrong's was continually patrolled and the police had apparently reliable information at the same time of the fugitive being at six other points. On the evening of the 18th it would appear Cashel was in the outskirts of the town and was seen by a citizen who reported it too late to be of service. At 4 a.m. of December 18 Supt. Sanders took a party and searched the half-breed camps and wooded coulees west of Calgan. In Macleod and Lethbridge districts to the south much the same work had been going on, and numerous alleged Cashels were being run down and found to be innocent parties. Commissioner Perry left for Regina on the night of the 23rd. The usual crop of rumors kept coming in each day and the patrols through the outlying districts were kept up without nterniission and without anything much transpiring, except that the police, were pretty certain from a citizen's report that Cashel had been again in the outskirts of the town on December 20. This condition of affairs continued to the end of December, and the police were still fairly convinced the man was in hiding and receiving assistance from sympathizers.

Owing to persistent reports from Montana of Cashel being seen there, Sergeant Hetherington was detailed to go to the States and work in conjunction with the United States authorities, who were keenly on the alert. Indications were strong yet, however, that he was in the country to the east of Calgary, and although the police had covered every point as far as the number of men and horses would permit, they watched the district around Langdon and Shepard closely. Supt. Sanders also got the local papers not to mention the affair at all, for he knew from former experience of this criminal, that he had a great love of notoriety and would risk anything to obtain it. On January 11, Mr. Crossar, a rancher, four miles east of Calgary, reported that at 10.30 p.m., of January 10, a man had come into his brother's house with a revolver in his hand and asked for a horse, he then said: 'I guess you know who I am. I am Cashel. I am not after a horse, but I am desperate and must have money. I have plenty of friends but still 1 want money.' Cossar gave him all he had, §12, then Cashel asked for his bank book and asked for the newspapers; after reading these he wrote a letter and spoke of men whom he had heard had helped the police and said he would get even with them. He left the house at 12.30 and threatened Cossar with the vengeance of his mythical friends should he (Cossar) inform. The same night he must have visited Armstrong's house (the place he slept in on December 14), because next day Armstrong on his return home found the place had been ransacked. As a result of this information several constables in plain clothes were placed the capacity of hired men at different farms in the neighbourhood. That Cashel had some fixed point from which he made excursions at night appeared certain, and Supt. Sanders suspected he visited many farms and extorted money without it being reported. As he was on foot, it was not likely he walked more than ten miles away from his hiding place during the night, so that should the police obtain one or two more points where he had visited it would be possible to define a certain area of country within which he could be found. Another point was supplied on January 21, when Mr. S. Wigmore, who lives near Shepard, reported Cashel had been at his place on t he night of the 19th and behaved in much the same way as he had at Cossar's. Not getting any more clues, Supt. Sanders marked off an area on the map, based on the visits Cashel had made in the Shepard district, and decided that if a thorough search were made of the country embraced therein in one day success would be met with. It required about forty mounted men to do this and Supt. Sanders had not got them unless he drew in all his detachments and received men from other posts. This would take too long and was not safe. He consequently wired the Commissioner on the 22nd January asking if he objected to his using volunteers; doing this on the strength of several offers from the Canadian Mounted Rifles, Mr. Wooley-Dod, a rancher, and others, to lend a hand. On January 23, Superintendent Sanders reeeived a reply authorizing him to do so, and telling him to swear his volunteers in as special constables. Accordingly he arranged with Mr. Wooley-Dod, Mr. ' Heald and Major Barwis to get 20 volunteers together, and be at the barracks, mounted and ready to start, at 8 a.m. the following day, Sunday, January 24. Every one turned up on time, and with the police, numbered 40 all told. These Supt. Sanders divided up into five parties under Major Barwis, Inspeetor Knight, Inspector Duffus, Sergeant-Major Belcher and himself. Each party consisted of police and citizens equally divided. The leader of eaeh detachment was given a certain district, comprising so many townships, within which he was to search every building, cellar, root-house and haystack. The Superintendent also ordered that should they discover the fugitive, and by burning the house or stack where he was found, prevent loss of life, they were not to hesitate in doing so. At 11.30 a portion of Inspector Duffus' party consisting of Constables Rogers, Peters, Biggs, Stark, and Mr. McConnell, while searching Mr. Pitman's ranch, at a point just on the edge of the district being secured, six miles from Calgary, came across Cashel in the cellar. Constable Biggs found him, and was fired at by Cashel out of the darkness; Biggs returned the shot and ran up the steps, being fired at again. Constable Rogers, the senior constable, ordered the men to come out of the house and surround it; he then sent word to Inspector Duffus, who was searching another place nearby with the balance of the party. Inspector Duffus, after speaking to Cashel and advising him to surrender, without success, decided to set fire to the building, which was a mere shack. This was done. When the smoke began to enter the cellar Cashel agreed to come out, and was immediately arrested. Efforts were then made to put out the fire, but it had gained too much headway. Everything went to show that Cashel had been living in a haystack alongside of the house for some time; a new robe and spring mattress were found in a large hole burrowed under the staek, together with several indications of its occupancy for a lengthy period. The two men living at the ranch were afterwards arrested, and one of them, Brown, received six months' imprisonment.

Thus ended perhaps one of the most arduous pursuits after a criminalin the annals of the force. Each man felt keenly the circumstances surrounding the escape, and no one spared himself in any way.' Night and day, with very little rest, they stuck to their work without a murmur.

During the pursuit the date of the execution was put off from time to time by the Chief Justice, and on the day after his capture the prisoner was brought before His Lordship and finally sentenced to be hanged on February 2. Cashel was hanged in the guard-room yard on that, date, and confessed his guilt to the Rev. Mr. Kerby just previous to leaving his cell for the scaffold.

Again, in his annual report for 1904, Commissioner drew attention to the increased responsibilities of the police due to the rapid settlement and development of the country, writing as follows:—

"The Royal North-West Mounted Police has gained a reputation, both at home and abroad, as an effective organization, which has materially forwarded the progress of the Territories. It is to-day dealing with all classes of men—the lawless element on the border, the cowboys and Indians on the plains, the coal miners in the mountains, the gold miners in the Yukon, and the American w halers and the Esquimaux in Hudson Bay and the far distant Arctic Sea. It is an asset of Canada, and the time has not arrived in the development of the country when it can be written off.

"No case of crime is too remote to be investigated. There have been many instances during the past year. The following are worthy of being brought to your notice.

'Extract from Sergt. Field's report dated Fort Chipewyan, December 8, 1903:

'A half-breed arrived here from Fond-du-Lae, on Lake Athabasca, and reported that an Indian. Paul Izo Azie, living at Black Lake, near Fond-du-Lac, had deserted his adopted children in the bush some time during last September.

'The particulars of the case are: This Indian Paul Izo Azie, was camped on an island in Black Lake, where he intended fishing and hunting during the fall and winter One day he sighted four or five canoes, with a number of men on board, coming towards his camp. He fired two shots in the air, as is customary amongst Indians as a sign of friendliness. They did not reply or take any notice of his shooting, but paddled off in another direction, and landed on the main shore of the lake. This man being very superstitious, as most Indians are, concluded that these were bad people and intended killing him and all his family. He got very frightened, so he got his wife, sister and the two little children and himself into his canoe and paddled ashore, leaving his camping outfit and all his belongings behind him. When he landed on shore he started off on foot for Fond-du-Lac, followed by his wife and sister, leaving these two little children behind without food or protection, one a little boy and the other a little girl, aged two and three years respectively. It being an eight days' trip, or about 130 or 140 miles from his camp to Fond-du-Lac, his sister, a young girl about fifteen years old, got fatigued after the first or second day's travel He left her behind on the road also, without food or protection. This poor girl wandered about the woods for several days in a dreadful state of starvation until she was picked up by some Indians that were camped in that direction She told them her story, how her brother had deserted these two little children on the lake shore. Some of these Indians started back to search for the children. When they got there they found the camp just as the Indian had left it, nothing taken or stolen. They tracked the little children along the shore and where they went into the bush. They followed their tracks up nto the woods and then fired two or three shots and then called out as loud as they could, but got no reply. Then they went on a little further, and there they found a little dress, all blood-stained and torn, and wolf tracks all around where the little girl had evidently been eaten by wolves. They could find no trace or sign of the other child anywhere. There is no doubt that the little boy has been devoured by wolves also.

'These Indians, who found the little dress, and also this man's sister, being the principal witnesses in the case, were not at Fond-du-Lac at the time Constable Pedley was out there, so he did not arrest this Paul Izo Azie, as he could not get the witnesses.

'They will all be at Fond-du-Lac next summer for treaty payments. I will then go myself and arrest this Indian and get the witnesses and all necessary evidence on the case and take them out for trial.'

"Black Lake is about 250 miles east of Fort Chipewyan The accused was arrested at Fond-du-Lac on June 28, and committed for trial at Edmonton by Inspector West. He was escorted there by Sergeant Field, accompanied by the witnesses. On Jul)' 25 he was tried at Edmonton by Mr. Justice Scott, convicted and sentenced to two years' imprisonment at Stony Mountain Penitentiary.

"In carrying out this duty, Sergt. Field travelled with his prisoner, by boat 0G7 miles, bv trail 90 miles and by train 1,031 miles, a total distance of 1,788 miles."

In his report, Commissioner Perry drew attention to the heroic work of Corporal D. B. Smith, stationed at Norway House, Lake Winnipeg. A severe epidemic of diphtheria and scarlet fever occurred there in the previous November. Corporal Smith was untiring in his efforts to aid the unfortunate people. lie supplied them with food, disinfected their houses, helped care for their sick and buried the dead. He was promoted to the rank of sergeant in recognition of his services.

For some years back the constantly increasing consumption of extracts, essences and patent medicines in the unorganized territories had shown that these liquors were not being used for legitimate purposes, but when being traded and sold to the Indians and half-breeds for use as intoxicants. As an instance of the extent to which the trade had reached, a trader's stock was examined by the police at lesser Slave Lake and tin y found 107 dozen 2 oz. bottles of ginger, peppermint, &e., equal to about 1(5 gallons. This trade was demoralizing the native population, and, on the facts being brought to the notice of the Prima Minister, he directed that the sections of the North-West Territories Act dealing with the use of intoxicants in those portions of the Territories where liquor license ordinance was not in force, were to be rigidly enforced

The Commissioner issued orders in accordance with these instructions on February 22, 1904 The reports from the detachments in 1904 stated that tin prevention of the importation and sale of extracts and essences had been most beneficial, and that drunkenness among the Indians and half-breeds had greatly decreased.

The strength in the Territories on November 30, 1904. was 39 officers, 475 non-commissioned officers and constables and 459 horses.

There were 9 divisions, each with a headquarters post and 93 permanent outposts. There should have been more outposts, but the Commissioner was unable to establish them. An increase of the strength by 100 men was authorized on July 1, but the Commissioner at the end of the year had not yet been able to recruit them. He did not anticipate being able to do so satisfactorily until a substantial increase was made in the pay.

The force required sober, intelligent, active young men of good character, and such men were in great demand in the country. To obtain them the rate of pay would have to be raised so as to be in reasonable proportion to what was paid in civil life.

Their Excellencies the Governor-General and Lady Minto paid a farewell visit to the Territories in September, 1904. Ceremonial escorts were furnished at Calgary and Regina and an escort of 1 officer, 25 non-commissioned officers and men and 42 horses accompanied His Excellency on his ride from Edmonton to Saskatoon. Saddle horses were supplied for His Excellency, and party, also camp equipment and transport. The force also established a permanent camp for Her Excellency and party at Qu'Appelle Lakes and furnished saddle horses, carriages and heavy transport.

His Excellency was pleased to express his approval in the following letter to the Comptroller from the Military Secretary:—

Government House.

Ottawa. October 1, 1904.

Sir,—I am commanded by the Governor-General to express to you His Excellency's warm appreciation of the admirable arrangements made for him on the occasion of his recent ride from Edmonton to Saskatoon and also for Lady Minto in the camp lately occupied by Her Excellency at the Qu'Appelle Lakes.

In both cases everything that was possible was done to ensure the comfort of Their Excellencies, and I am to ask that you will accept for yourself and kindly convey to the Commissioner and the officers, N.C. officers and men of the Royal North-West Mounted Police, the grateful thanks of Their Excellencies.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Sgd.) F. S. MAUDE, Major.

Military Secretary.

The event of the year, however, in the annals of the Mounted Police was His Majesty's personal recognition of the splendid services rendered for so many years to the Dominion and the Empire, by the force, by conferring upon it the title of Royal. The first intimation of this honour was conveyed by an announcement in the Canada Gazette of June 24, 1904, reading as follows: "His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to confer the title of "Royal" upon the North-West Mounted Police."

The authority for this announcement was the following communication from the Colonial Office.:—

Canada.

From Mr. LYTTELTON to Lord MINTO.

Downing Street, 19th November, 1903.

No. 375.

My Lord,

It gives me great pleasure to inform Your Excellency that His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to confer the title of "Royal" upon the North-West Mounted Police, in accordance with your recent recommendation.

I have, etc.,

(Sgd.) Alfred LYTTELTON.

The Governor-General, The Right Honorable,

The Earl of Minto, G.C.M.G.

Referring to the conferring of this honour upon the force, in his report for the year, Commissioner Perry wrote:—

"The force is deeply sensible of the high honour which has been conferred upon it, and I trust it will continue by loyalty, integrity and devotion to duty, to merit the great distinction which His Majesty has been so graciously pleased to bestow upon it."

The undermentioned officers were serving in the Yukon Territory at the end of 1904:—Commanding, Asst. Commsr. Z. P. Wood.

'H' Division—Superintendent A. E. Snyder, Commanding Division.—Inspectors, F. J. A. Demers, F. P. Horrigan, A. E. C. McDonell, P. W. Pennefather, Surgeon L. A. Pare, Asst.-Surgeon, S. M. Fraser.

'B' Division—Superintendent A. R. Cuthbert, Commanding Division—Inspectors, W. H. Routledge, T. A. Wroughton, J. Taylor, R. Y. Douglas, It. E. Tucker, Asst.-Surgeons, W. E. Thompson, G. Madore.

The general state of affairs in the Yukon Territory at the same date was reported in a most satisfactory and, on the whole, prosperous condition, and from a police point of view left but little to be desired. Like all mining camps, the Yukon had attracted to its environments a large number of the criminal class, but, notwithstanding their presence, crime had been confined to the smaller and more trivial offences.

As a matter of fact, the criminal element, the individuals of which were nearly all known to the police, wore subjected to so close a surveillance that few opportunities were allowed them to stray from the paths of virtue and rectitude, and they were perforce obliged to confine themselves to avocations strictly honest or seek pastures new. The great majority of them found their enforced probity too irksome and left the territory for its and their own good.

Attention was called several times during the year to the great expense involved in keeping a force of 300 men in the Yukon, and a claim had been made that one-third of that number would be sufficient to police the Territory.

Assistant Commissioner Wood, in his annual report speaking of this claim, wrote:—"I quite agree with this provided we could confine ourselves to the preservation of law and order as we are primarily intended to do. The fact of the matter is, however, that we are acting more or less for every department of the. government and performing work, such as mail carriers, &c., which is quite foreign to a police force proper; in fact although we are, as I have stated, getting rid of some of our extraneous work,we are still called upon to perform some duties which other officials and civilians refuse to undertake because they are not remunerative enough; for instance, acting as postmasters. Appointments as such were offered to officials and civilians throughout the Territory, who, however, invariably refused because of the fact of there being either no emolument in connection with the work or if there were, on account of ts smallness. Many of the offices are still filled by members of the force."

During the municipal elections in Dawson in January, 1004, one of the questions before the public was whether they should not have their own city police instead of availing themselves of the services of the force. A stiiff-sergeant and 11 men were on the town detachment and received the aggregate sum of $350 per month, the main expenses of their maintenance falling on His Federal government. It was held by some of the applicants for office that one or two men would be sufficient to police the city, but it was found that the public generally were in favour of the retention of the R.N.W.M Police for. as m previous years, the candidates for mayor and council who advocated keeping the force in charge, of the city easily defeated those, who were opposed to them.

Among other duties the R.N.W.M.P. in the Yukon discharges s that, of regulating the time. In his annual report for this year (1004; discussing armament, Asst .-Commissioner Wood wrote:—"The Maxim and Minimin-Nordenfeldt guns are also in a serviceable condition. \N th regard to guns of heavier calibre, we possess one 7-pdr. brass muzzle-loading gun at Dawson. The firing of the gun at noon is an important matter, as in all mining disputes, such as the staking of claims, Ac., and in fact in all legal matters in which official time is required, the courts in Dawson have held that the standard time in the Territory, and more particularly that portion embracing Dawson, and the creeks in the vicinity of and contiguous thereto, is the time of and at the 135th meridian of longitude, as announced by the noon-day gun. Should this old 7-pdr. burst, as the other did some three years ago, we would be left without any means of regulating Dawson time-pieces. For this and other reasons I would recommend that we be supplied with two of the latest pattern 12-pdrs. They are also required for saluting purposes and to enable the men to obtain some knowledge of gun-drill,"

In addition to his other duties the Assistant Commissioner was, and still is, acting as Inspecting Officer of the Dawson Rifle Company, the only Militia Corps in the Yukon, and represents the Officer Commanding Military District No. 11 in matters appertaining to that body and to the Dawson unit of the Dominion Rifle Association.

It will be recalled how, in the earlier days of the Mounted Police occupation of the Yukon, the officers were often hard put to it to secure the necessary dog teams. This difficulty has been overcome by breeding dogs for the service. Asst.-Commissioner Wood reports :—

"We are now fairly well supplied with dogs of a size and strength suitable to our needs; nearly all have been bred at the various detachments, and I hope in future to have a sufficient number raised to replace those destroyed on account of old age, etc., and to meet any special demands that may be made for extra patrols."

Four events stand out prominently in the history of the R.N.W.M P. for the year 1005—the acceptance by the Earl of Minto of the appointment of Honorary Commissioner of the force, the visit of Their Excellencies Lord and I.ady Grey to the North-West, the establishment and inauguration of the new Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, embracing practically all the territory comprised within the original sphere of operations of the R.N.W.M.P., and the long demanded and necessary increase of pay.

The appointment of an Honorary Commissioner was in line with a practice long followed in the British Army but only of late years introduced into Canada. The acceptance of the honor by the Earl of Minto, now Viceroy of India, was notified by the following communication:—

Minto House,

Hawick. January 11, 1005.

'My Loud,—I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of Your Lordship's despatch of December 20, 1904, inclosing an extract from a report of a committee of the Privy Council, informing me that I have been appointed, on the recommendation of the President of the Council, honorary commissioner of the Royal North-West Mounted Police.

'1 would be much obliged if you would express to Sir Wilfrid Laurier my sincere appreciation of the honor that has been conferred upon me.

'I have the honour to be, my Lord, 'Your obedient servant,

'(Sgd.) M1NTO.

'His Excellency

'The Earl Grey, G.C.M.G., &c., &c.'

Their Excellencies the Governor General and Lady Grey visited the new provinces in September. Escorts were furnished at Edmonton, Macleod, Cardston, Lethbridge and Regina.

A permanent camp was established at Qu'Appelle lakes for their use, and orderlies, horses and transport supplied.

His Excellency was pleased to express his approval in the following letter:—

'My Dear Commissioner Perry,—I am commanded by His Excellency to express to you his appreciation of the work carried out by the Royal North-West [Mounted Police during the Governor General's visit.

'Lord Grey has always heard of the good record borne by the force under your command, and it gave him great pleasure to see such a fine body of men.

'He hopes that you will convey to the officers, noncommissioned officers and men, and especially to those who were with the camp on special duty, his high opinion of their smartness and work.

'I am, yours. '(Signed) J. HANBURY-WILLIAMS, Col.,

' Military Secretary.'

The Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan began their career as autonomous provinces with imposing celebrations at Edmonton and Regina, the temporary capitals, with which were attended by Their Excellencies the Governor General and Lady Grey, the Prime Minister, the Right Honourable Sir Wilfrid Laurier, and other eminent public men. Thanks to so many years of constant and loyal work by the Royal North-West Mounted Poliee, the new provinces— foster children of the foree they may be almost considered—began their career as such with the same respect for and observance of law and order as prevails in the oldest provinces of the Dominion, and this notwithstanding the great influx of population, particularly during recent years, drawn from many foreign countries. As a fitting recognition of the pre-eminent services of the R.N.W.M.P. in fostering and protecting the new country in its pioneer days, the force was given a conspicuous part m the inauguration ceremonies.

By instructions from Sir Wilfriid Laurier a portion of the force, consisting of 15 officers, 189 non-commissioned officers and constables, 200 horses and 4 guns, attended at both Edmonton and Regina.

This force had the honour of being reviewed by His Excellency the Governor General, accompanied by Sir Wilfrid. The men composing the force were drawn from all parts of the Territories, and were together for four days only before the review. The assembling of this strength at Edmonton, the transfer to Regina, a distance of 700 miles, and the distribution to their respective posts; was carried out without any delay or accident. The conduct of all ranks was excellent, and all vied in a desire to do credit to the force to which they belonged.

The increase of pay to all ranks was voted by Parliament during the session of 1905, on resolutions introduced by the Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier. In presenting the measure the Prime Minister explained its object and scope as follows:—

"This resolution was introduced in consequence ot the representations which have been made to the government on the floor of this House on both sides, from time to time, advising that the pay of the North-West Mounted Police should be increased. This matter has been under consideration, and I. think we are meeting the public demand and the exigencies of the case in providing for the salaries now set forth in this resolution. The increases are as follows:—

Officers.

Present Pay.

Prop, Pay

Commissioner.....................

2,000

3,000

Assistant Commissioners............

1,000

2,000

Superintendents...................

1,400

1 ,X00

Surgeons and Ass. Surgeons.......

1,400

1,800

Veterinary Surgeons................

1,000

1,100

"We have four staff-sergeants to whom we give $2 a day. Other staff-sergeants receive SI.50 a day, and we propose to give them $1.75 a day, an increase of 25 cents a day Non-commissioned officers receive SI a day, and we propose to give them $1.25 a day. Constables receive 75 cents a day, and we propose to give them SI a day. Special constables and scouts we have no right to pay for particularly, but we have paid them from 75 cents to SI.25 a clay. We propose to give them SL50 a day. Buglers under IS years of age receive 40 cents a day and we propose to give them 50 cents a day. Working artisans receive 50 cents a day, and we propose to give them 75 cents a da< . It is calculated that this will increase the pay of the force bv $50,000."

The strength on November 30, 1905, was 54 officers, 50 N.C. officers and constables, 109 interpreters, guides, scouts, artisans and special constables, total. SI3. and GOG horses.

The strength in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the North-West Territories was 38 officers, 478 N.C. officers and constables, G9 interpreters, &c., total, 585, and 513 horses.

The strength in the Yukon Territory was 16 officers, 172 N.C. officers and constables, 40 interpreters, ete.. total, 22S. and 93 horses.

In the North-West Territories and new provinces there were ten divisions, each with a headquarters post, and 104 permanent outposts, an increase of 1 headquarters post and 11 outposts as compared with the previous year.

The strength was only 15 under that authorized. N o special effort had been made to recruit. There had been many applications to engage, and not more than one in three had been accepted.

The work of the year 1905 was very heavy and varied. The increase of population and the extending settlements added greatly to the ordinary duties, and further demands were made this year in opening up the Peace River Yukon trail, a difficult task. In his annual report, the Commissioner brought to notice several cases he qualified as strenuous duties well performed.

Corpl. Mapley, of 'B' Division, with a party of police left Dawson with dog teams on December 27, 1904 for Fort McPherson, on the Peel river, 500 miles distant, cam mg despatches to that distant outpost. The route taken was practically unknown, across mountain ranges. The party arrived back on March 9, having made a successful journey without a mishap, and having travelled upwards of 1,000 miles.

On January 7, 1905, Inspector Cienereux, of Prince Albert, returned from a patrol to the far north to inquire into a case of alleged murder. He was absent 132 days, and travelled 1,750 miles by canoe and dog train. As a coroner he held an inquest and established that the death was accidental. This trip was very expensive, but it is an illustration of the principle which has hitherto prevailed, that enemy will be dealt with no matter how remote the place, how dangerous the journey, nor how great the cost. A marked instance of the administration of justice by the government of Canada through the Mounted Police has been the free expenditure of money in bringing criminals to justice. The government has never tied the hands of the police by refusing to authorize any expenditure of money where there was a reasonable hope of success. Many cases have cost tens of thousands, and in one celebrated ease upwards of one hundred thousand dollars was expended.

Another instance was the investigation made by Inspector McGinnis and Sergt. Egan into an alleged murder north of Cat lake m Keewatin some 200 miles north of the Canadian Pacific Railway, a point to which no white man had before penetrated. The accused was arrested.

Constable A. Pedley, stationed at Fort Chipewyan, was detailed to escort an unfortunate lunatic from that place to Fort Saskatchewan He reports as follows:—

'I left Chipewyan in charge of the lunatic on December 17, 1904. with the interpreter and two dog trains. After travelling for five days through slush and water up to our knees, we arrived at Fort McKay on December 22.'

'Owing to the extreme cold, the prisoner's feet were frost bitten. 1 did all I could to relieve him, and purchased some large moccasins to allow more wrappings for his feet. I travelled without accident until the 27th, reaching Big Weechume lake. Here I had to lay off a day to procure a guide, as there was no trail. 1 arrived at Lac La Biche on the 31st, and secured a team of horses to carry me to Fort Saskatchewan I arrived on January 7, 1905, and handed over my prisoner. During the earlier part of the trip the prisoner was very weak and refused to eat, but during the latter part of the trip he developed a good appetite and got stronger.'

'The unfortunate man was transferred to Calgary guard room. Assistant Surgeon Rouleau reports that \t was a remarkable case. He was badly frozen about his feet, and the exposure to the cold had caused paralysis of the tongue for several days Every care and attention was given him at the hospital (to which he was transferred), with the result that he was discharged on February 23 with the loss only of the first joint of a big toe. His mind and speech were ;is good as ever. His life was saved.'

Constable Pedley commenced his return trip to Fort Chipewyan. When he left Fort Saskatchewan he was apparently in good health, but at Lac La Biche he went violently insane as a result of the hardships of his trip, and his anxiety for the safety of his charge. He was brought back to Fort Saskatchewan and then transferred to Brandon Asylum. After spending six months there he recovered his mind and returned to headquarters, lie was granted three months' leave, and is now at duty as well as ever. In spite of all, he re-engaged for a further term of service.

One more instance of devotion to duty. Constable (now corporal) Conradi was on patrol, when a treinenrlous prairie fire was seen sweeping across the country. He asked the rancher, at whose house he was having dinner, if any settlers were in danger, and was told that a settler with ten children was in danger, but his place could not be reached. Conradi felt that he must try, and galloped off. Mr. Young, the settler, writing to Conradi's commanding officer, said in part :—' His (Conradi's) pluck and endurance I cannot praise too highly; fighting till he was nearly suffocated, his hat burned of his head, hair singed, and vest on fire.' 'My wife and family owe their lives to Mr. Conradi, and I feel with them, we shall never be able to repay him for his brave conduct.'

On March 1 a new police district was created, to be known as 'Athabasca and a division, designated ' N,' organized for duty in that district, with temporary headquarters at Lesser Slave Lake. The members of 'G' Division stationed in Athabasca, were transferred to 'N' Division. Superintendent Constantine was appointed to the command. To this division was assigned the duty of opening up a pack trail from Fort St. John, B.C., to Teslin Lake, Yukon Territory, across the mountains of British Columbia. The estimated distance is 750 miles. A detachment of two officers, thirty non-commissioned officers and constables and sixty horses left Fort Saskatchewan on March 17 for this work. Owing to the breakiug up of the winter roads, the journey was very trying, but they reached Peace River Crossing, 350 miles from Fort Saskatchewan, on April 9, without any serious mishap. Here they were delayed awaiting supplies, which had been contracted for, until May 21, when the party left for Fort St. John, 570 miles from Fort Saskatchewan, arriving there June 1.

Work was immediately commenced on the construction of winter quarters, and cutlting hay. Work commenced on the trail on June 15, and was suspended on September 25, owing to heavy snow in the mountains. 94 miles of trail were completed.

During the year 1900 exceptionally good progress has been made.

Owing to the demoralization, by the liquor traffic, of the Indians living on the shores of Lake Winnipeg, it was decided in 1905 to establish a police patrol. Arrangements were made with the Department of Indian Affairs to share the expense of purchasing and maintaining a small steamer for this work. The Red-winy was secured and placed in commission in June, and laid up on September 25, owing to the dangerous storms on the lakes in the autumn making navigation for such a small boat unsafe.

The effects of this patrol were most beneficial. Missionaries and Indian officials agree that they never saw such an absence of intoxication among the Indians.

It is worthy of remark that for some years the Mounted Police have been discharging duties afloat, so that besides acting as policemen, soldiers, inspectors, explorers, surveyors, teamsters, etc., etc., members of the force have been acting as marines and actually sailors. The force in the Yukon has in charge three launches, one at Cacross, the other two at White Horse, and a steamer the "Vidette." This steamer was purchased in September, 1002, and has been in commission during the five months of navigation each year since.


R.N.W.M.P. Patrol Steamer "Vidette."
(From a photograph kindly loaned by Lieut.-Col. F. White, the Comptroller).

The boat was purchased at auction for some S3,000, and has proved herself of valuable assistance. She carries a vast amount of freight to different points on the Yukon river, both from Dawson and White Horse, and, furthermore, carried supplies up the Hootalinqua, Stewart and Takheena rivers to the several detachments at those points. A patrol is also made 250 miles up the Pelly river.

At the time the Vidette was purchased it cost more to ship freight from eastern points to Dawson than to White Horse. It was the intention to have all the police supplies consigned to the last named place and have the steamer bring on what was required for Dawson, thus saving a considerable sum. The White Pass and Yukon route, however, in order to drive opposition off the river, reduced the through rate to Dawson to the same figure as was charged on White Horse consignments. For this reason the police boat did not effect the saving that was expected of her.

A detachment of two officers, 13 N.C. officers and constables, Supt. J. D. Moodie commanding, were stationed in Hudson's Bay (luring the seasons 1904-05. They wintered at Cape Fullerton. The summer was spent in patrolling the Bay in the ss. Artie.

It will be recalled that Supt. Moodie with a detachment of N.W.M.P. left Halifax in August 1003 for Hudson Bay on the ss. Neptune for the purpose of asserting the authority of the Dominion Government, and enforcing the laws in those distant regions.

As to the location of a permanent Mounted Police post in the region, one of the objects in view, when in Cumberland Sound, in September, 1903, Supt. Moodie heard that United States whalers were somewhere about the north of Southampton Island. On the way to Fullerton, the matter of locations for detachments was frequently discussed by Mr. Low, commanding the expedition, Captain Bartlett and Supt. Moodie, although no formal council was called, and it was taken for granted that the police would build where the whalers wintered. On arrival at Winchester inlet, about 40 miles south of Fullerton, m September, the officers heard from natives that there was a whaling station at Fullerton and a Scotch station at Repulse Bay. It was decided to winter at Fullerton, where there was said to be good water and a good harbour. Deer, fish and birds were to be had in abundance. The Neptune arrived there on September 23, and building was at once commenced.

Supt. Moodie had been informed by the Comptroller that most probably a detachment would be placed at Churchill in the spring This confirmed his opinion that a post was to be placed on the west side of the bay, where whalers wintered; also, that it was intended the police should have jurisdiction in this district, although it is actually part of Keewatin. With natives and good dogs, it would be possible to make a patrol from Fullerton to Churchill in the winter along the sea ice, even without an intermediate post; with one there should be but little trouble. Supplies for the return journey could be procured from the Hudson's Bay Company.

Fullerton was the best winter harbour seen on the west side, and is on that account a good place for a post.

Supt. Moodie chose the site for barracks on the island, as this forms one side of the harbour, and the inlet between it and the main land is only navigable for small boats. The building which is intended for officers! quarters is 15 by 24 feet, divided into large and two small rooms; a store house for provisions, Ac., a coal shed, and a lean-to kitchen 12 by 10 with large poreh have also been erected. There is a good fresh water pond in the rocks, about 75 yards from the house.

Supt. Moodie left Staff-Sergeant Dee and Constables Conway and Tremaine with a native at Fullerton when the Neptune sailed on July 18th, 1004. Moodie instructed the Staff-Sergeant, if possible, to purchase one or two teams, of ten good dogs each, and to purchase from natives and store ample supplies of dog feed, viz: fish, deer meat, seal, walrus, (%«. He had field rations for five men for 400 days, but his supply of coal was limited, a little over 11 tons.

He was instructed to endeavour to make a patrol to Repulse Bay during the summer of 1005 by boat. He was also to make short patrols inland and along the coast during the winter, as weather, &e., permits, should the Neptune not be able to return to Fullerton.

Under the existing circumstances and strength of the police in Hudson Bay, patrolling to any extent is next to impossible. In the winter the distances and the absence of any posts at which the supplies for men and dogs can be obtained, make the risk too great. In the summer, the time is so limited, that if the officer commanding has to visit the trading stations in Cumberland Sound and north thereof he will be unable to do any work n the bay. The winter is the tune when patrols inland will be made; in fact, it is the only time when they can be made away from rivers.

To patrol and become acquainted with this country would require a considerable force and an expenditure in proportion. The difficulties are much greater than even in the Yukon. The season when travelling by water can be done is shorter, and, there being no fuel or shelter of any description, in the winter everything for men and dogs has to be carried.

On September 17, 1904, Superintendent Moodie nailed from Quebec in command of the D.G.S. Arctic She had on board in addition to Capt. Bernier, sailing master, officers and ship's company, Insp. Pelletier, S.-Sergt. Hayne, 2 corporals and 0 constables of the Royal North-West Mounted Police, Mr Vanasse, historian, Mr. Maekean, photographer, and Mr. A, D. Moodie, secretary. Tne Arctic arrived at Port Bur-well, Ungava bay, on the afternoon of October 1. The "Arctic" left Burwell the same evening for Fullerton and arrived there on the morning of October 10. No ice was encountered on the voyage until the ship got within a few miles of Fullerton, when she ran through some slob ice floating in and out with the tide. The inner harbour, where the "Arctic" anchored, was frozen over to a thickness of about 4 inches.

Materials for additional buildings at Fullerton were carried by the "Arctic." It was intended that the headquarters of 'M' Division, newly created for service in the Hudson's Bay district, should be built at or near Cape Wolstenholme. This cape forms the north-west corner of Ungava on Hudson's straits. There was not however, sufficient room on the Arctic, and it was finally decided that the ship should winter at Fullerton, complete the necessary buildings there, and that the material for headquarter and a detachment at Cumberland Sound should be forwarded bv the supply steamer going north in 1905. Owing to the entire absence of timber in the north the detachment are dependent altogether upon the supplies of lumber sent up from the south.

A good frame barrack room, 30 feet 3 inches by 15 feet 3 inches inside measurement, was erected in the fall of 1904 at Fullerton, by the police, assisted by a carpenter hired from the whaler Era. A non-commissioned officer's room was partitioned off from the barrack-room, but later had to be used as a trade and quartermaster's store, though much too small for the purpose.


Native Hut near the Fullerton Post of" the R.N.W.M.P.

The officers' quarters erected the previous winter and used, until the new building was completed, as a barrack-room, was floored with matched lumber, and the walls covered with asbestos paper and oiled canvas. The new building was finished in the same way. Both were, reported warm and comfortable but within certain limits. Nothing appeared sufficient to keep the frost-out. The curtains in the bedroom were frozen to the floor, and there was thick ice all round the skirting boards.

July 5, 1905, the Arctic sailed from Fullerton with Supt. Moodie on board and proceeded to Cape Wolstenholme, in which vicinity a site on a large bay named Prefontaine Harbour, in honour of the then Minister of Marine and Fisheries, was selected for Divisional headquarters. Shortly afterwards, owing to accidents to her machinery, the Arctic had to return to the St. Lawrence, Supt. Moodie, and the men with him transferring to the chartered steamer Neptune. In Hudson Bay very heavy weather was encountered. " On October 6th the sun was only visible for about 5 minutes and no sights were obtained. At 4.15 a.m., on the 7th, position by dead reckoning being lat. 60.20 N., long. 86.50 W. (almost in the centre of Hudson's Bay), we struck heavily on reefs, pounding over them for 15 minutes. The morning was pitch dark with snow squalls. After apparently getting inside the reef, vessel again struck three times. The Captain kept her as nearly as possible in position until dawn, when the seas could be seen breaking on the reefs all round. He then took her through the only visible channel with barely water to take us through. Wind increased to strong from S.E. by E.. true, with heavy short seas. Weather thick with frequent squalls of snow7 and sleet. Vessel's head was kept to wind, engines going slow. Morning of 8th was fairly clear, course S.W. by S., engines going slow. Just before noon the sun appeared for a short time, and a sight was obtained giving us the latitude of Marble Island, which was sighted at 5.30 p.m. After consulting with Capt. Bartlett I decided to go to Fullerton, from which we were distant only about 90 miles, before proceeding to Churchill. By doing so time would be saved. The vessel was making water, our compasses were totally unreliable, and it was not considered advisable to get out of sight of land until they could be adjusted. The 9th was comparatively fine and clear. Ran along coast until evening, but on account of mirage no land marks could be made out— the whole coast appeared to be lifted up like high perpendicular cliffs. Towards night it came on to blow a gale with very heavy sea. Soundings were taken every 15 minutes during the night, the police on board being told off into watches for this purpose, one seaman and two of the police, being in each watch of two hours. Lay-to going slow and half speed as required to keep the vessel head on; frequent heavy squalls of snow and sleet. The 10th was a repetition of the previous night, gale veering from N.N.R to N.N.W. with tremendous sea." Pumps gping all the time. This continued, with wind and sea getting worse, all the 11th. At 4 p.m. on this day a heavy sea struck forward end of bridge on port side. It curled over chart room, and falling on main deck, smashed to splinters the two whale boats swinging inboard from davits. The stern of starboard boat was cut off and left hanging from davit Main boom broken from gooseneck, both poop ladders torn from the bolts and with two harness casks, lashed on deck, swept overboard. The lumber, &c., on port side of poop was torn from its lashings and wrashing about, and the rest loosened up The cattle pens forward were smashed and one sheep had two legs and some ribs broken. Sea and wind increasing, it was decided to jettison the rest of the deck load and so relieve the vessel somewhat from the heavy straining. The danger was that if the deck load broke loose ;t would carry away the cabin skylight and flood the vessel The morning of the 12th the wind began to moderate and the sea quickly went down." (Supt. Moodie's report.)

The same day the Neptune arrived at Fullerton and Staff-Sergeant Havne, going on board, reported the sad death, by drowning, of Constable Russell, on the evening of the 5th July, the very day the^lrriio left her winter quarters. On the 17th, the Neptune sailed for Churchill, Corpl. Rowley, Constables Vitrev and Heap, and Interpreter Ford being left at Fullerton to strengthen the detachment.

Superintendent Moodie again returned to Hudson Hay with re-inforcements and supplies during the present summer, 1906.

In September, 1905, the force was re-armed throughout with Ross fifles and Colt revolvers, which replaced the Winchester carbines and Enfield revolvers.


A Lonely Grave in the Far North near the R.N.W.M.P. Post at Fullerton.

On the organization of the force it was armed with the Snider carbine and the Adams revolver, both weapons, so far as durability was concerned, standing the rough work to which they were put very well.

About 18S0, 100 Winchester rifles, improved pattern, were purchased,and "A" and "F" Divisions armed with them. This rifle, which was a repeating one, and capable of receiving eight cartridges in the magazine, had many good points, and was a favorite arm with the western prairie men. It was not, however, altogether a good military weapon. The system of rifling was good, but the rifle was altogether too weak in construction to meet the rough handling that at times it was impossible to prevent its receiving.

In his annual report of 1881, Lieut.-Col Irvine, referring to the armament of the force, wrote in part:— "'The Snider carbine is now considered n many respects an obsolete military arm, and is somewhat un-suited to the wants of a force in this country, where a large portion of the Indian population is armed with an accurate shooting weapon. Still, however, bearing in mind the expense that a change of arms would necessitate, I think the Snider carbine may be utilized for us for some further time, at all events. The amount of Snider ammunition on hand is large.

"The revolver with which the force is armed is of the "Adams" pattern. This revolver is not such as I should recommend were a new purchase being made; they can, however, be made to answer all practicable purposes.

"The question of further arming the North-West Mounted Police with sword is one to which 1 have given considerable attention. There are times when a sword would prove an encumbrance to a .Mounted Policeman; times, therefore, when it would be undesirable. It is, of course, requisite that in the question of arms, the number and weight carried by each man should be reduced to a minimum consistent with efficiency.

"In making ordinary prairie trips where no serious danger of attack is to be anticipated, I should be sorry to see our men's endurance further taxed by their being forced to add a sword to the arms they already carry.

"If I mistake not, the late General Custer, U.S.A., objected to the sword being employed in Indian warfare, on account of the noise made n carrying it. I presume General Custer, in condemning the sword, must have meant his remarks to apply to one carried in a steel scabbard such as the British cavalry now use.

"Similar and other objections have been advanced by officers of much experience in England.

"It will be remembered that the 7th United States Cavalry, who fought under the late General Custer, at the battle of the "Big Horn" (known as the Ouster Massacre), were not armed with swords. From various accounts of this fight given me by the Sioux Indians who took part in it, I am led to believe that had this arm been in use the results would not, in all probability, have been so terribly disastrous.

"The artillery armament of the force consists of four 7-pr. mount am guns (bronze), at Fort Walsh. Two 9 pr. M L.K. guns, and two small mortars, at Fort Macleod."

In his report at the end of 1S82 the Commissioner wrote:—" You are aware that we are still obliged to retain in use at Keg in* and Battleford a number of Snider carbines. These carbines, owing to long and hard service, an fast becoming unserviceable, in addition to the arm itself being an obsolete one, and inferior to that which most of the Indians (all of those in the southern district) are armed. Two years ago I alluded to certain defects existing in the first pattern of Winchester carbine supplied to the force. In the new carbine, manufactured expressly for the force by the Winchester Arms Company, (a number of which had been recently issued) all the old defects have been obviated. I beg to recommend that the whole force be at once supplied with Winchester carbines of the same pattern (model 1876) as those purchased from the Winchester Arms Company.

"I would remind you that the carriages and limbers of the 7-pr. mountain guns are fast becoming unserviceable. I recommend that new ones be purchased of the pattern lately approved by the Imperial authorities."

During 1S83, more of the new special pattern Winchester rifles, and some Enfield revolvers were issued to the force. At the end of the year the Commissioner reported:—"The new pattern Winchester rifle supplied is a most excellent arm, and of very superior manufacture. It is, in every respect, well adapted to our use. The same remarks apply, with equal force, to the new revolvers."

As to the artillery armament of the force, in the same report Commissioner Irvine wrote:—"The artillery armament of the force is as follows, viz.:—Two 9-pr. R.M.L. guns, four 7-pr. mountain guns (bronze), and two small mortars. The two 9-pr. guns and two small mortars are at Fort Macleod. Two of the 7-pr.guns being at Calgary and two at headquarters, the various projectiles and stores appertaining to the mountain guns are proportionately divided between the last two places mentioned. I have previously reported that the carriages and limbers of the 7-pr. guns are virtually unserviceable, and last year I recommended that carriages and limbers of the Imperial pattern be purchased. On close inquiry, however, it was ascertained that such purchase would have entailed a very considerable expenditure. Carriages and limbers suitable for our purposes can be manufactured in this country at a much smaller cost than would ensue were a purchase made from England."

Gradually all the Snider carbines and Adams revolvers were replaced by Winchesters and Enfield revolvers.

In his report at the end of the year 1887 . Commissioner Herchmer wrote:—

"The whole force is now supplied with Enfield revolvers which are well adapted for our work. I propose to arm the railway police with a smaller weapon which can be carried in a less conspicuous manner.

"The Winchester carbine, so long the favourite arm with western prairie-men, is not giving good satisfaction in the force. The ease with which it gets out of order and its liability to break off at the stock, are serious drawbacks to its efficiency. The advantages of the magazine in this carbine are quite neutralized by the difficulty experienced in keeping it in order, and the great temptation it offers, especially to young recruits, to waste their fire. For a military weapon the trajectory is very much too high. A good many of the first issues are gradually wearing out, and I would suggest that as soon as it can be settled which is the best carbine now made, one division be supplied with it, when, if satisfactory, it can be issued to the rest of the force."

In the annual report of the Commissioner for 1890 appeared the following reference to the small arms of the force:—

"Our Enfield revolvers are in excellent order, and answer the purpose very well, but the ammunition is too strong, and they shoot rather high, at short distances particularly. The small revolvers in use at railroad stations are also very good, and I have asked for some more.

"The Winchester carbines are still in use, and are still complained of. They, however, answer our purpose very well, and with close supervision and a considerable number of new barrels, which are being put in, will last for sometime longer.

"Last winter, Morris tubes were sent to Regina, and during the winter months the recruits derived great benefit from using them, and many of them in the spring proved excellent shots with the Winchester."

The artillery attached to the force in 1895 consisted of one brass 7-pounder at Prince Albert in good order; two brass 7-pounders at Battleford, and one M.L. 9-pounder all in good order. One M.L. 9-pounder at Regina in good order, used for drill purposes and one brass 7-pounder for salutes. Two M.L. 9-pounders at Macleod in good order and two brass mortars. Two 7-pounders at Calgary. At all posts, gun detachments were regularly drilled.

In 1895 there was a small experimental issue of Lee-Metford rifles.

At the end of 1896, Commissioner Herchmer reported: —"Our Winchester carbines are in about the same condition as last year. By providing new barrels and parts worn out, they will last for some time, and for short ranges, up to 400 yards, they are well adapted for our work. Beyond this range, the Lee-Metfords are very much more accurate, in fact, beyond 500 yards, the Winchesters are of little use. The sighting of the Winchester carbines is most defective, they nearly all shoot too low, and paper, or some other substance has to be placed under the back-sight to ensure any accuracy at target practice. We used American Winchester ammunition entirely, and it was of good quality.

During the last year he was in command in the Yukon, Supt. A. B. Perry reported:—"There are in the Yukon Territory two Maxim guns, one at Tagish, one at Dawson; and one Nordenfelt gun, at Tagish. The small arms are as follows:—Winchester carbines 06. Dawson district; 156, Tagish district; Lee-Met ford carbines 39, Dawson district; 5, Tagish district; Enfield revolvers 71, Dawson district; 154, Tagish district; Smith & Wesson revolvers, 2, Tagish district. Some small repairs are needed and some of the Winchester carbines are badly honey-combed. Remainder are in good order. A Mauser pistol, which by means of a stock which forms its case, can be transformed into a carbine at a moment's notice, has been tried and proved satisfactory. I would recommend that it be adopted for the use of the force. This arm being well known, needs no further commendation."

In his first annual report as commanding officer (1901) Commissioner Terry drew attention to the necessity of re-arming the force in the following terms:—

"The force should be entirely re-armed. "D" Division alone has the Lee-Met ford carbine, all others are armed with the obsolete Winchester carbine and Enfield revolver. Carbines and revolvers have been in use a long time and the rilling is worn out. If the corps is to be armed, it ought to be well armed. Without accurate arms there cannot be good shooting, without good shooting, carrying arms is an anomaly. A change of the arms will call for a change in equipment. At present when the revolver is worn, ammunition for the carbine must be taken whether the carbine is carried or not."

In his report for the following year the Commissioner was able to report:—"The re-arming of the force has been sanctioned and is now only delayed, to take advantage of any improvements in small arms resulting from the South African war. New equipment v. ill necessarily follow the re-arming."

In the report for 1003, progress in the matter of rearmament was reported by the Commissioner as follows:—

"The force is now armed with the Winchester carbine, with the exception of "D" and "K" Divisions, which are armed with the Ivee-Metford carl line, and with the Enfield revolver. Both carbines and revolvers are worn out, and I am glad to be able to report that the department has decided to re-arm the whole force with modern weapons.

"Sir Charles Ross submitted for trial two rifles, one with 28 inch barrel, and one with 25 inch barrel, the action being the same in both. The essential difference between the Ross Rifle and the Lee-Metford, used in the Imperial service, is in the bolt action. In the Ross the bolt is withdrawn, and closed by a straight pull, whereas in the Lee-Metford the bolt is revolved through a quarter circle, either in opening or closing. Roth have the same barrel and use the same ammunition.

"Comparisons were made with the Winchester carbine, and Lee-Metford and Mauser rifles.

"The Board recommended that the Ross rifle, of which the following is a description should be adopted, but that certain minor alterations should be made in the sealed pattern:—Length from heel of butt to muzzle, 3 ft. 8 inches, length of barrel, 25 inches, distance between fore and back sights. 20 3-16 inches, length of stock, 14 1-5 inches, weight, 7 lbs. 8 oz."

The perfected rifle of to-day, if it is to be effective, must shoot accurately; its mechanism must be simple and safe; its trigger must pull smoothly and easily; its sights must be rigidly secured and finely adjusted; and the stock must be strong and firmly balanced. The gun must be as light as it can be safely made, and must shoot with such precision that the man behind it knows that a miss is his own fault.

The Ross rifle, which is manufactured in Canada, meets all these requirements as does no other in existence. Furthermore, it excels iu rapidity of fire, in  lightness and balance, in quality and strength of metal, in the accuracy of its sights, and in the maintenance of its alignment. It secures its rapidity of fire by the mechanism of a bolt that requires but two movements, while most military rifles iu use require at least tfiree and some even four. Its weight (7 pounds and 13 ounces), nearly two pounds less than tfie present arm in use in the United States, is gamed by the high quality of metal used.

Roth sights of the gun have improvements worth noting.

The rear sight is a marvel of compactness. The leaf is hinged at the forward end and is adjusted up or down, either by means of sliding clamps engaging a moveable rack held by a plate, which the distances by hundred yards are useribed, or by a micrometer thimble showing fractional parts of these distances. The sliding clamps provide the coarse adjustments, and the micrometer thimble the very fine adjustments. The sight leaf can be carried to elevations corresponding with ranges from 100 to 2200 yards. A wind guage is also provided with the rear sight.

Much interest has always been taken in the target practice of the force, never as much as under the present Commissioner, who is Einself a crack shot In 1903. Commissioner I'errv, in General Orders drew particular attention to the importance of rifle shooting.

The Commissioner practices what he preaches, and in the annual target practice of the Depot Division, the same year, he took first place with the carbine. During the month of August the Depot Division had a number of interesting matches, the principal ones being "B" Division (Dawson) versus Depot Division, results wired; certified scores by mail; 10 a side; 200 and 400 yards. "B" Division won by 32 points.

For the first time in the history of the force, regimental matches were held at Calgary in September this same year. Teams of 8 men from each division competed in rifle and revolver matches. The scores were excellent and the competition very keen. A substantial grant was authorized from the fine fund for prizes. The Slater Shoe Co., Montreal; E. L. Drewry, Esq., of Winnipeg, and Superintendent Constantine gave very handsome sterling silver cups for competition. The canteens subscribed generously, and the officers gave a large cash prize. The Canadian Pacific Railway gave a very low rate for transportation, so that the charge against the public was much reduced. The team matches were won as follows:—Slater trophy, "A" Division; Drewry trophy, Depot Division,; Constantine trophy, "E" Division.

Reg. No. 1200, Corporal Banham, won the individual rifle match, and Reg. No. 1126, Sergeant-Major Raven, the individual revolver match.

The bringing together of men from every division was most beneficial, and the Commissioner hoped that these matches would be made an annual event.

In 1904 a rifle range with eight targets was built on the police reserve at Medicine Hat. It is an excellent range, and it is proposed that annual regimental matches be held there. These matches were to have taken place in 1904, in September, and all arrangements were made. Owing to unexpected demands made at that time the matches had to be postponed.

Owing to the fact that the new rifles were not received until September, the annual target practice for 1905 was not carried out.

His Excellency the Earl of Minto, Honorary Commissioner of the force, has sent the Commissioner a very handsome silver cup to be competed for at these matches.

His Excellency the Governor General has also informed the Commissioner that he intends presenting a trophy for competition.

As there have been several changes in the armament since the organization of the force so there has been a steady but often slow process of evolution going on with regard to uniform and equipment.

The uniform of the Royal North-West Mounted Police at present consists of scarlet serge (tunic of dragoon pattern for officers) blue back overalls or riding breeches with broad yellow stripes, broad-rimmed brown felt hat of cow-boy pattern, brown leather belts, gauntlets, etc. A suit of khaki drill is worn on prairie service, fatigues, etc.

The full-dress uniform, while comparatively plain and free from detail, is in general effect very smart, particularly when the clothing is well-fitted and worn on a good figure, which is invariably the case in the Royal North-West Mounted Police. The smartest cavalry regiments in His Majesty's service cannot turn out a smarter lot of troopers than the stalwart red-coats that swagger about the streets of the towns and villages of the Canadian North-West.

The red-coat has always been a characteristic feature of the uniform of the force. The adoption of this striking detail of uniform was not merely due to the strong British sentiment which prevails in Canada. It was not a piece of empty colonial swagger; but rather a case of subtle diplomacy. Among the Indians of North America the red coat was a tradition, and a dearly cherished one. It recalled to their minds stories related about the camp fires by their fathers and grand-fathers, of staunch red-coated warriors who had fought side by side with them. Who had not only fought well, but had acted the brave, honourable and manly part towards their dusky allies. It was a subject of comment among the redmen that however other white men might lie to them and cheat them, these wearing the red coat could be trusted with implicit confidence; that although among a certain class of white men, the inhuman doctrine had been enunciated and acied upon with barbarous perseverance that " The only good Indian is a dead Indian," the authority which the red coat represented held the life of an Indian as sacred as that of any white. It will be remembered that, as a crafty concession to this sentiment among the Manitoba Indians, the foot soldiers of the permanent militia force maintained in that province for some years after the suppression of the Red River troubles, were transformed from "rifles" into red coated infantry."

The original red coat of the Mounted Police, as worn by the force under Colonel French, was of the loose frock or Norfolk jacket pattern in vogue in the army for some years after the Crimean War, with cloth belts. The broad-striped breeches, as at present, were worn, while the head-dress for full dress was the white helmet, for undress the small, round " pill-box forage cap once universal m the mounted branches of the British service. The original issue of uniform also included long brown boots and a brown cotton fatigue suit.

The officers' uniforms differed only from those of the non-commissioned ranks in the addition of a light edging of gold lace to the "frocks" and the wearing of military rank badges.

In his confidential report on the force in 1S75, Sir Selby Smith made the following reference to the uniform of the force:—

"1 like the dress of the Mounted Police, scarlet frock, cord breeches, long brown boots and a brown cotton fatigue suit, (better cotton than linen)—the latter when wet causes chills and fevers; white helmet; the forage cap can be improved, and also I prefer the tunic shape to the frock, it is more 'dressy' and the men take some pride in looking smart. At present there is a want of uniformity in the dress. I am told the uniform lately sent is excellent, but I hardly concur in the system of allowing officers to wear the same as the men with the addition of gold lace—it may do for service but I think a neat full-dress should be adopted, not costly but such as they could feel becoming their position in society. I believe the officers desire this Improvement. I think the simpler the adornment of lace the better.

"It is suggested that the officers should wear swords which have a great effect upon the Indian mind and a shoulder belt with a pouch for field glasses. Indeed I think constables should have a field glass, they are absolutely necessary on the prairie; a great number of Indians and others now wear them, and the police are therefore at a disadvantage without this aid."

Shortly after this, while the Hon. II. \V. Scott was the ministerial head of the department, at the request of the officers, the tunic pattern of "coat" was adopted for the non-commissioned officers and men, a most elaborate officers' uniform being sanctioned at the same time. This included a very handsome tunic of the hussar pattern, but of course of scarlet cloth, and with the rich trimmings of gold lace and braid bestowed upon the familiar hussar officer's blue garment. Other striking features of this uniform were long drooping of horse hair worn in the officers' helmets, and a sabre tache literally covered with gold lace, the main ornament being the corp's badge, as at present, consisting of a buffalo head surrounded by maple leaves, with a garter underneath inscribed with the corp's motto "Maintiens le Droit." Of course gold lace belts were also worn At the time this uniform was adopted comment was made upon •ts exceptionally elaborate and expensive character, hut it was represented by the officers that smartness is especially required in the early years of any corps to assist in the development of a proper feeling of corps pride, and furthermore,, that in this case there was a special object to be considered in connection with the uniform of the Mounted Police, namely the importance of creating a marked impression of the importance and authority of the officers of the force upon the receptive minds of the Indians. Owing to these arguments, and to the fact that the officers themselves, who would have to pay for the gold lace and plumes, had asked for them, the minister gave his sanction to the elaborate uniform which was so long worn by the officers.

For some years now the officers have worn plainer and less expensive tunics of dragoon officers' pattern in full dress.

The dressy blue undress patrol jacket with braided breast and hanging tabs, still worn by the officers, was adopted at the same time as the original elaborate full dress.

The helmet was never regarded with favour in the Mounted Police, nor apparently in any other Canadian organization of a military character. The relegation of that head-dress to the rubbish heap was repeatedly and urgently asked for before the wishes of all ranks were concurred in a few years ago.

In his annual report for 1880 the Commissioner under the heading of uniform wrote as follows:—

"The uniform, clothing and boots supplied to the force last year were very good; the underclothing particularly so. I think that a light grey felt hat would be preferable to the helmet. Very few wear the latter unless obliged to. On trips they are almost invariably carried in the waggons, and get greatly damaged by the knocking about. The men always wear felt hat* when they can. With the present kit the men are well clothed, and are id a position to turn out at any time of the year."

In his annual report for 1885 Commissioner Irvine wrote:—'

"The suitability of the present dress of the police has long been a moot point. On the one hand, the red coat, from long association, has the confidence of the Indians, and conduces to the smartness and soldierly appearance of the men. On the other hand, a red coat soon loses its color under the dust and dirt of prairie travel. I see no necessity for an alteration in the tunic, which *s used on full dress parades, Arc., but consider that a working suit of some stout material is very desirable. There could hardly be a better pattern both as regards material and cut, than the suit worn recently by Methuen's horse n Smith Africa. I forwarded, m July 1884, a pattern of a cap which I considered suitable for prairie work, in that it shades the eyes and back of the neck, is light to wear, serviceable in colour, easy to carry when not in wear, and of little cost.

" It is an object to do away with pipeclay as much as possible. It was for this reason that I recommended, last year, the adoption of brown leather gauntlets, such as are worn by the mounted infantry of the Imperial service, in place of the white ones with which we are now equipped.

"The same remark applies to the helmet, future issues of which should be of buff or brown leather. It would be better, also, if they were not so tall as the present pattern, which presents an unnecessary surface to the wind on the prairie, and is thereby rendered very uncomfortable to the wearer."

Divisional officers, time and time again, in their reports, drew attention to desirable changes in the uniform, all condemning the helmet as unsuitable for prairie work.

In his annual report for 1886 Supt. E. W. Jarvis, at the time commanding "B" Division, pointed out that the police uniform fitted too well for a man actively engaged in rough prairie work, and was soon spoiled by duties required round a camp fire. He suggested the issue of a " prairie dress" which would consist of dark brown cord or velveteen breeches, long boots and spurs, a heavy flannel shirt, over which the stable jacket could be worn when required, and a broad-rimmed hat of soft felt to complete the outfit. The regular uniform would be saved for parade and duty in settled districts.

About the same time other officers made similar recommendations and a brown duck service suit was a short time afterwards issued for wear about barracks, stable duties, etc. In his report at the end of the year 1899, the Commissioner wrote:—"The duck suit is still very satisfactory, but the cap is found, outside fatigue work about barracks, to be of little use, and in wet weather it is no protection against rain, and also loses all shape. I am more than ever of opinion that a heavy felt hat, of a uniform pattern should be adopted for patrol work, and that they be kept on repayment. "

This duck suit was of course of little or no use for prairie' work except perhaps for very short trips in summer, and there was a general demand for a serviceable prairie uniform. In his report at the end of 1899, Inspecting Superintendent Cotton, wrote:—"I would again renew my previously made recommendation in favour of a prairie suit of some neutral colour. A loose Norfolk jacket (lots of pockets) made of light, soft cord, with riding breeches of the same material, would, I think, answer our purpose admirably."

The recruit upon being regularly enlisted in the force receives as a free issue a complete and most excellent kit, which includes m addition to the entire kit issued to the cavalry soldier, warm underclothing, fur cap, fur coat, buckskin mittens, etc., etc. Of course men serving in the Arctic regions receive a special kity which is made as complete as possible.

In 1894 the various acts passed regarding the North-West Mounted Police were revised and consolidated and embodied in a new statute "The Mounted Police Act of 1894" (57-58 Victoria, c. 27.)

This is the legislation under which the force is at present maintained.

Although the Mounted Police is popularly regarded as a military body, which is not surprising considering the uniforms and style of the officers and men, the strict discipline, and the military character of much of the work done, the force, like its famous prototype, the Royal Irish Constabulary, is actually a purely civil body, although at a moment's notice, liable and ready to be transformed into a formidable military unit.

The department of North-West Mounted Police is a separate branch of the civil government at Ottawa, under the control of the Premier and President of the Privy Council, the Right Honourable Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the permanent head of the department being the Comptroller.

Lieut.-Colonel Frederick White, C.M.G., Comptroller of the Royal North-West Mounted Police, was born in Birmingham, England, February 16, 1847. Educated there, he came to Canada as a young man, and was trained to official life under the late Lieut.-Col. Bernard, C.M.G., one of the ablest public officers of the old regime at Ottawa. He entered the Department of Justice as a third class clerk, March 1, 1869, being appointed chief clerk. August, 1876. Upon the organization of the N.W.M.P. (in connection it will be remembered, with the Department of Justice of which Sir John A. Macdonald, the Premier, was minister) Sir John specially selected him to take charge under him of the administration of the Mounted Police Branch of the Justice Department, the title of Comptroller of the N.W.M.P. being conferred upon him. Sir John at this time explained his ideas as to the organization and equipment of the force to Mr. White and entrusted him with their execution. In all the changes which have taken place in the administrative head of the force, succeeding Ministers have retained the Comptroller in his position and given him their confidence. In July, 1883, he was accorded the rank and status of a deputy head of department. No man in the Canadian public service has had as extended an experience of North-West affairs or lias individually contributed as much to its satisfactory development. From 1SS0 to 1SS2, he served as private secretary to Sir John A. Macdonald, m addition to his other duties. While a resident of Montreal, after first coming to Canada, he served for a time in the ranks of the 3rd Victoria Rifles, after moving to Ottawa accepting a commission in the Governor General's Foot Guards and attaining the rank of Captain. May 17, 1901, as a special ease, he received the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Active Militia, m recognition of long and honourable service largely of a military character, and especially as a mark of appreciation of the value of his co-operation with the militia authorities in the work of raising and equipping the several Canadian contingents for South Africa. He received the appointment of Companion of the Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George in 1902.

The Superintendents were originally designated "Inspectors and the Inspectors "Sub-Inspectors," but after a few yaws, as the establishment, increased these titles were found to be cumbersome and the system adopted of designating the commanding officers of divisions "Superintendents," and their subalterns "Inspectors."

It will be remembered that when originally despatched to the North-West, the Mounted Police had the usual compliment of regimental staff officers.

Owing to the great distances which separated the several Mounted Police Posts it was found impossible for the paymaster, the quartermaster and the veterinary surgeon to perform the duties which at the organization of the force, it was intended they should discharge, and those offices were therefore abolished under authority of Order-in-Council of August 16.1870, and June 25, 1877. Since those dates the officers commanding divisions have performed the duties of Paymaster and Quartermaster of their respective commands. At the time of the change competent sub-constables were appointed veterinary constables at the principal posts. In course of tune promotion as veterinary staff sergeants came to some of the most efficient of these men, and for some time now there has again been a staff of veterinary surgeons at headquarters. and several posts, rendered necessary by the quarantine duties which for long have comprised a very important part of the duties of the force.

The officers of the force are obtained from three sources—from among the graduates of the Royal Military College, Kingston; from the Active Militia! and from tin rank and file of the force. I he latter source of supply is very proline on account of the very high standard of manhood which hits always prevailed in the force. Socially a considerable proportion of the constables of the various divisions would be a credit to any regimental mess in the world.

Every member, on joining the force, is required to take the oath of allegiance, and in addition an oath of office in the following form:—

"I, A. B., solemnly swear that I will faithfully, diligently, and impartially execute and perform the duties required of me as a member of the North-West Mounted Police Force, and will well and truly obey and perform all lawful orders and instructions which I shall receive as such, without fear, favour, or affection of or toward any person. So help me, God."

Every constable, upon his appointment to the force, signs articles of engagement for a term of service not exceeding five years; but he is liable to be discharged at any time by the Commissioner for cause.

The duties of the force are enumerated in the Act as follows:—

(a) The preservation of the peace and the prevention of crime.

(b) The arrest of criminals and others who may be lawfully taken into custody.

(c) Attendance on magistrates and execution of process.

(d) The escort and conveyance of prisoners to and from courts and prisons.

(e) To search for, seize, and destroy intoxicating liquors where their sale is prohibited.

Although the members of the force are not subject to the Army Act and Militia Act, except when serving with the Active Militia in the field, the discipline is wholesomely rigid.

Non-commissioned officers and men accused of any of the following offences are liable to arrest and trial:—

(a) Disobeying or refusing to obey the lawful command of, or striking his superior.

(b) Oppressive or tyrannical conduct toward his inferior.

(c) Intoxication, however slight.

(d) Having intoxicating liquor illegally in his possession, or concealed.

(e) Directly or indirectly receiving any gratuity, without the Commissioner's sanction, or any bribe.

(f) Weai ing any party emblem.

(g) Otherwise manifesting political partisanship.

(h) Overholding any complaint.

(i) Mutinous or insubordinate conduct.

(j) Unduly overholding any allowance or any of the public money entrusted to him.

(k) Misapplying or improperly withholding any mono}' or goods levied under any warrant or taken from any prisoner.

(l) Divulging any matter or thing which it is his duty to keep secret, (ra) Making any anonymous complaint to the Government or the Commissioner. (n) Communicating, without the Commissioner's authority, either directly or indirectly, to the public press, any matter or thing touching the force.

(m) Willfully, or through negligence or connivance, allowing any prisoner to escape.

(p) Using any cruel, harsh, or unnecessary violence towards any prisoner or other person.

(q) Leaving any post on1 which he has been placed as sentry or on other duty,

(r) Deserting or absenting himself from his duties or quarters without leave,

(s) Scandalous or infamous behaviour.

(t) Disgraceful, profane, or grossly immoral conduct.

(u) Violating any standing order, rule, or regulation, or any order, rule, or regulation hereafter made.

(v) Any disorder or neglect to the prejudice of morality or discipline, although not specified in this Act, or in any rule or regulation.

All pecuniary penalties form a fund which is applied to the payment of rewards for good conduct or meritorious service, to the establishment of libraries and recreation rooms, and to such other objects for the benefit of the force as may be approved of.

Offences by the commissioned officers are tried in a summary way by the Commissioner, who is clothed with the necessary authority to compel the attendance of witnesses.


New Riding School of the R.N.W.M.P. at Regina.

All recruits join the depot, where an efficient instructional staff is maintained, and where they are supposed to receive the ground work in their education as members of the force which experience will ripen into efficiency. The present Commissioner, feels that it is more than ever necessary for a thorough grounding at the depot, for, once transferred, there is neither time nor opportunity to supply the want.

H. Christie Thomson, an ex-member of the force, describing life in the force in an article published in the "Boy's Own Paper," February 1897, made a special reference to the life of the recruit at the depot:—

"The first few months of a recruit's service are spent in Regina, the headquarters of the force, where he is put through a regular course of instruction. He rides and drills, drills and rides—particularly' rides, until he is heartily sick of the sight of a drill sergeant or a riding master Throughout the extremely painful period spent in acquiring a military seat, he is upheld by the thought that it is only for a very few months. As he works upward from the awkward to Xo. 1 squad, and from No. 1 to Xo. 1 Ride, he is always looking forward to the time when he shall be dismissed from rides and drills, and transferred far from Regina. with its "rookies" (reernts), its riding school and its parade ground.

"In addition to the training of the soldier, he receives instruction in many subjects bearing upon his future work. Police dulies, a smattering of law, veterinary science, care of transport and saddlery, all receive due attention. He is taught to shoe a horse, to drive two horses or four, and by actual experience is initiated into the many mysteries antl secrets of camping out.

"During the day his time is fully occupied. The horses have to be attended to at least three times each day, he has his parades, his lectures and an occasional fatigue. In the intervals of duty he must be cleaning his kit, polishing, burnishing and brushing, for cleanliness is the first requisite of a soldier. With the exception of doing his turn on guard, which comes around every week or so, his evenings are altogether his own, and he can choose between a dozen different amusements.

"Once through his course of training, and transferred from Regina, a new phase of life begins, and a much pleasanter one. tie has now much more time to himself. and discipline is not so strict. There are not nearly so many parades, and better than all, a considerable portion of his time is now spent patrolling the praine, far from barracks and civilization. And here he is absolutely free and diasterless as though he did not wear the Queen's uniform. Prairie fires have to be fought, horse thieves and desperadoes caught, Indian reserves patrolled, the observance of the game and fishery laws enforced, settlers looked after, lost horses hunted, and a thousand other duties to be performed that necessitate a constant life n the saddle.

It will be realized from the foregoing that although a civil force, the R.N.W.M.P. is drilled as a military organization, and it is so thoroughly drilled too, that officers and men can at a moment's notice act either as cavalry, artillery or infantry.

And, be it remembered by good intentioned but ignorant people who read both history and passing events with one eve shut and consequently imagine that military drill ami discipline have no practical value since the invention of arms of precision, the training imparted to the recruit at the depot of this unsurpassed corps of "soldiers-of-all-work " is not confined to instruction in marksmanship and equitation, although great stress is laid upon those branches; but includes complete courses in setting-up drill, infantry drill, cavalry drill, etc. Even the intricacies of the musical ride—a phase of military work which so-called reformers are so fond of railing at, is mastered by picked squads. This art is acquired at voluntary drills, and the immense amount of work required to secure the absolute perfection attained in the training of men and horses but illustrates the devotion of all ranks to their special work and their ambition to be excelled in smartness by none. The performance of the musical ride by a picked squad of the Mounted Police would make the most showy cavalry regiment in His Majesty's service anxious about its laurels.


A Musical Ride Squad of the R.N.W.M.P. al Regina.

At times several of the Divisions have had fine brass bands, iu some cases the olhcers and men providing the instruments themselves, in others the department affording a little assistance. In 1886 "D", "K" and "II" Divisions had very good bands, and the following year one was started at the depot, the instruments being provided bv the department. The frequent, changes of station, the extension of the outpost system as the country was settled, and the other exactions of service have made it very difficult to maintain bands. A new voluntary band was formed at the depot under Sergeant Walker in 1904.

As the depot is the nerve centre of the whole force, so is the "post" of each Division. Each divisional post, they arc all posted at carefully selected points, is the hub of a system of patrols and outposts. Some of the latter are maintained only at certain seasons, generally the summer. The detachments occupying them vary from an officer's command to a single constable, but most of them consist of a squad under a sergeant or a constable. The larger outposts are houses in government buildings erected for the purpose. At first these were mere "shacks" or huts put together hurriedly by the various detachments, but latterly a great improvement has been effected and there are now numerous cozy, and in some cases, almost pretentious quarters for the chief detachments commanding the principal trails. Some isolated detachments are housed in farm houses, while others are accommodated in private houses in villages and hamlets along the various lines of railway.

The whole vast country is covered like a network by a most efficient system of patrolling. A map of the North-West indicating the posts, outposts and patrols of the North-West Mounted Police, looks as if the country were covered with a series of large and small cobwebs, the larger representing the divisional posts and their patrols, the smaller the outposts or detachments and theirs.

The men on outpost duty patrol the international frontier for the suppression of smuggling and horse stealing, and the whole country in the vicinity of their detachments for the enforcement of the law and departmental regulations. An important duty which particularly falls upon the patrols is the guarding against and suppressing of prairie fires, and frequently this duty is extremely hazardous.

Of recent years, since the present great influx of population began, the duties of the police in connection with the settlers and settlement have greatly increased. Every new settler is interviewed and thoroughly informed as to the laws and departmental regulations, the maxim being applied to the new citizens of Canada as it was years ago in dealing with the Indians, that preventive measures are far superior to repressive ones. W hen a constable rides out on his patrol he carries a patrol sheet which is handed in succession to each settler, who is required to sign the paper, stating whether he has any complaints or not, and if he has, indicating their nature. On his return to his post, outpost, or detachment, the patrol hands in his patrol sheet. All new settlers, especially foreigners, look to the ponce for advice, for they are not slow to realize that these dashing "warriors of justice" hold them strictly to account as subjects and occupants of the land, but at the same time afford them full and complete protection,

if need be, at the risk of their lives. Any momentary unruliness on the part of recently settled communities is soon repressed, for the fearless way, yet with scrupulous avoidance of bloodshed, with which the arrest of delinquents is promptly effected never fails to make the desired impression. The advice of the red-coats is constantly being asked by new settlers, and they have settled amicably many disputes which might easily have resulted in costly litigation.

Many a settler could tell of valuable assistance received from the men of this ubiquitous military-constabulary outside altogether of the discharge of their ordinary duties. They have been helped by the men charged with their security and protection, to pitch their camps the first night on the prairie, to erect their first modest huts, to herd their live stock, to repair their harness and vehicles, to even cook their meals and nurse their sick and children. And your bravest man is always your gentlest nurse.

In the large number of time-expired men who have remained in the far west, men accustomed by discipline to practice the useful virtues of respect for authority and self restraint, the force has contributed to the North-West some of its very best settlers and citizens.

Among the most important duties discharged by the officers of the force are those appertaining to their magisterial functions, and in the interpretation and application of the law they have never left anything to be desired.

It is related that the great Blackfoot chief "Crow-B foot," in a spirit of some hostility, soon after the police took possession of the country, attended the trial of a couple of the braves of his tribe before an officer of the force. -He followed the proceedings closely, and was so impressed with their absolutely impartial character that he remarked:—"This is a place where the forked tongue is made straight. When my people do wrong they shall come here." And the wise and just old chieftain, statesman, orator a.id warrior, in every way a credit to his race, kept his word and never had occasion to regret it.

Within the present year (1906) an important change in the control of the Royal North-West Mounted Police has taken place. Most of the territory comprised within the region which the force originally opened up, having been erected into the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, the administration of justice therein falls within the scope of the provincial governments, instead of continuing under the Dominion Government, as heretofore. So, although the federal control and direction of the whole force is maintained, the posts and detachments thereof stationed in the new provinces will act under the direct instructions of the

provincial Attorney General although maintained by the Dominion Government under a special financial arrangement.

There continues to be abundance of work for this incomparable body of men to do, not alone in the Yukon. Mackenzie, Peace River and Hudson Bay districts but in the new provinces as well. The enforcement of law and order in the construction camps of the great railways now being rushed westward and northward is no small matter, for railway construction in connection with both the Grand Trunk Pacific and the Canadian Northern, is being rapidly pushed forward just now, the railway activity in the North-West being unequalled in the history of the world.

The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Company, which was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1903, is under agreements with the Canadian Government for the construction and operation of a line of railway across Canada, from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, wholly within Canadian territory, of an estimated mileage of main line of 3,600 miles; in addition to which there will be constructed several branch lines of considerable length and importance, including a line from the main line southerly 190 miles to Fort Will am and Port Arthur, on Lake Superior, for the purpose of reaching navigation on the Great Lakes; also from the main line southerly about 229 n lies to North Bay or Gravenhurst, n the Province of Ontario, to make connection with the lines of the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada, and another line from the main hue southerly to Montreal. Branch lines are proposed as well, to Brandon, Regiria, Prince Albert and Calgary, and to Dawson u the Yukon Territory.

This great undertaking which surpasses in magnitude and importance, any plan of railway construction hitherto conceived as a whole, has been projected to meet the pressing demand for transportation facilities in British North America, caused by the large tide of immigration which is now flowing into that country from Great Britain, Northern Europe, and still more extensively from the Western States of the United States, seeking the rich lands which lie so abundantly in the Province of Manitoba, and the territories of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Athabaska. comprising the North-West Territories (the latter, however, having been absorbed in the two new provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta), the lands originally opened up to settlement by the Mounted Police, and now covered by their patrols.

The country through which the Prairie Section of the railway will pass, contains land now known to be well adapted for the grow mg of wheat, which in extent is four times the wheat growing area of the United States, and is the great agricultural belt of the North-West.

Mr. Frank W. Morse, Vice-President and General Manager of the Grand Trunk Pacific is a warm admirer of the Royal North-West Mounted Police, having been able to form an idea of the efficiency and splendid work of the force from his visits to the North-West and over the projected line of his company's railway. Upon one occasion Mr. Morse rode 500 miles on horseback across country from Portage la Prairie to Saskatoon, and there was not a moment that he did not feel just as safe as if he had been in his office in the city of Montreal.


Mr. Frank W. Morse (on the left), Vice-Provident and General Manager Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, and party over the Surveyed Line through the Prairie Region

The rough service of a pioneer nature now discharged by the members of the force lies trrgedy in the Yukon and the vast and only partially explored territories to the north of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but even there the rough border element is being eliminated, and law and order established.

Bishop Stringer, who succeeded that great Church of England hero, Bishop Bompas, in mission work in the far north, was a visitor in Winnipeg this summer (1900) en route to the Mackenzie River, where he has ministered to the Indians since 1S92. Speaking of one phase of his work in the far north, he highly compliments the Mounted Police in this language:

"Formerly the country was overrun by Americans. Xow this is all changed, and the new-comers to the north are Canadian born. Perhaps it is that the Americans are becoming Canadianized; but travelling through the country now-a-days, the fact is borne in mind that the Canadians are greatly m the majority. We are getting more particular as to whom we welcome to the great north now. The tough finds his row a hard one to hoe, and this in a great measure is owing to the excellent management of the members of the R.N.W.M.P., whose work in the wild sections of the northland cannot be over-estimated. It isn't the numbers of them, nor is it the force of their authority; it is a subtle something which enters the mind of the wrong-doer whenever he meets the eye of the man wearing the red jacket. Why, an ordinary constable wearing No badge of office beyond his small badge and redcoat, strikes terror to the heart of the roughest. It is the dignity and the determination of the police, and the splendid esprit de corps of the force. The mounted police, it may be asserted, have been the safety and pride of the whole north country."

Some years ago despatches had to be sent to a distant post during extremely severe weather. A young constable of good family, a university graduate, in fact, was selected. A stinging blizzard set in. soon after he started, and days slid into weeks with 110 tidings of him. The following spring a patrol entering a secluded coulee found a storm-worn uniform of the force still clothing the bones of the lost courier. His mind in the last solemn moments appears to have been more haunted with the fear that he would not be able to discharge the duty entrusted to him than with any concern as to his personal safety. On his orders were scrawled a few brief sentences:—"Lost, horse dead. Am trying to push ahead. Have done my best." Truly a pathetic vindication of the honour and sense of duty of a gallant member of this remarkable force of soldier-police.

That has always been the spirit of the Royal North-West Mounted Police, and wherever the duty of the force is to lie in the future, these capable officers and dashing, daring men may be depended upon to do their best, and to add many chapters just as honourable as those preceding them to the chivalrous, romantic and patriotic record of the force.

The End.


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