The Royal North-West Mounted Police
Chapter IX


THE REBELLION OF 1885

The Uprising Predicted by Officers of the Force Well in Advance of the Actual Appeal To Arms—Irvine's Splendid March From Regina to Prince Albert—The Fight at Duck Lake and ABANDONMENT of Fort Carlton—services of the detachments at prince Albert, Battleford and Fort Pitt and of Those which Accompanied the Militia Columns Throughout the Campaign—Preventing a General Uprising Throughout the North-West.

ON account of the North-West Rebellion, the year 1885 is one which will always be considered historical in Canada. The. campaign which resulted in the suppression of the rising was the first conducted by Canadian troops alone, without any assistance from the British regular army. The rebellion marked in a dramatic manner the complete unification of patriotic sentiment throughout all the provinces of the Dominion; Canadians from the various provinces fighting in the ranks, side bv side, and shedding their blood, to assert the authority of the Federal Government, and thus demonstrating the successful accomplishment of the fundamental project of the framers of Confederation, the creation of a Canadian nation.

The rebellion, too, marks an era in the history of the Royal North-West Mounted Police, for the force naturally bore the brunt of the campaign, and acquitted itself well Officers and men wherever, employed, whether on the march, scouting, on courier service, in garrison, or on the battlefield, acted in a manner creditable to the force and to the country. The services of the Mounted Police ill connection with the Uprising cover a considerable period preceding its actual outbreak, for one of the best proofs of the efficiency of the force during this stirring time, was afforded by the prompt transmission to the authorities at the seat of Government of reports describing the various stages of the development of the rebellion.

July 8, 1884, the following telegram was received by the Comptroller in Ottawa and referred to the authorities concerned:—

"Battleford, 8th July, 1884. "Fred. Wiiit 10, Ottawa.

"Louis Riel arrived at Duck bake, with family, brought in by half-breeds. They brought him, it is said, as their leader, agitating their rights.

L. X. V. Crozikr."

In an official report on this subject, to the Commissioner, bearing date Pith July, 1884, rendered by Superintendent Crozier, who was in command at Battleford, that officer stated that the half breeds claimed to have grievances of various kinds and that the Indians were becoming excited 011 account of the action of the half-breeds.

August 2nd, the Commissioner forwarded to Ottawa from Regina the following report received by him from Superintendent Crozier:—

"Battleford, 27th July, 1884.

"Sir ;—

"I have the honour to inform yon that Riel has held meetings at both Prince Albert and Duck Lake. I am informed that his meeting at the first named place was an open one. Some little difficulty took place, but was promptly put down.

At Duck Lake, his audience was composed of French half-breeds and Indians. He is said, though I have no official information to that effect, to have told the Indians that they had "'rights' as well as the half-breeds, and that he wished to be the means of having them redressed.

"I am also informed that he expressed a wish to confer with the Indian chiefs. I have already reported that I believe the Indians sympathize with the half-breeds, nor could anything else be expected, being close blood relations and speaking the same language.


Captain "Jack" French, formerly an Inspector of the N.W.M.P., who organized and commanded "French's Scouts," and who gallantly fell at the head of his men in the advanced line at the capture of Batoche.

"What may be the result of this half-breed agitation or what effect it may have upon the Indians, of course I cannot foretell. I before said, and still think, precautionary measures should be taken; such measures as will not only prevent' turbulent spirits carrying their schemes to an extreme, but prevent both Indians and half-breeds even making an attempt to resist authority or organize for illegal purposes, for these constant 'excitements' must have a most injurious effect upon the country, and, among those effects, not the least, a sense of insecurity among settlers.

"I believe now, that Big Bear and his followers would have been upon their reserve but for the emissaries of Riel, who, it is said, invited him to meet that person at Duck Lake.

"Certain it is he has gone there, and that after having promised and received provisions to go to Fort Pitt. He had proceeded with the camp some distance on the road, but turned back after hearing from Riel.

"There are very many rumours about as to what Riel has said to the Indians, that, if true, are intended to cause discontent among them as to their present condition.

L. N. F. Crozier."

August 9th, Superintendent Crozier forwarded the following report received in cypher from Sergeant Brooks at Prince Albert, dated the 8th:

"Returned from Duck Lake last night; Big Bear in council with ten other chiefs. Riel has held several private meetings at the South Branch, attended by leading half-breeds; he has not seen Big Bear. Big Bear's camp, with twelve lodges, is forty miles S.S.E. of Fort Pitt. His son is with the camp. It is reported to me that Big Bear will go to Prince Albert after he leaves Duck Lake."

In forwarding this report, Superintendent Crozier wrote the Commissioner:

"For several weeks I have had a man stationed at Duck Lake to report what transpires there, particularly as to the half-breeds and Indians. The same point is visited frequently by the non-commissioned officers and men from Prince Albert also. I also receive from the non-commissioned officer at Prince Albert, despatches by letter or cypher telegram, of anything that he may become aware of that he deems of importance. I have this day sent a non-commissioned officer and three men to patrol in and about Duck Lake and the settlements thereabouts, with a view to detecting, if possible, the presence of horse thieves, as it is supposed there may be some in that vicinity."

On the oth of August a non-commissioned officer, who had been instructed to ascertain the state of feeling at Prince Albert, reported:—"There is very little talk about Riel. The principal part of the people who seem to agree with him are people who are hard up and think they must do something to cause a little excitement. I have heard very few who are in any way well-to-do speak favourably of him. There is no doubt but that all the breeds swear by him, and whatever he says is law7 with them." On the 10th of August, Sergeant Brooks, at Prince Albert, reported that Kiel had held a meeting that day as the people were coming from church at Batoche, at which he said " the Indian's rights should be protected as well as your own.' He reported also that Jackson, brother of the druggist, at Prince Albert, seemed to be "a right-hand man of Kiel's. He has a great deal to say, and I believe he does more harm than any breed among them."

On the 18th August, Superintendent Crozier received orders from the Commissioner to increase the Prince Albert detachment to an Inspector and twenty men, and did so accordingly.

On the 17th of September, Sergeant H. Iveenan, at Duck Lake, reported that a meetmg of Kiel's supporters had been held at St. Laurent on the 1st, at which a number of half-breeds and white men from Prince Albert were present, "including Jackson, Scott and Isbister, three of Kiel's strongest supporters in that district. Speeches were made condemning the Government, and Mr Jackson stated that the country belonged to the Indians and not to the Dominion of Canada." Sergeant Iveenan concludes: "I met Kiel a few days ago, and during our conversation he told me that the Government, through Bishop Grandin, had offered him a seat in the Council or in the Dominion Senate."

In view of the increasing unrest on the North Saskatchewan, the Comptroller forwarded the following:

"Ottawa, 3rd Sept., 1884.

"The undersigned has the honour to submit for the Minister's consideration, that in view of the possibility of additional Mounted Police being required in the North Saskatchewan District, it is desirable that steps be taken to secure accommodation for men and horses, beyond the capacity of the Mounted Police post at Battleford, and it is suggested that arrangement might be made with the Hudson Bay Company for the use, for police purposes, during the coming winter, of their buildings, or a portion thereof, at Fort Carlton, which s about fifteen miles northwest of Duck Lake, about fifty-five miles west of Prince Albert, and one hundred and twenty miles east of Battleford.

Flirt) Whitk, Comptroller."

Under date, "Batoche, 2oth Sept., 1884," Sergeant Keenan reported as follows:

"I have the honour to state that since my last re-|x>rt all has been quiet here. There have, however, been frequent meetings of Kiel's committee held n different parts of the settlement. It is almost impossible for me to obtain any information as to what transpires at these meetings, as they are conducted with secrecy, and no person, except the members of the committee, is allowed to take part in them. At all the public meetings, Kiel and his supporters have been very moderate, or rather cautious, in their utterances; but I learn that they appear in disguise at these open gatherings, and advocate very different measures in their councils. The last meeting was held a week ago at the house of Batiste Boyer, one of the chief supporters of the movement. Charles Nolin, another member, and one of the most unreasonable, proposed that the half-breeds make certain demands on the Government, and if not complied with, they take up arms at once, and commence


Superintendent S. Gagnon.

killing every white man they can find, and incite the Indians to do the same. I obtained this information from an Old Country Frenchman who belonged to the committee, and left it on account of the extreme and unreasonable measures it advocated. This man Nolin is the most dangerous of the half-breeds for the reason that, he is strongly in favour of tampering with the Indians."

The suggestion contained in the Comptroller's memorandum of the third of September having been acted upon, and permission obtained from the Hudson Bay Conipan ' to quarter a detachment at their historical post at Fort Carlton, in October a police post was established there under command of Superintendent S. Gagnon, and the strength of the northern division increased to 200 of all ranks, this number being distributed between Battleford, Carlton, Prince Albert and Fort Pitt.

The Indians about Fort Pitt appeared to be peaceably enough disposed in November, for on the 9th, Inspector Dickens, commanding there, reported:

"From the 1st to the 11th, I was absent on a tour around the reserves on the occasion of the annual treaty payments of the Indians. The payments passed off quietly, as I have already reported. On my return I found that Little Poplar had arrived at Pitt, to be present at the payment of Big Bear's band. Big Bear now talks of taking a reserve in the rjsing. As long as they receive rations I do not think they will give trouble during the winter—that is, I do not think that they have at present any intention of so doing."

From Fort Carlton, on December 23rd, Superintendent Gagnon reported as follows:

"I have the honour to report that during the last month the half-breeds of St. Laurent and Batoche settlements held a public meeting, to adopt a petition drawn up by a committee, and that this petition, signed by the settlers of both settlements, had been forwarded to Ottawa. This meeting, from all reports, seems to have been very orderly. Several other smaller re-unions have taken place during the same period, but all had reference to school matters. The half-breeds are pressing Riel to settle amongst them, and have given him, as a token of their gratitude for services rendered, a house well furnished, and will further, on 2nd January next, present him with a purse. These testimonials are for the good will of the majority, and would go towards denying certain rumours, which say that several are lacking confidence in their leader, that his way of acting and speaking denote a very hot head, and that he does not agree with their priests. There is no doubt that a great number are still led by him, and would act on his dictates. Some time ago I sent several men to the South Branch to have horses shod. The river being full of floating ice, they could not cross. Some way or other, the report was brought to the east side of the river that these men were sent to arrest Riel, who was then at the crossing. Within half an hour, over one hundred men had collected to protect him. There is a certain amount of suffering amongst the half-breeds, but not to the extent it was expected to reach. Large quantities of supplies are required for this part of the country, and all who have horses can make a living by freighting with them. As far as I can see, the chief grievance of the half-breeds is that they are afraid the Government will not sanction the way they, amongst themselves, have agreed to take their homesteads—ten chains frontage 011 the river by two miles back. The Indians are quiet. The sub-agent here reports that one of the southern Indians, who makes it a business to run from band to band, trying to create mischief, is now in Beardy's band. The agent has a criminal charge to prefer against him, and as soon as the guard room is fitted up I will have him arrested."

On the 14th January, 1885, Superintendent Crozier reported that invitations to a large gathering, in the spring, at Duck Lake, were being circulated amongst the Indians, and he was informed that an effort would be made to get the Qu'Appelle Valley Indians to attend. It appeared, too, that "Little Pine" had tried to induce a number of the Blackfeet to move northwards in the spring, and "Poundmaker" said that "Little Pine" had told his young men not to dispose of their guns. Superintendent Crozier expected to hear later from "Poundmaker" the particulars of "Little Pine's" negotiations with the Blackfeet, as soon as he should have obtained them from "Little Pine." Superintendent Crozier expressed great faith in "Poundmakers'" reliability and fidelity.

On the 12th of January. Inspector Dickens reported from Fort Pitt that Big Bear's" band were at work drawing logs, cutting wood, &c., "all quiet."

On the 20th of January, Superintendent Gagnon, commanding at Carlton, reported that nothing of importance had occurred during the month among the half-breeds in that district. "They had, after New Year a social meeting, at which they presented their chief, Riel, with $60 as a token of their good will. The meeting was very orderly and loyal, and no allusion was made to the actual troubles."

Riel appears to have been in financial troubles just then, and to have obtained assistance from the Roman Catholic missionary at St. Laurent. Superintendent Gagnon was now informed that the previously mentioned petition had not been sent to Ottawa, as stated, but was then in process of being signed, with a view to its being forwarded the following month. It appeared that a letter only, as a sort of avant courrier to the petition, had been sent on the before-mentioned occasion.

There was now a period of about three weeks during which the former excitement appeared to have died a natural death, the next feature being a rumour, reported by telegram from Battleford on the 21st February, that Riel was talking of leaving the country soon, as he was not recognized by the Government as a Bntish subject. Apparently, something of this sort was necessary to fan the dying embers into flame again.

It succeeded so far that on the 24th February a meeting got up bv himself was held, to beg Riel to stay in the country, to which request he was pleased to consent.

On the 10th of March, Superintendent Gagnon telegraphed that the half-breeds were excited, and were moving about more than usual. Further, that they proposed to prevent supplies going in after the 10th.

On the 11th, Superintendent Crozier, who had reached Fort Carlton from Battleford, reported by telegraph as follows:

"Half-breeds greatly excited; reported they threaten attack on Carlton before 10th. Half-breeds refuse to take freight or employment for Government; will stop all freight coming into country after 10th of this month: getting arms ready; leader will not allow people to leave home, as they may be required. Origin of trouble I think because letter received stating. Riel not recognized British subject; they expect arms from States. Have ordered 25 men from Battleford and one gun to come here at once."

On the 11th, Crozier telegraphed from Carlton to Lieutenant Governor Dewdnev, at Regina:—"Half-breed rebellion * liable to break out any moment. Troops must be largely reinforced. If half-breeds rise Indians will join them."

The same day Lieut.-Colonel Irvine, from Regina, wired the Comptroller at Ottawa as follows:—"Lieut.-Governor received telegram dated Carlton, to-day, from Crozier, saying half-breed rebellion may break out any moment and joined by Indians, and asking that his division be largely increased. Would recommend that at least one hundred men be sent at once, before roads break up. Please instruct."

On the 15th, Col. Irvine telegraphed to Ottawa:— "Lieutenant-Governor thinks I had better go north with men at once; roads and rivers will soon break up."

The same night the following telegraphic order was despatched by the Comptroller to the Commissioner:— "Start for the north quickly as possible, wnh all available men up to one hundred. Telegraph march-ng out state and report when passing telegraph station."

On the 17th, a telegram was received at Regina from Superintendent Crozier to the effect that: "Present movements ami preparations have quieted matters. No cause for alarm now."

There was no guarantee, however, that this apparent security would continue, and existing arrangements were carried out, fortunately, as it appeared, for on the 18th two urgent appeals for more men came over the wires from Superintendent Crozier, followed, on the 19th, by a report that the half-breeds had seized the stores at the South Branch, and made Mr. Lash, Indian agent, prisoner, besides committing other depredations.

In anticipation of the order to proceed to the north, the Commissioner had withdrawn from Calgary to Regina twenty-five non-commissioned officers and men, and twenty horses, and at 6 a.m. on the 18th of March. Lieut.-Col. Irvine left the Regina barracks en route for Prince Albert, the marching out state showing four officers, 80 non-commissioned officers and men, and 00 horses. The little column proceeded as far as Pie-a-Pot's reserve, 28 miles, and halted for dinner. It afterwards proceeded along the Qu'Appelle Valley, and camped for the night at Misquopetong's place. All the rivers were at this time frozen solid, and no water could be obtained for the horses. The distance travelled during the day was 43 miles.

On the 19th, reveille sounded at 3.30 a.m. Broke camp and left Misquopetong's place at 5 a.m., and drove into Fort Qu'Appelle, which was reached at 9.45 a.m. The Commissioner was here busily employed for some time purchasing additional teams and sleighs required for transport. At 4 p.m. the detachment left Fort Qu'Appelle, and travelled on towards O'Brien's, which was situated eight mites north of Qu'Appelle. The Commissioner here camped for the night. The distance travelled during the day was twenty-seven miles.

On the 21st reveille sounded at 3.30 a.m.; broke camp and started at 5 a.m., travelling through the Touchwood Hills, and camped for the night about a mile from the Hudson Bay Company's post. Distance travelled during the day was 40 miles.

It was at this point that Col. Irvine received the following communication from Superintendent Crozier, dated Carlton, 19th March, 1885:

"1 have the honour to inform you that the half-breeds seized the stores at South Branch to-day. Mr. Lash, Indian agent, Walters, merchant, two telegraph operators, and Mr. Mitchell, of Duck Lake, arc prisoners. Beardy's Indians joined the rebels this afternoon. The wire is cut. The rebels are assembled on south side of river. Prisoners are held in Roman Catholic church, about a quarter of a mile up stream from crossing. All One Arrow's band of Crees joined them this afternoon. Many of Beardy's also joined them. The remainder of Beardy's will probably follow to-morrow The number of rebels assembled this afternoon is estimated at from 200 to 100 men. They will rapidly increase in numbers. My impression is that many of the Indian bands will rise. The plan at present is to seize any troops coming into the country at the South Branch, then march on Carlton, then on Prince Albert. The instructor led One Arrow's band. He is a half-breed."

The distance travelled during the day was 40 miles.

On the 22nd, broke camp at 5 a.m., and proceeded across Salt Plain. The weather was bitterly cold. One man had his feet badly frozen. Halted for dinner after having crossed Salt Plain. In the afternoon reached Humboldt, and camped here. Mr. Hayter Reed, Assistant Indian Commissioner, joined Col. Irvine there, and remained with him throughout. Distance travelled 43 miles.

It was at this point chat Col. Irvine ascertained that some 400 half-breeds had congregated at Batoche, for the express purpose of preventing his command joining Superintendent Crozier. The Commissioner here sent the following telegram to the Comptroller:

"Arrived here 4.30 this afternoon. Camp to-night at Stage Station, six miles farther on. About 400 half-breeds and Indians at South Branch, "Batoche's," prepared to stop me crossing river. Have decided to go to Carlton by -direct trail, east of Batoche via Prince Albert. Expect to reach Carlton 25th."

On the 23rd, broke camp at 5.30 a.m. Weather continued bitterly cold. Soon after starting Col. Irvine received intelligence of the mail station at Hoodoo having been sacked by a party of rebels. On reaching Hoodoo he found that the intelligence received was perfectly true. All provisions and grain stored there had been carried off by the rebels, who had also taken the stage driver prisoner, and carried off the itage horses. The Commissioner subsequently overtook a freighter loaded with oats. The oats the rebels had ordered the freighter to carry on to Batoche. The train containing these oats Col. Irvine ordered to move on with his column, which was done at as rapid rate as the freighter was able to travel. The Commissioner afterwards used these oats in feeding his horses. Distance travelled, 33 miles.

On the 24th, broke camp at 6 a.m., and travelled along the trail leading to Batoche, a distance of six or seven miles. The detachment then left the trail and proceeded in a north-easterly direction towards Agnew's Crossing on the South Saskatchewan, which point was reached about 2 p.m. Having crossed the river, Col. Irvine halted for dinner.

Before making the start for Prince Albert, news was received by Col. Irvine to the effect that the half-breeds were bitterly disappointed and furiously enraged at his having succeeded in crossing the river, and in so doing completely outflanking and out-manoeuvering them. The force reached Prince Albert at about 8 p.m., after a very rapid and successful march. The distance travelled was 291 miles, and this in seven days, the average daily travel thus being 42 miles. The hardships experienced on such a march can only be understood and the nature of such service thoroughly appreciated by those who have resided in the northern portion of the Territories, and so become familiar with the severity of the North-West winter. It must be remembered that Col. Irvine's little command had, in reaching Prince Albert, gone right through a section of the country then in possession of the rebels.

On finding himself in Prince Albert, Col. Irvine felt that the most difficult and arduous portion of the object then in view, viz.:—affecting a junction with Superintendent Crozier—had been effected, and this in a markedly successful manner, the avowed plans of the rebels being to prevent any augmentation of the force at Carlton, by offering a continued resistance at the crossing of the South Branch of the Saskatchewan.

Col. Irvine's original intention was to have reached Carlton on the 25th March. This might have been done had it appeared imperative, but upon the morning after his arrival, Col. Irvine had the assurance of Mr. Thomas McKay, who had just returned from Fort Carlton, that all was quiet there. To add to this, the travelling over ice and frozen roads had, as was to be expected, made it necessary to have the horses' shoeing carefully looked to. Taking into consideration that upon its arrival at Prince Albert (at 8 p.m. on the 24th) the force had completed a winter march of 291 miles, a thorough inspection of men, arms and horses was, of course advisable. Besides all this, the organization of a company of Prince Albert volunteers, deemed advisable to take on to Carlton, took up time, as did also the procuring of transport for these additional men.

The Commissioner was naturally anxious to have both men and horses reach Carlton, the acknowledged scene of operations, in a thoroughly efficient and serviceable condition.

Upon the following morning (26th) at 2.30 a.m., Irvine and his command were en route, so it will be seen with what exceptional promptitude the necessary preparations were carried out. Irvine took with him besides 83 of his own non-commissioned officers and men from Regina, 25 volunteers from Prince Albert.

The services of these brave volunteers were offered with a perfect knowledge of the dangers they might be called upon to face. Like the loyal and gallant citizens they proved themselves to be, they were ready for any service—in fact, all were anxious to be employed. Col. Irvine accepted the services of these men with what he considered a most important object in view, his desire being on arrival at Carlton, to be in a position to increase to a maximum the number of police available for service outside the post. He hoped in this way, by a prompt and decided move, to quash the rebellion ere it had assumed more formidable proportions. But he never intended these volunteers to remain away from Prince Albert for any extended period. The importance attaching to the position of that place he was thoroughly alive to from the outset This he made publicly known before he started for Carlton. During the afternoon march, (on the 26th), and when within nine miles of Fort Carlton, the Commissioner received the following despatch from Superintendent Gagnon:—

"Caklton, 26th March,

"To the Commissioner

North-West Mounted Police.

"Superintendent Crozier, with 100 men, started out on Duck Lake road to help one of our sergeants and small party in difficulty at Mitchell's store. I have 70 men, and can hold the fort against odds. Do not expect Crozier to push on farther than Duck Lake. Everything quiet here.

S. Gagnon,

Superintendent."

Subsequently, when a short distance from the top of the hill which immediately overlooks Carlton, the Commissioner received a second despatch from Superintendent Gagnon. It read as follows:—

Caklton, 26th March, 2.30

To the Commissioner

North-West Mounted Police.

"Crozier exchanged shots with rebels at Duck Lake; six men reported shot. Crozier retreating on Carlton; everything quiet here, but ready for emergency.

S. Gagnon,

" Superintendent."

Col. Irvine reached Fort Carlton about 3 o'clock n the afternoon of the 20th. and found that Superintendent Crozier had then just returned from Duck Lake with a party of North-West Mounted Police and Prince Albert Volunteers.

The Commissioner learnt from Superintendent Crozier that he had, early that morning, sent a party consisting of Sergeant Stewart, N W. M P.. and 17 constables, with eight sleighs, and accompanied by and under the direction of Mr McKay, .I P., of Prince Albert, to secure a quantity of provisions and ammunition which was ui the store of a trader named Mitchell, of Duck Lake. When within three miles of Duck Lake. Mr. McKay, who was riding in front, saw four of the North-West Mounted Police scouts who had been sent out in advance, riding towards him, closely followed by a large number of half-breeds and Indians. On perceiving this Mr. McKay turned and rode back to the sleighs, halted them, and told the men to load their rifles and get ready. He then went forward and met the rebels, who were all armed and mounted, in large numbers, which were being rapidly increased from the rear.

The rebels behaved in a very overbearing and excited manner, and demanded a surrender of the party or they would fire. There is no doubt that the rebels would have immediately fired upon Mr McKay and party but for the fact that they (the rebels) were themselves on the open plain, where they could make no use of cover to protect themselves from the fire which McKay would most certainly have ordered. The rebels' demand of surrender was refused, and a reply given by Mr. McKay in their own language (Cree), that if firing was commenced by the rebels they would find that two could play that game.

Gabriel Dumont, the erstwhile buffalo hunter referred to in a previous chapter, and others, kept prodding loaded and cocked rifles into Mr. McKay's ribs, and declaring they would blow out his brains. Two of the rebels jumped into a sleigh belonging to Mr. McKay's party, and endeavoured to take possession of the team; but Mr. McKay told ph > driver not to give it up, but to hold on to it, which he did. The Indians kept jeering at Mr. McKay's small party, and calling out: "If you are men. now come on." The party then returned in the direction of Carlton, Mr. McKay cautioning the rebels not to follow, as he would not be responsible for what his men might, do. During the parleying Dumont fired a rifle bet-tween Mr. McKay and the teamster before referred to, which it was feared was ntended as a signal for the large number of Indians assembled in the rear.

During the withdrawal toward* Carlton, a scout was ordered in advance to report the circumstance to Superintendent Crozier, and on Mr. McKay's arrival at the fort, another party, under command of Superintendent Crozier. started for Duck Lake, for the purpose of securing the stores Mr. McKay's men failed in getting.

The command was of the following strength, viz:— Superintendent Cro/.icr, Inspector Howe (with 7-pr. mountain gun), Surgeon Miller, and fifty-three noncommissioned oflicers and men of the North-West Mounted Police, (all of "D" division), and Captains

Moore and Morton, and forty-one men of the Prince Albert volunteers, making a total of 99.

Crozier was met by the rebels at nearly the same point from which Mr. McKay's party was forced to retire. In this latter case, however, the rebels were able to make use of strong natural cover, being hidden in extended order behind a ridge, which flanked on either side by small brush, crossed the road much in the form of a distended horse-shoe.

Before leaving Carlton, Crozier had been informed that there were only about 100 marauding rebels at Duck Lake, the head-quarters and main force, according to the latest information received from


Superintendent Joseph Howe.

scouts, being at Batoche's Crossing, on the south side of the Saskatchewan. He consequently considered that he had enough men with him to overcome any resistance he was likely to meet with, and from the numbers of men Superintendent Crozier saw on reaching the rebel position, he was justified in believing that the information he had received as to the numerical strength of the rebel force in front of him was correct. He was deceived however, for according to the sworn testimony of prisoners in the rebels' hands the strength of the half-breeds and Indians was 350 men.

On being confronted by the rebels, Crozier immediately ordered his sleighs to extend at right angles across and to the left of the road, unhitched his horses and sent them to the rear. The rebels appeared to desire a parley, several of them advancing to the front with a white flag, which Crozier took to be one of truce. As the rebels appeared to be moving with a view of surrounding his force, Crozier threw a line of skirmishers to the right of the road under cover of a wood, the remainder of the force, excepting the men in charge of the horses, taking cover behind the sleighs. Crozier himself advanced towards the white flag, calling back for the interpreter Joseph McKay. Meantime a large party of rebels was noticed moving in the direction of Crozier's right flank, and he said several times to the man with the white flag:—"Call those people back", but the man paid not the slightest attention, the sending out of the flag apparently being merely a piece of treachery, to gain time while the operation of out-flanking the right of the police position was being conducted. Had that been accomplished, and it was only prevented by the line of skirmishers Crozier had extended towards his right, the force would doubtless have been annihilated.

While Crozier and McKay were parleying with the man with the flag, fire was opened from the rebel position and returned, and in a few moments fighting became general, the seven-pounder being got into action and, although worked at great disadvantage, with good effect. The murderous character of the rebel fire, particularly from the extreme left of their position, convinced Crozier that he was opposed by a much larger force than he had ever dreamt of meeting at Duck Lake. The ground was covered with a deep crusted snow, making it very difficult for a satisfactory disposition and movement of the force to be made, and giving the rebels in their chosen ambush a great advantage. Concealed from view, to the right of the trail along which the police had advanced, were two houses in which were posted a large number of rebels, who poured in a deadly fire and who were gradually working round towards the right rear of Crozier's position, although the left of the rebel line was being gradually driven back. According to the Superintendent's report the police and volunteers composing his little force behaved superbly, their bravery and coolness under the murderous fire being simply astonishing. Not a man shirked or even faltered.

When Crozier found that the enemy were far more numerous than his own force, that they were ambushed almost all around him, that they had ever}' advantage of ground and cover on their side.

while he and his men had every disadvantage of position to contend against, he deemed it prudent to abandon his attempt to proceed further, and to withdraw his force from action, which was done in perfect order.

As live of the horses had been killed or disabled by gun shot wounds, Crozier was obliged to abandon two of his sleighs and one jumper, in which there were a few rounds of ammunition for the 7-pounder gun, which fell into the hands of the rebels.

The bodies of most of the killed were off to the extreme right, in situations most exposed to the. ambushed rebels, and could only have been collected by incurring the gravest risk of putting the entire command into the greatest possible jeopardy and Crozier decided not to assume the risk. The rest of the command, horses, sleighs and all the wounded were, safely brought off the field.

The casualties in "D" Division were as follows:— Inspector Howe, flesh wound; corporal Gilchrist, broken thigh: constable G. P. Arnold, shot through the lungs and neck, died at 1.45 a.m.. on the 27th; constable G. M. Garrett, shot in the lungs, died, 3 p.m., on the 27th; constable S. F. Gordon, flesh wound; constable W. A. Manners-Smith, shot through lungs; constable A. Miliar, slight seal}) wound; constable W. Gibson, shot through the heart, died on the field; constable J. J. Wood, flesh wound of the arm.

The casualty list of the Prince Albert volunteers (enrolled as special officers and constables of the X. W. M. P.) was as follows:—

Killed. Captain John Morton, Corporal William Napier, Constables Joseph Anderson, James Babie, Sheffington Connor Elliott, Alexander Fisher, Robert Middleton, Daniel McKenzie, Darnel MePhail.

Wounded, Captain Henry Stewart Moore, Sergeant Alexander MeXabb, Constables A. Markley, Scout, Alexander Stewart, C. Newett.

Though Crozier's little force had been unsuccessful in getting the stores they had hoped to take in and in compelling the rebels to retire from Duck Lake, one consequence of the action was to force the rebels to give up for a time a contemplated attack on Fort Carlton, which was to have been made on the night of the 26th March, and which might easily have resulted disastrously, for the site of the Hudson May post at Carlton, being selected for trade purposes and not for defence, was in a most indefensible situation.

It might, perhaps, be added that a few days before the fight near Duck Lake, a demand had been made for the unconditional surrender of Fort Carlton.

The total strength of the force, police and volunteers, at Carlton after Crozier's retreat and Irvme's arrival, was 225 non-commissioned officers and men. Of these eleven were wounded. At this stage of affairs it became incumbent on the Commissioner to decide whether Fort Carlton or Prince Albert was to be made the base of operations. He was perfectly well aware of the vital importance attaching to the result of his decision, embracing as it did the lives and property of the settlers, in addition to what, from a strategic point of view, he assumed would place him in the strongest possible position he might hope to occupy. Although his own opinion on this point was strongly in favour of evacuation, he nevertheless decided to hold a council, for the purpose of ascertaining the views of the many leading men from Prince Albert, temporarily performing military duty at Carlton. The result of this council was the unanimous opinion that the safety of the country lay in ensuring Prince Albert being placed in a tenable position. It was agreed that Prince Albert, and the country immediately adjoining it represented what might be termed the whole white settlement, where the lives and interests of the loyal people lay. The section of the country to the southward, already in the possession of the rebels, was composed of then-own (half-breed) settlements and farms.

Prior to the holding of the council, before it was known what the movements of the police force were to be, it was represented to Irvine by the Prince Albert volunteers, that they must at once return to Prince Albert to guard their houses, property and families. This they considered their sacred duty, in order to prevent an attack by the rebels, the success of which could have had no other meaning than a pillage of the town and settlement, and doubtless a massacre of some of the people.

When it was determined to abandon Carlton it was decided to load up as much of the provisions m the post as possible and take them to Prince Albert, and to destroy the rest. In the afternoon of the 27th a solemn duty was performed, the bodies of Constables Gibson, Arnold and Garrett, being buried with military honours in one grave about 200 yards to the northwest of the gate of the fort. After this the work of preparing for the evacuation of the f»>rt was proceeded with, mattresses being filled with hay to be laid in the sleighs for the accommodation of the wounded.

About 2 a.m. while those detailed for tin; work of preparation for departure were still busy, the alarm of fire was given. Some of the loose hay being used to prepare litters for the wounded, hail become ignited by a heated stove pipe. A strange ruddy light flamed from the sergeant major's quarters, and a thick smoke arose that obscured the twinkling stars. This was above the archway of the main gateway, and next the hospital. The buildings had taken fire, and a frightful scene ensued. Bugle-calls were sounding, officers hurrying around with hoarse words of command. and the men, half-asleep, were bewildered. Volunteers and red-coats were mixed up indiscriminately. The wounded were removed at once, down the narrow stairs, out of danger into the cold outside, suffering the most excruciating agony. Several of their comrades nearly suffered suffocation in effecting their rescue. The teams were hurriedly hitched up, and as the main doorway was blocked by the fire and smoke, other places of exit had to be made in the temporary stockade of cord-wood.

No time was lost in taking the trail for Prince Albert, but it was two and a half hours before the last team got off. Prince Albert was reached about 4 p.m.

According to the author of "Trooper and Redskin": "As soon as the news of the Duck Lake catastrophe reached Prince Albert, measures of defence were immediately taken. There was no knowing how soon the bands of the 'Dictator' might sweep down upon the unprotected town. The despatch ordered our officer to warn all the surrounding settlers and summon them to a place of rendezvous. Steps were to be taken to fortify a central place of retreat. The Presbyterian church and manse were pitched upon as the most commodious and convenient for the purpose, and a stockade of cordwood, nine feet high, was erected around them. This was finished between 1 a.m. and daylight. The civilians worked splendidly. Many a house was in mourning, and many a tearful eye was seen upon the streets. It was a day of unparalleled brilliancy. The warm sun beat down from a cloudless sky; the snow was giving way in places to frothy pools, and here and there a brown patch of earth showed through the ragged robe of winter.

"We were engaged in taking cartridges, and rice, and necessary stores of all descriptions, into the improvised citadel in the centre of the town; and sleighs kept plying backward and forward between the church and barracks. Sleigh-loads of women and children came hurrying in from the Carrot River district; and from many a lonely homestead, hidden away among the bluffs. Every house in the town itself was very soon vacant, the inhabitants all taking sanctuary in the church precincts. We abandoned the barracks at noon; the sergeant and I being the last to leave. I carried the Union Jack under my regimental fur coat. We left everything else behind us as they were; locking all the doors. The scene inside the stockade was one of the most uncomfortable that can be imagined. The entrance was narrow, and blocked with curious members of the fair sex, straining their necks as though they expected to see the enemy walk calmly up and ring the bell."

Immediately upon his arrival at Prince Albert, the Commissioner applied himself to completing as far as possible the defences of the place, and caused all the able-bodied men who offered their services to be enrolled as special constables. Some 309 were enrolled, but to arm them there were only 116 Snider rifles available. All the shot-guns throughout the country were gathered in, and these were issued to the balance of the men, and handed from one to the other as occasion required. The volunteers were formed into four companies under Captains Young, Hoey, Craig and Brewster, the whole under the command of Lieut.-Col. Sproat. A company of scouts, forty-seven in all, was organized under the command of Mr. Thomas McKay.

As reliable information was received that the rebels contemplated an attack upon Prince Albert, the Commissioner had a strong chain of patrols and picquets nightly surrounding the main part of the town. On April 19, Col. Irvine made a reconnaissance in force in the direction of the rebel headquarters at Batoche and ascertained that there was a strong force on the west side of the river and that there were also detached parties at commanding points and scattered through the woods on the trails between Batoche and Prince Albert.

During the first few weeks of Colonel Irvine's occupation of Prince Albert, his position was a very critical one. The normal population of the town of Prince Albert was 700 people, but as the settlers flocked into the place for protection, the population was augmented to 1,800 exclusive of the police. Not only was there imposed upon Colonel Irvine the responsibility to protect this large number of people, but the necessity of feeding them, for Prince Albert was absolutely cut off from its natural source of supply, the trails to the railway running through the district in revolt. Several trains of supplies for the place were war-bound, thus reducing the normal stocks of the store keepers. And the adjacent settlements, many of them deserted by the panic-stricken inhabitants, had to be afforded protection, as far as possible, against marauders, necessitating unending patrol and scouting duty. Scouts were kept out wrell towards the rebel position, thus keeping the rebels on the alert and under the necessity of maintaining and watching two fronts, one facing the advancing militia column under General Middleton the other, in the direction of Irvine's alert police force at Prince Albert.

In his report, Lieut.-Colonel Irvine stated that perhaps the most important work done by his scouts was the driving back of the men employed on similar dui\ by Riel. who on various occasions tried to scout right into Prince Albert. Another important duty done by Irvine's scouts was the maintenance, after the battle of Fish Creek, of communication with General Middleton.

It should have been already stated that on .March 24th, the Comptroller, Mr. F. White, sent the Commissioner the following telegram:—"Major-General Commanding Militia proceeds forthwith to Red River. On his arrival, in military operations when acting with militia, take orders from him." At a somewhat later date Colonel Irvine received a message from Ala jor-General Middleton saying that the Commissioner was under his orders, and should report to him. At tins time Colonel Irvine understood that Middleton had only 350 troops with him, being in ignorance of the despatch of a large force of militia from the eastern provinces, because all communication was cut off. Meantime he had suggested in a message to the General that their forces should combine, either by the police moving out from Prince Albert to join the militia, or the militia proceeding first to Prince Albert and thence moving with the police upon Batoche.

From that time all in Prince Albert were kept in utter darkness as to the military operations which were transpiring on the other side of the revolted territory until April 10th, when messages arrived from General Middleton to state that he hoped to attack at Batoche on the 18th or 19th, and that the police were not to join in the attack, but watch for fleeing rebels. It was in consequence of this information that the reconnaissance in force on the 19th was undertaken.

After several days delay, Irvine opened up communication with Middleton, then encamped at Fish Creek, and through a message dated April 20th, learned from the General of the action of Fish Creek, and that it was the expectation to reach the Hudson Bay crossing on the South Saskatchewan the following Thursday. On his own responsibility Colonel Irvine had already made scows and posted a guard at this crossing, and on receipt of this message the guard was increased to two officers and thirty men. Friday, May 1st, one of the three steamers which had wintered at Prince Albert was sent round to the crossing. This steamer, the" Marquis," with an escort of the Mounted Police, under Inspector White Fraser, reached Batoche just as the last shots of the action of that name were being fired, and the steamer and her escort rendered such assistance to the Northwest Field Force in the subsequent operations, particular!} at the crossing of the South Saskatchewan, that General Middleton specially mentioned Inspector White Fraser in his report.


Inspector White Fraser.

Batoche was captured by the force under General Middleton on May 11th, and May 19th, the militia column reached Prince Albert, the police, Volunteer companies, and the whole population turning out to receive them. All with Middleton were much struck with the smart and soldierlike appearance of the police, who paraded in their best for the occasion.

There is no doubt that the presence of the police force saved Prince Albert from falling into the hands of the rebels. Had such a catastrophe come about the rebellion would have assumed proportions of much greater magnitude. Prince Albert was the key of the whole position, and the falling of it into the hands of the rebels would have been disastrous to the Dominion, and involved great loss, in lives and property.

A large number of the nomadic bands of Sioux Indians, who for years had been living about the Sasketchewan district, did move, with the intention of making a raid on Prince Albert, and these hostile Indians only abandoned their raid when, in close proximity to Prince Albert, they saw Irvine's trail leading to that place.

For some time it was generally believed that all the people, white, half-breed and Indian, about Prince Albert and surrounding country, were in all cases loyal, and were utterly without sympathy for the rebels. According to Col. Irvine, there was no ground for this belief. The loyalty of a large number was of a questionable nature, they had, therefore, to be carefully watched, and of course, every effort was made towards keeping doubtful Indians and half-breeds loyal.

Upon the news being received of the delay which occurred after the action at Fish Creek, its effect was felt in and out of Prince Albert by the bearing of the rebel sympathizers, or, more correctly speaking, they should be described as rebels, who had so far not had the courage to espouse the cause they favoured. Outside of Prince Albert a number of half-breeds and Indians, who had previously expressed loyalty, took part in the subsequent battle at Batoche. Among these were rebel Indians, and they commenced by plundering the other reserves. This was before taking part against the troops at Batoche.

After the arrival of the General at Prince Albert, Lieut.-Col. Irvine expected to be at once employed with his force in the contemplated operations against Poundmaker and Big Bear. Immediately upon the General's arrival the Commissioner reported to him that he could take the field at once with an efficient force of 175 mounted men, fully equipped, with their own transport in perfect working order, and carrying, travelling fast, seven day's rations and forage. Every member of the force was likewise anxious to secure active employment in the field, but the General decided to leave Irvine and his force at Prince Albert, proceeding to Battleford with the militia. The General, with most of his force proceeded direct from Prince Albert by steamer, the remainder under Lieut.-Col. B. Straubenzie, proceeding via Carlton. May 24, the Commissioner, with thirty men proceeded to Carlton to guard the ferry at that place, at Colonel Straubenzie's request. While in camp at Carlton, Colonel Irvine took a small number of men with him and rode to the south side of Duck Lake, for the purpose of disarming a band of Indians encamp; d there, which task was quickly and successfully accomplished. On the 27th, the Commissioner returned to Prince Albert, leaving Inspector Drayner in command of the detachment. This officer afterwards patrolled the Duck Lake country, recovered a considerable amount of property stolen by the rebels, and arrested six Indians concerned in the uprising.

About noon, June 8th, the Commissioner received telegraphic orders from General Middleton to send as many men as possible to Carlton, cross the river, and patrol towards Green Lake, as Big Bear and his band were reported to be making in that direction. At 6 a.m., the following day, Col. Irvine left Prince Albert with a party of the following strength:—


Inspector F. Drayner.

Assistant Commissioner Crozier, Inspector Howe, Assistant-Surgeon Millar, and 136 non-commissioned officers and men. At Fort Carlton a detachment of ten men in charge of Sergeant Smart was left, and the south end of Green Lake was reached June 14. In this inarch, the party travelled over a rough country, repairing the bridges and corduroy roads as they went along. At the south end of the Lake the Commissioner was forced to leave his waggons. In doing this he established a small camp near the' Hudson Bay Company's depot, which had been pillaged by Indians in a most wholesale manner.

The party then proceeded to the north end of the lake, a distance of sixteen miles, along a bridle path, constantly leading their horses over fallen timber and bad swamps, crossing a creek near the north end by swimming the horses, and crossing the men, saddles, etc., on a raft built for the purpose. From the north end of Green Lake, Col. Irvine sent out scouts to Loon Lake and on the 17th returned to the south end of the lake, where the waggons were. From this jxiiiit the Commissioner went back southward on the Carlton trail to the forks of the road leading to Pelican Lake. From here he sent out scouts in all directions, moving about himself to watch the trails and pick up food for the horses, a at this time the party was without oats. Owing to the numerous muskegs the moving of waggons and even saddle horses, was very difficult.

June 23. a "Wood" Cree who had been in Big Bear's camp came in and offered to take a scout to the point where he had left Big Bear in the direction of Loon Lake, whence the trail could be followed. Colonel Irvine at once sent Scout Leveille with the Indian, the point indicated was found, and the trail followed southward. The Commissioner then moved back towards Carlton, on the way coming across some of Big Bear's band, who explained that the chief was making for the Saskatchewan River. July 2nd, the Commissioner was met by Inspector Drayner, who had been sent back to Carlton with provisions, and who reported that Big Bear had been captured near Carlton by Sergeant Smart and his party. July 4. the commissioner reached Carlton, and finding Some of Big Bear's band encamped there arrested them and took them in to Prince Albert, where he arrived on the night of July 5. July 11th, Colonel Irvine left Prince Albert for Regina, reaching headquarters on the 17th.

Inspector W S. Morris, formerly a major in the New Brunswick militia, and at one time Assistant Engineer of the City of Winnipeg, commanded at Battleford after the departure of Superintendent Crozier for Carlton, until the arrival of Superintendent Herchmer, who ordered Inspector Dickens, as the senior inspector in the post, to assume the command. In accordance with instructions from the Commissioner, on March 26th Inspector Morris organized a volunteer company among the permanent residents, and another composed of settlers from the adjacent country. They were served out with the arms which had belonged to a disbanded militia company. The stockade being in a more or less dilapidated condition Inspector Morris' first care was to make it as strong as possible. A loop-holed embankment was constructed on the inside, and at the southeast and northwest corners flanking bastions were built for (he accommodation of the one seven-pounder at the post. The place was surrounded by a vigilant and numerous enemy, and in the fort, where nearly 400 women and children had sought protection, were those of whose loyalty Inspector Morris had the gravest suspicion. In order to prevent surprise by night a guard of sixty men and six mounted patrols were kept on duty. The only means of communication was via couriers, and in one case Constable Shores, who pluckily volunteered to carry a message to Swift Current, was chased nearly sixty miles by the enemy.

Inspector Francis J. Dickens (who was a son of the famous English novelist), commanded at Fort Pitt, another important centre of disturbance. Inspector Dickens was, in 1885, 30 or 38 years of age, and had had an active career. When a mere lad he left England, and afterwards joined the Indian police, and was on duty on the Punjaub. A sunstroke there made it necessary for him to try some other climate, and on returning to England in 1876 he secured a position in the North-West Mounted Police.

March 30, Dickens learned through Mr. Rae, the Indian agent at Battleford, that the country was in a state of rebellion. In the immediate vicinity of Fort Pitt all was quiet, but the Inspector was anxious about the whites at Frog Lake, which was the centre of a large Indian population, and where there was a detachment of police under Corporal Sleigh. Dickens


Inspector W. S. Morris.

communicated with the sub-Indian agent, Mr. Quinn, and offered to either reinforce him or escort him in to Pitt. Mr. Quinn was however confident that he could keep the Indians quiet if the police detachment was withdrawn, as he feared their presence exasperated the Indians. At Mr. Rae's special request Corporal Sleigh and his detachment returned to Fort Pitt, and April 2nd, the Frog Lake massacre occurred. Immediately steps were taken to put the little fort, which was situated in an absolutely indefensible position, in some sort of a defensive state. The windows and doors of the dwelling houses and storehouses were barricaded with flour bags, and loop-holes were cut in the walls.

All the men worked hard and most cheerfully. By the capture of the Hudson Bay waggons at Frog Lake there was no means of transport available, and consequently a withdrawal was out of the question, although it seemed the most sensible thing to do, if the women and children of the Hudson Bay Company's officials' households could be got safely away. In anticipation of the breaking up of the ice, the Hudson Bay Company's carpenters began to construct a scow to take the women and children down to Battleford. Little Pine, one of the chiefs in revolt, and his band arrived on the other side of the river on the 7th, and was ordered not to cross or he would be fired upon. After a few days, Big Bear and a large number of Indians appeared behind the post with several white prisoners. A flag of truce was sent down to the fort by Big Bear demanding the surrender of the arms and ammunition. Mr. Maclean, the Hudson Bay agent, held several parleys with Big Bear, and was eventually taken prisoner.

Shortly afterwards Constables Cowan and Loasby and Special Constable H. Quinn, who had been out scouting, came back and rode right on to the scouts thrown out round the Indian camp, who fired. Constable Loasby's horse was shot under him; constable Cowan was killed. Loasby ran down the hill pursued by a party of Indians, who fired at and wounded him. He ran some 500 yards, badly wounded in the back. The men at the windows nearest to the Indians opened fire. Four Indians dropped as if killed, and two or three others were evidently hit. The Indians retired into the brush, and Loasby was helped into the fort.

At Mr. Maclean's own advice and special instructions, his family and all the Hudson Bay Company's servants and other civilians in the fort, joined him in Big Bear's Camp, where they remained as prisoners until the breaking up of the band.

Dickens found himself after this in an awkward position. He and his detachment had been despatched to Fort Pitt to afford protection to those who had voluntarily surrendered themselves as prisoners in the hostiles' camp. There was consequently no object to remain in a very indefensible position, to be made the object of attack by an overwhelming force of hostiles. The force in hand was too small to do anything of itself, but joined to that at Battleford, might help to make that post secure. The ice in the river was breaking up, the scow constructed by the Hudson Bay men for a different service was nearly complete, and could carry the detachment, if sound, and Dickens decided to avail himself of the road of retreat which appeared to lay open to him.

Some arms, which could not be taken away were destroyed, ammunition and some supplies were collected, and the scow was put in the water. She at once filled, and appeared to be useless. Constable R. Rutledge, however, said he was sure she would carry the detachment across the riser, and volunteered to pilot her across among the cakes of floating ice. The position was so critical that it was deemed wise at all risks to place the river between the detachment and the main band of Indians, and at night, during a heavy snow storm, the attempt was made and with success, thanks to skilful management and hard baling. Owing to the unsafe condition of the scow it was decided to encamp about a mile down the river on the opposite bank. The river was so hill of ice that the Indians could not have followed had they wanted to. The night was bitterly cold, the blankets were wet through, and some had been lost in crossing. At dawn the detachment once more took their places in the scow and the voyage was resumed, Rattleford being safely reached on the 21st,

Fort Saskatchewan during the rebellion was commanded by Inspector A. H. Griesbach, and there is no doubt that his good and useful work, and the bold front shown by him and his detachment of nineteen, all told, prevented a general rising of the Indians and half-breeds in the immediate neighbourhood.

Immediately, news of the uprising was received, Griesbach took steps to put Fort Saskatchewan in a state of defence, having four bastions built and a well dug. Ho collected all the available men to work on the defences and assist in defending the post if necessary. He also made arrangements to obtain provisions to sustain a large number of people, purchased ammunition, and had cartridges prepared for the various kinds of arms in possession of the settlers. As the raws brought in by scouts and others became more alarming, the settlers and their families, from long distances, fled to the fort and received protection and food. April 12, there were gathered in the fort, seventy-nme women and children, and about 30 men armed with guns of various descriptions.

After making the preliminary arrangements at Fort Saskatchewan, Griesbach proceeded to Edmonton, where he found the citizens, naturally* much excited. He accepted the services of a company of volunteers, and on his own responsibility armed them with 85 Enfield rifles loaned by the officer in charge of the Hudson Ray Post, and quartered them in the Hudson Bay fort. The officer placed i command of the volunteer company was ordered to repair and rebuild part of the stockade of the fort, to collect al) of the ammunition of all description in the stores, giving receipts for it, and to place the same under guard in the magazine. There were in the fort two brass 4-pr. guns. Griesbach had these remounted on strong trucks, and cartridges made; also case-shot, which he improvised by having tin cases made to fit the bore, and then filled them with about ninety trade balls. These, on trying, he found to work very well. Having despatched a courrier to Calgary asking for troops and arms to be sent forward as soon as possible, Griesbach returned to Fort Saskatchewan.

Having done all in his power for the defence of Fort Saskatchewan and Edmonton, the Inspector scoured the country for many miles around with scouts and patrols, succeeding in keeping everything quiet until the arrival of the militia under General Strange.

Three detachments of the Mounted Police, namely, those commanded by Superintendents W. H. Herchmer and Neale, Inspector S. R. Steele and Inspector A. Row en Perry, actively participated with the militia columns in the operations of the campaign, and in every case acquitted themselves with distinction.

Superintendent Herchmer, was, before the outbreak, in command of "E" Division at Calgary— March 24, in response to a telegraphic order he left for Regina with 30 non-commissioned officers and men, twenty-four horses, and four waggons, on his way down his command being joined by four constables and one horse of "A" Division, and two constables of "D" division On arrival at Regina he received orders to proceed with Superintendent Neale, seven men of '"B" Division and one 7-pr. gun, to Fort Qu'Appelle. Arriving at Qu'Appelle Station he was directed by His Honour Lieut.-Governor Dewdney to return to Regina, pending the arrival of Major General Middleton. March 27th, Supt. Herchmer returned to Qu'Appelle with the l.ieut.-Governor, to meet the General, who ordered him to join him with all available men and two 7-pr. guns at Fort Qu'Appelle. March 20, Supt. Herchmer received new orders to proceed at once to Rattleford via Swift Current, and arrived by rail at the last-mentioned place at 10 pin. on the 30th. The River Saskatchewan, just north of Swift Current was, however, impassible, the ice having gone from the sides, but a high ridge remaining in the middle. At this time the steamer "Northcotte" was being prepared at Medicine Hat to convey troops to the north, and a party of Crees in the vicinity threatening the safety of the vessel, Mipi, Herchmer's command was ordered to Medicine Hat, where ii arrived on March 1st, camping near the steamer. I lie Indians speedily decamped. The police detachment proved very useful in getting the steamer into the water, all the teams, and 35 men being employed. A lot of armed Indians having arrived at Swift Current, Supt. Heichmer and his force were ordered back there, arriving at 5.40 a.m. on April 5th. The trail between the station and the river was kept patrolled and a party established at the river to protect the ferry.

May 12, Lieut.-Col. W. D. Otter, at the time D.O.C. at Toronto, and just appointed to the command of a light column detailed for the relief of Battleford, arrived at Swift Current and informed Superintendent Herchmer that he and his command were to join the column, and that as it was General Middleton's wish


Superintendent P. R. Neale.

that he should be consulted on all points, he would be appointed Chief of Staff. This was done, the command of the police detachment being handed over to Superintendent Neale, who at 1 p.m. the same day received orders to move to the South Saskatchewan and remain there, patrolling both sides of the river until the arrival of the troops. The column arrived at the river on the 14th, crossed on the 16th, and took up the trail for Battleford on the 18th, a point three miles south of that place being reached by the main force on the 23rd. Some scouts under Constable Charles Ross advanced as far as'the houses on the south side of the Battle River, exchanging shots with some hostiles. Superintendent Herchmer obtained permission to go on with Superintendent Neale and thirty of the police. On the 24th, the force encamped in front of the old Government House, remaining there until the 29th, the police and scouts attached thereto patrolling the country in every direction. April 27, Supt. Herchmer reinforced his command by thirty-one non-commissioned officers and men and twenty horses from "D" division in garrison at Battleford, the object being to obtain a troop of fifty mounted men. Thirteen horses were purchased in Battleford.

Upon the occasion of the movement to Pound-maker's Reserve and action at Cut Knife Hill (May 2), the flying column included 75 of the Mounted Police, as follows: — "E" division, Superintendent P. R. Neale, Sergeant-Major Watt-man, 28 non-commissioned officers and men; "A" division, 5 noncommissioned officers and men; "B" division, 7 constables; "I)" division, 31 non-commissioned officers and men. Superintendent Herchmer, as Chief of Staff was second in command of the whole column. Under orders from Lieut.-Col. Otter, "B" Battery took two of the police 7-pounders in preference to their own nine-pounders. As throughout the march to Battleford, the police acted as the advance guard, and worked so admirably that they were universally praised. As the advanced guard, the police were the first to draw the fire of the Indians, and for a time they had to sustain it unsupported, for their supports had to advance across a rough creek and scramble up a steep hill to reach them. The first force from the rear to reach the advanced firing line was the dismounted party of police, who went forward at the double. It is unnecessary here to enter into a description of this much-described fight. Superintendent Herchmer in his report wrote:—" Throughout the action, which lasted seven hours, our men behaved admirably. The sense of duty shown by them in always keeping themselves so wrell to the front, and occupying the most forward positions, explains our loss." He specially mentioned as deserving of recognition for their bravery and dash, Sergeant-Major T. Wattam, Sergeant J. II. Ward, who was wounded early in the engagement, Sergeant G. Macleod, Sergeant I. Richards, Corporal S. M. Rlake, Constable W. H. Iioutledge, Constable Taylor, Constable T. McLeod of "E" division; Constable 1. C. Harstone of "A" division; Constable E. Rally, Constable W. Gilpin of "B" division; Constables C. Ross, W. C. Swinton, H. Storer, R. Rutledge, C. Phillips, M. I. Spencer and G. Harper of "D" division.

Early in the engagement Corporal R. B. Sleigh of "D" Division was shot through the mouth and killed, being the first man to fall. Shortly afterwards Corporal W. H. P. Lowry of "E" division was mortally wounded, and also Trumpeter P. Burke of "D" division. The two latter died the day after the action. Sergeant J. H. "Ward of "M division, was also seriously wounded. but recovered.

From the date of the action until the arrival of General Middleton's force at Battleford, twenty to thirty of the police were constantly patrolling the country. May 14th, a patrol commanded by Sergeant Gordon was suddenly attacked by a party of Half-Breeds and Indians when about seven miles from Battleford and constable F. 0. Elliot of "A" division was killed and constable W. J. Spencer of "D" division wounded.

May 26th, the Comptroller having requested that Superintendent Neale be returned to Regina as soon as possible, that otficer, who had rendered conspicuous service all through the campaign, left Battleford for headquarters, carrying despatches. On the 30th, Supt. Herehmer with 50 mounted men of the Police left Rattleford for Fort Pitt. He also had under his command Boulton's Horse and the Intelligence Corps, a squadron of scouts recruited from among the Dominion Land Surveyors and their assistants commanded by Captain Jack Dennis, formerly a member of the Mounted Police. From Fort Pitt this force served with General Middleton throughout the hunt after Big Bear including the advances to Loon Lake and the Beaver River. These marches were particularly trying to men and horses, as there were no changes of clothing, no tents and no provisions but such as could be carried on the saddles. But there were no complaints. June 28, Superintendent Herchmer received orders to return to Battleford and reached there on the 1st. On the 4th he started for Swift Current, having a number of prisoners from Battleford in charge, who were safely delivered at Regina on the 10th.

The following extracts from Lieut.-Colonel Otter's report of his column's services are apropos:—

"In Lieut.-Col. Herchmer, N.W.M. Police, I had a most valuable assistant, and not only in the action of Saturday (Cut Knife) but throughout our march from Swift Current to Battleford, he displayed the most sterling qualities of a soldier; while the men of his command have time and again proved themselves as invaluable to my force."

"Sergeant-Major Wattam, N.W.M Police, was another whose brilliant example and dogged courage (at Cut Knife) gave confidence and steadiness to those within the sound of his voice. Constable Ross, N.W. M. Police, our chief scout, was always ready to load a dash or take his place in the skirmish line, m fact, he seemed everywhere and at the proper time."

"I also wish to bring to your notice the efficient services rendered by the mounted detachment of the N.W.M. Police under Captain Neale."

The commands of Inspector Steele and Inspector Perry did their service in connection with the Alberta Field Force under the command of Major-General T. Bland Strange of the Royal Artillery, who commanded "B" Battery, R.C.A., at the time "A" Battery was commanded by Lieut.-Col. French, first Commissioner of the Mounted Police. Major-General Strange, at the time of the uprising was ranching south of Calgary and was entrusted first with the organization of a local force for the protection of that district, after it was denuded of police for service in the north, and later with the organization and command of an independent column to operate against the insurgent tribes of Indians in the western sections of the North Saskatchewan district. Calgary was selected as his base, and there his force was organized.

Inspector Steele was on duty with his command in connection with the railway construction in the Rocky Mountains, when on April 10, he left for Calgary under orders from the Lieutenant-Governor. On the 13th, Strange obtained permission for Inspector Steele with his command of 25 police who had been on duty in the mountains to accompany him and placed all of his original mounted force, consisting of a troop of scouts, raised by Steele himself, and 60 of the Alberta Mounted Rifles under Major George Hatton, besides the police, under his command. The organization of the provisional mounted corps was a difficult matter. Strange was surprised to find that not only were the settlers in the District absolutely without arms, but that the cow-boys and ranchmen, a class usually well armed, had, though surrounded by reserves of well-armed Indians, relied on the protection of the police and were without arms, certainly an eloquent testimonial to the efficiency of the force.

The supply of arms, ammunition and saddlery was a great difficulty and cause of delay. The demands on the Militia Department from many quarters simultaneously were, no doubt, difficult to meet ; Winchesters required for cavalry were not, in stock, and could not at first be secured. On the 10th April, Strange received a telegram from the C.P.R, Agent at Gleichen that I lie employees were leaving their posts, and refused to remain unless protected by troops. The men on the C.P.R. construction in the mountains had also struck work, and Major Steele and his detachment were detained to protect C.P.R. stores. The same day a detachment of as many of the Alberta Mounted Hides as could be armed and equipped were sent to guard the railway and watch the Blackfoot Reserve at Gleichen.

Steele and his men were actively employed with Strang's column throughout the long campaign, participating in the battle of Frenchman's Butte. and alone, in the northern wilderness, fought at Loon Lake the last and most dashing action of the whole campaign. About Fort Pitt, Steele and his men had several skirmishes with Big Bear's band, and at Frenchman's Butte led the attack and attempted a wide turning movement. Constable McRae was seriously wounded at Frenchman's Butte and Sergeant Fury at Loon Lake. In his report at the end of the campaign, Inspector Steele specially mentioned Sergeant Fury, Constable McDonnell, Constable McRae, Constable Davidson, Constable Bell, Constable McMinn, and Constable P. Kerr. All but the last-mentioned constables performed the duties of non-commissioned officers to the scouts. Steele added:—have no hesitation in saying they are collectively the best body of men I have ever had anything to do with."

Shortly after receiving the telegraphic order from Major-General Middleton to assume command of the Alberta District, General Strange communicated with Superintendent Cotton, N.W.M.P., commanding at Fort Macleod, and Captain Stewart (who acted energetically in raising ranch cavalry) to patrol to Medicine Hat and the frontier.

Captain Cotton placed Fort Macleod in a state of defence as a refuge for families from the neighbourhood, stationed couriers between Macleod and Calgary, and assisted General Strange by every means in his power, sending at his request, a nine-pounder field gun with a picked detachment of N.W.M.P. under Inspector Perry to join the column. Just at this time Strange was preparing, by Major-General Middleton's orders, to march on Edmonton, where the settlers had flocked, abandoning farms in the neighbourhood as far as Victoria and Beaver Lake. From these districts Strange was receiving messages imploring assistance, the Indians having risen, destroying farms, and plundering all food supplies from the Red Deer, Rattle River, Peace Hills, Beaver Lake, Saddle Lake and Fog Lake, where they had committed atrocious murders.

It was urgent that the advance should not be delayed, and Strange was on his way from Calgary to Edmonton when Inspector Perry arrived at the former place.

Inspector A-. Bowen Perry (now Commissioner of the force) had been on duty with "C" Division at Fort Macleod, and received his orders on the morning of April 19. His detachment consisted of 20 noncommissioned officers and constables, 3 civil teamsters, a 9-pounder M.L.R. gun, and 43 horses. Baggage and camp equipment were limited to 75 pounds per man. The detachment marched, April 18, and reached

Calgary on the 21st, the distance of 105 miles being covered in three and a half days. Written orders awaiting Inspector Perry, directed him to assume command of an independent column under orders to follow the General in a few days. This column was to include besides the detachment of "C" Division, one wing of the 65th Mount. Royal Rifles of Montreal, 150 officers and men, and a transport train of 68 men and 175 horses. By general orders of the Alberta Field Force issued by General Strange, Inspector Perry had been created a Major in the Active Militia. The column left Calgary on the 23rd, the Red Deer River,


Superintendent F. Norman.

103 miles distant, being reached on the 28th. Severe storms of snow and rain had delayed the march. The Red Deer River, which General Strange's column had forded twenty-four hours before with ease, w7as impassable, the heavy rains having caused it to rise rapidly. It was, when Perry's column reached it, a surging stream 250 yards wide, with a current of five and a half miles an hour. The only means of crossing was a small skiff carrying about six persons. A ferry scow which was in use the previous year had been carried away and broken up by the ice. Perry determined to effect the crossing by a swinging raft.

In his report, it will be noticed, Inspector Perry modestly abstained from explaining that he and Constable Diamond succeeded in landing the rope which finally checked the headlong course of the runaway raft at the risk of their lives. Vet such is t he case.

The construction of the ferry-boat was proceeded with as soon as the timber could he procured, work-was prosecuted night and day, and twenty-four hours after it was begun, a trial trip was made. I11 the meantime, the regular ferry cable, which had been lying along the north shore, was stretched across the stream and anchored. The construction of this ferrv was of the utmost importance, as t completed the line of communication between Calgary and Kdinonton, and obviated any delay to the column following. After crossing the Bed Deer, Inspector Perry's column made a rapid march to Edmonton, covering the distance of 105 miles 111 three days and a half. Ihe police with this column had all the scout-*ng and courier duties to perform as well as the pro vision of night guards to the herd of transport horses. When Inspector Pern handed over Ins column at

Edmonton he was highly complimented on the conduct of his march.

At Edmonton, Strange reorganized his force for the advance down the North Saskatchewan. Major Perry's detachment of North-West Mounted Police was posted to take up the duty of horse artillery with their nine-pounder, the mounted men forming the cavalry escort. Six men from the Winnipeg Light Infantry, a provisional battalion raised in Winnipeg by Lieutenant-Colonel \V. Osborne Smith, were attached as part of the gun detachment, and their training was proceeded with during the halt at Edmonton. At the same time the gun ammunition.


Inspector W. D. Anlrobus.

which was some of that brought up with the expedition of 1874, was tested and found to be in excellent condition. O11 leading Edmonton, part of Strange's force advanced on a flotilla of scows and barges, steered, and to some extent propelled, by sweeps, and part marched overland. Inspector Perry's command was broken up—Sergeant Irwin and eleven men in charge of the troop and headquarters' staff horses, proceeded by trail, the remainder of the detachment, with the gun. bring placed on a scow. At Fort Saskatchewan an old ferry scow was obtained, on which the gun horses were placed. When twenty miles from Victoria this scow sank owing to leaks, and the horses, which were saved, were ridden in to Victoria. From this point the whole detachment proceeded by land to Fort Pitt, part of the infantry, and some stores, only, proceeding by river. Between this point and Fort Pitt there was considerable forced marching, the distance from Frog Lake to Fort Pitt, thirty-five miles, being made in one day.

Tuesday, May 26th, General Strange, whose advanced column had reached Fort Pitt, determined to discover the whereabouts of Big Bear by reconnaissance in force. Inspector Steele and his mounted men were despatched to search the north side of the river, Inspector Perry being detailed for similar duty on the south side. His instructions were to travel directly south as far as Battle River, then to circle round to the east and return to Fort Pitt. If he found it possible, he was also to establish communication with Battleford; but it was considered as very unlikely that he would be able to do this, as it was supposed that Poundmaker and Big Bear were then actually effecting or had already formed a junction of their forces in the district between Fort Pitt and Battleford. It must be remembered, that Strange's force had penetrated so far into the wilderness that they had for days been without information from either the Battleford or General Middleton's columns. Perry, with seventeen of his own men, five scouts, and the Rev. W. P. McKenzie, acting chaplain, crossed the river at dark on barges. Nothing was carried on the horses except four day's light rations, 100 rounds of Winchester ammunition, and greatcoats. A heavy rain fell the whole night, but no halt was made until near daylight, Battle River was reached about noon without any trace of the enemy being seen, and after that an eastward course was struck. Only short halts were made that day and the following night, and the little force advanced with great caution as Perry expected at any moment to fall in with the enemy. After a trying and severe night's ride, a point twenty miles from Battleford was reached Thursday at daybreak, and here a halt was made to rest the horses. Shortly afterwards an Indian appeared who proved to be the bearer of a message from General Middleton to Big Bear, informing him that both Riel and Poundmaker had surrendered. Inspector Perry at once proceeded to Battleford and reported his arrival and the result of his reconnaissance to General Middleton. The ride from Fort Pitt to Battleford, a distance of 130 miles, was accomplished in thirty-six hours, and without a single horse giving out.

On Inspector Perry's representations, supplies for General Strange's column were forwarded t he next day by steamer "Northwest," the Inspector and his command embarking on the vessel to return to Fort Pitt. When about fifty miles from the last named place, a couple of scouts were met, in a canoe, with information of Strange's action at Frenchman's Butte, May 28th. It being determined that the steamer should return to Battleford for re-inforcements and ammunition, (the latter specially required by Strange) Perry at once landed his force on the south bank to proceed to Fort Pitt by land. This was at 4.30 in the afternoon, and at 5 the next morning Fort Pitt was reached. This ride was a trying one, the men and horses being thoroughly fatigued from the heavy ride from Fort Pitt to Battleford. A heavy cold rain fell all the night, and the little force had to pass a swampy lake, over 200 yards wide, through which the men had to wade waist deep, leading their horses.

After a halt of several hours at Fort Pitt, Inspector Perry marched on and joined General Strange at his camp six miles down the river. The Inspector was thanked by the General for the success of his reconnaissance, and was delighted to hear that the 9-pounder had been of the greatest service at the engagement of the 28th, the gun detachment under Sergeant O'Connor having behaved splendidly.

Monday, June 3rd, Strange's force moved forward to Frenchman's Butte, and thence advanced northward to the Beaver River. Steele and his men having gone north via the Loon Lake trail, the duties of advance guard and scouting fell upon Inspector Perry's command. The march from Frenchman's Butte to Beaver River, 80 miles, took three days and a half, quick travelling considering the difficult nature of the trail, which led over miles of morass, in which the gun frequently sank to the axles and was only extricated by the united exertions of horses and men. In one case the gun had to be unlimbered and dismounted, and the gun, waggon and ammunition hauled over in parts, in waggons. The return march from Beaver River to Fort Pitt via Saskatchewan Landing, a distance of ninety-two miles, occupied only three days.

June 20, the detachment received orders to return to Fort Macleod, and was struck off the strength of the Alberta Field Force, which was about to be broken up. The divisional orders, dated Fort Pitt, June 28, 1885, contained the following flattering reference to Major Perry and his command:—

The detachment of North-West Mounted Police, under the command of Major Perry, with the 9-pounder gun, will join Colonel Herchmer's force tomorrow morning and proceed by route march to Battleford.

"Major-General Strange, in relinquishing the command of the detachment of 'G' Division. North-West Mounted Police, under command of Major Perrv. has to thank them for their valuable services and invariably excellent conduct. He has never commanded better soldiers. Their double duties as horse artillery, and when required, scout cavalry, have been performed to his entire satisfaction. In bringing a 9-pounder gun from Fort Macleod to Beaver River, through most difficult country, including the passage of the Red Deer River, the march of some 800 miles, with every horse and man in his place, reflects great credit, not only on Major Perry, but on every noncommissioned officer and man. That gun was mainly instrumental n demoralizing the band of Rig Rear on 28th May, at Frenchman's Butte. The opening of communication from Fort Pitt to Battleford by this small detachment entailed hardships cheerfully endured.

"Major-General Strange especially recognized the conducted inarch of the left wing of the 60th Regiment under Major Perry's command, which he has brought to the notice of the Comptroller of Police: as also the names of Sergeant-Major Irwin, Staff-Sergeant Horner, and Sergeant O'Connor.

"Major-General Strange wishes his thanks to be conveyed to Major Cotton. N.W.M.P., for the selection he made of an officer and men of whom he may feel proud. In parting with this detachment of North-West Mounted Police, he wishes them every success and happiness."

The total distance marched from Fort Macleod to Edmonton, Fort Pitt to Battleford, from landing place on the Saskatchewan back to Fort Pitt, to Beaver River and back to Fort Macleod was 1,308 miles. The distance marched, until dismissed from the Alberta Field Force, June 28, was 028 miles in 38 marching days, an average per day of 24 miles. And this does not take into consideration the constant duties of guards, picquets, patrols, etc.

Distinguished and important as were the services rendered to the country by the various bodies of the Mounted Police which came into actual contact with the hostile Indians and half-breeds during the rebellion, they were probably really less useful than the services of the divisions which remained at their ordinary headquarters and which, by their brave front and constant alertness, saved the country from the appalling tragedy of a general Indian uprising, from one end of the country to the other, the Indians were restless during the rebellion, and runners from the hostiles were constantly striving to induce the more loyal tribes to take the warpath. At all the posts unusual precautions were taken.

At Fort Macleod, for instance, early in the rebellion, finding that all sorts of exciting stones were constantly in circulation, Superintendent Cottoil established a line of couriers with Calgary, for there was no telegraphic communication at the time, and only a weekly mail. This line of couriers kept the population aware of the actual course of events and of the untruthfulness of exaggerated reports put into circulation. Superintendent Cotton held numerous interviews with the Blood and Piegan Indians, and kept the country in the vicinity well pat rolled. One company of militia, and later two (of the 9th Battalion) were sent to Macleod as an auxiliary garrison, and placed under Superintendent Cotton's orders,


Superintendent R. B. Peane

as was also a mounted corps raised at Macleod by Major John Stewart, Special provision was made to furnish protection to working parties of telegraph and railway construction lines. Upon one occasion, shots were exchanged between Stewart's scouts and some Indians, supposed to be Assiniboine or Gros Ventres war parties from United States territory, at a point thirty miles west of Medicine Hat, As a result, Superintendent Cotton made a prompt reconnaissance in force, but although there was a great deal of night signalling by the Indians. No Indian raids were made. The management of the railways thanked Superintendent, Cotton for the protection afforded their parties during these critical months, and at the annual meeting of the South Western Stock Association, held at Fort Macleod, April 29, 1885, the following resolution was unanimously passed:—"That this association desires to express their high appreciation of the efficient manner in which Major Cotton and his command have performed their duty in helping the cattle ranches, and the prompt steps taken during the present troubles to keep the Indians quiet, meet our fullest confidence and approval."

The departure of Lieut.-Col. Irvine from Regina for Prince Albert with his detachment left the post at headquarters denuded of all but a small staff of non-commissioned officers and a few necessarily employed and sick men. Superintendent R. Burton Deane, Adjutant, who previous to joining the force had served in the Royal Marines, was left in command. In consequence of information from the north that arms and ammunition were expected by the half-breeds from the railway, that officer issued orders to seize and hold all such articles consigned to traders in the south, 1,435 pounds of arms and ammunition being thus seized. The demand for men became so great that Superintendent Deane sought and obtained leave from Ottawa to engage special constables, but practically none could be got, Early in April, he secured the services of five Sioux Indians to act as scouts and who proved useful in giving information as to the movements of the half-breed runners, who were constantly on the move between the different Indian camps, inciting their occupants to join the rebels. About the middle of the month, with the assistance of Mr. Legarrie of Wood Mountain, an irregular corps of half-breeds was formed at Wood Mountain to patrol the international frontier, Inspector Macdonell, with four men, being sent from Medicine Hat to command and organize the corps. April 21st, nineteen recruits, and eighty-two horses arrived at Regina from the East. On May 3rd, 130 more recruits arrived and were accommodated in tents, and on May 18, 31 more recruits arrived. It may be supposed that the energies of the small staff of non-commissioned officers at Superintendent Deane's disposal were taxed to the utmost, but they were equal to the occasion, and particularly Sergeant Major Belcher, and Quartermaster Sergeant Simpson, performed valuable service at this time. The recruits themselves subsequently furnished a number of valuable non-commissioned officers. May 13, Superintendent Deane was able to detach 15 men to Maple Creek, and on the 16th, 20 mounted men to Inspector Macdonell at Wood Mountain. July 8th, a noncommissioned officer and 15 additional men with 16 horses were sent to Inspector Macdonell. May 9th, at Pie-a-pot's request, Superintendent Deane held a powwow with that chief, who reported he was having trouble with some of his young braves as a result of exaggerated stories from the scene of rebellion in' the north. Inspector Macdonell assured him that he and his tribe would be safe from molestation so long as they remained on their reserve.

May 23rd, Louis Riel arrived a prisoner at Regina, and so many other half-breed and Indian prisoners followed, that several additions had to be made to the prison accommodation at headquarters. Until the conclusion of the numerous trials and executions for high treason and murder which were among the sad results of the rebellion, the duties at Regina were very heavy.

Chief Pie-a-Pot was in the old warring days one of the most renowned warriors of the Southern Crees. As a matter of faet he was a member of the Sioux tribe, the hereditary enemies of the Southern Crees. As an infant he became very expert with the bow and arrow, so the story goes, being able to sever the prairie flowers from their stems with his arrows, with unerring accuracy. Owing to his abnormal skill and precocity, his proud mother was enabled to induce the Sioux chiefs to allow the lad, at the tender age of twelve, to accompany one of their big war parties on a foray into British territory. Meeting disaster at the hands of the Crees, the Sioux retreated, and the lad was taken prisoner and adopted, his prowess securing for him in time the chieftainship of the tribe.


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