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The 48th Highlanders of Toronto
Chapter 3 - Drill and Discipline

The spring drill of 1893 was uneventful. The regiment upheld its good name for efficiency. the ranks were well recruited by a desirable class of young men, and the standard aimed at was placed at a high mark. The record gives evidence of constant drilling and of steady progress.

On the 7th of April Captain Macdonald resigned the position of Adjutant, reverting to the retired list of Captains, to the great regret of the officers and men, who appreciated his abilities and his complete devotion to duty. Major Macdonald filled his position temporarily.

On the 24th of May (Queen's Birthday) a return visit was made to Hamilton, the Thirteenth Battalion having visited the Forty-Eighth at Toronto on the occasion of the presentation of colours on the Queen's Birthday of the previous year. The regiment entrained at 8 a.m. and reached Hamilton early in the forenoon, under command of Lieut.-Colonel Davidson, with a full complement of officers. The day was an ideal one for the outing, and on the arrival of the Highlanders at 10.40 a.m. thousands of citizens were at the railway Station to give them a "Highland" welcome. The Thirteenth Battalion escorted the visitors to the Drill Hall, where, after a brief rest, preparation for a Street parade to Dundurn Park began. The parade started about half-past eleven and reached the park after less than half-an-hour's march. The "feu-de-joie" was fired, and luncheon was then served to the men on the grounds. The Thirteenth and Forty-Eighth formed a brigade under Lieut.-Colonel Gibson, and marched past the saluting point amid the cheers of the assembled crowd. The trooping of the colours followed also physical drill and bayonet exercise. When the military part of the proceedings were over, some members of the Forty-Eighth gave exhibitions of the Highland dances, which aroused the enthusiasm of the spectators to a high pitch. The citizens entered heartily into the spirit of the occasion. and entertained officers and men and other visitors most hospitably. Among those noticeable upon the grounds enjoying the sights was the venerable Sheriff Archibald MacKellar, the veteran Highlander, dressed in tartan trews and vest and wearing a cockaded Glengarry bonnet. Officers and members of the Gaelic Society of Hamilton, and other Scottish societies of the city, also acted as hosts, keeping open house for the day. A band concert and fireworks were held in the evening, after which, at 11 o'clock, the regiment paraded to the railway depot  for their home journey.

In the Regimental Orders of the 26th May, 1893, the Commanding Officer  thus acknowledges the good work of the Regiment during this season:

"The Officer Commanding the Regiment desires to express to the officers, non commissioned officers and men of the Battalion his appreciation of their strict attention to duty, regularity in attendance at parade, and of the general interest manifested by all ranks in the welfare of the Regiment during the past season s drill, and furthermore, wishes to acknowledge the general good conduct and esprit de corps of the Battalion during the trip to Hamilton on the Queen s Birthday."

At the annual meeting of the officers this year the thanks of the Regiment were placed on record to Mrs. Henry Keble Merritt and the ladies of Toronto for presenting the colours to the Regiment. Thanks were also tendered to D. Ritchie & Co., for the "Old Chum Tobacco" shooting trophy presented to the Regiment. These were the standing committees for the year: Regimental, Captain Robertson, chairman, Captains MacGillivray and Michie. Rifle Committee, Major Macdonald, chairman, Major Wilbur Henderson, and Lieutenant). F. Ramsay. Band Committee, Major Cosby, chairman, Captains Cassels and Currie. Mess Committee, Captain Hendrie, chairman, Lieutenant D. H. McLean and Asst. -Surgeon Dame.

At a meeting held on the 20th June it was agreed to hold Scotch games, under the auspices of the Regiment, on the 19th August following, the general management of which would be undertaken by Chief Mackinnon, Hamilton. The event passed off successfully. The conditions were favourable and the crowd of spectators was very large. From a distance there came: Major R. R. MacLennan, M.P., Cornwall; Captain A. F. Milliken, Cornwall; G. M. Rose, Berlin; Kenneth Robertson, Montreal; Lieut.-Colonel Campbell, Milton; Kenneth Chisholm, ex-M.P., Brampton; J. Murchison, Lucknow; Lieutenant Weir, 37th Batt., Haldimand; Lieutenant Duncan, Hamilton Field Battery; Mr. William Hendrie, sr., Hamilton; Mr. A. G. Graham, Chicago; Mr. J. Ball Dow, Whitby; J. Cameron, Woodbridge; Wm. Campbell and A. Torrance, Markham; Captain Tidswell, 13th Batt., Hamilton; A. D. Braithwaite, Hamilton; Dr. Jackson, New York; Chief Garlow, Burlington; Sergt.-Major Williams, 36th Batt., Staff-Sergt. Mills, 13th Batt., Ian Mackenzie, Hamilton. Among the Toronto citizens were: Lieut.-Governor and Mrs. Kirkpatrick, Lieut -Colonel and Mrs. Davidson, Lieut.-Colonel and Mrs. Hamilton, Major and Mrs. Cosby, Major and Mrs. W. Campbell Macdonald, Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Wyld, Mr. and Mrs. W. S. Lee, Miss Lee, Mrs. and Miss Beatty, Mrs. R. Myles, Mrs. and the Misses Taylor, Captain J. C. MacDougall, Captain Kirkpatrick, Surgeon Fred W. Strange, Hon. Mr. Justice Ferguson, Lieut. Colonel and Mrs. G. T. Denison, Mr. and Mrs. MacLean Howard, and Mr. and Mrs. MacLean, of Pennycross, Mull, Scotland, who were visiting Canada at the time.

During the afternoon the brass band of the Regiment under Bandmaster Griffin furnished a programme of music.

The programme of games was excellently composed. The numbers included athletic events, and contests for bag-pipe music, dancing, military events, and tug-of-war, and was divided into two parts, the first part being for professionals and the second part for amateurs. The professionals included some of the best athletes on the continent, and their performance was of a high order. The tug-of-war was between a team of the Royal Grenadiers and the Highlanders (who pulled in kilts), and, after an exciting contest, the Highlanders won.

In the evening the Gaelic Society of Toronto evinced its interest in the days proceedings by entertaining a large number of the visitors to a Highland entertainment in Victoria Hall, where songs, dances, and music were indulged in, and on adjournment a number of the judges and prize winners of the day was entertained to supper at Webb's restaurant. Mr. John Cattanach MacMillan, president of the society, occupied the chair, and Mr. Alexander Fraser, 1st vice-president, acted as croupier. A patriotic and appropriate toast list was honoured in true Highland style.

In the regimental orders of the 13th September, 1893, Captain Dugald MacGillivray is appointed to be Acting Adjutant, Captain Duncan Donald taking over the command of "B" Company, and on the 22nd of the same month authority is given for the wearing of white shell jackets by sergeants.

On the 6th of October the strength of the various bands was: Brass Band, Bandmaster Griffin and 32 bandsmen; Bugle Band, Bugle-Major Robertson and 22 buglers; Pipe Band, Pipe-Major Robert Ireland and 11 pipers.

The battalion cross guns and crown, for the five highest scores in rifle practice during the season, were won by Staff Sergeant Wm. Harp by a score of 320 points. On the 13th of October Captain MacGillivray was gazetted Adjutant of the regiment, and Captain Donald was confirmed in command of "B" Company.

On Thursday, the 23rd of November, the Thanksgiving Day manoeuvres took place, and the Forty-Eighth was brigaded with the Thirteenth and the Royal Grenadiers, forming the attacking force in the sham fight at Lambton Mills.

Based on the percentage of drills performed during 1893 and average attendances, the order of merit of the several companies was as follows:

At the annual meeting for 1894, held on the 19th of January, the review of the work for the previous year was most gratifying. Substantial progress had been made in every department of the regiment and the prospects were bright. The following standing committee were elected for 1894. Regimental Committee, Captains Robertson and Macgillivray and Lieutenant Orchard; Band Committee, Major Cosby and Captains Michie and Hunter; Rifle Committee, Major Macdonald, Capt. and Bt.- Major Henderson, and Lieutenant Ramsay; Mess Committee, Captain Hendrie, Dr. Dame and Lieutenant Mitchell.

Spring drill was taken up on March 30th, but hard work had been done with recruits long before that date, in consequence of which the regiment made a good showing from the first parade. The strength of the battalion was found to be in creased, and the regiment settled down to the routine of drill, determined to do well on inspection day. White shell jackets were worn for the first time on the 20th of April, 1894, by the company sergeants, the bugle sergeant and pioneer sergeant, in drill order. On the 2;th of April, Lieutenant Orchard assumed command of "E" company, vice Captain Cassels retired.

A call having been made upon the Toronto regiments for assistance to the "Volunteer Monument Fund," for defraying the cost of the monument erected in Queen s Park to the memory of the volunteers who fell in the North-West rebellion the Forty-Eighth donated the collection made at Divine Service on the 3rd of May, for that purpose.

The regiment was by this time so well-established that Scotchmen and the people generally in outlying towns were very desirous to have a visit from it on the Queen's Birthday holidays. This year many invitations had been received, and that from Woodstock, the centre of Oxford County, was accepted. The regiment paraded at 7. 15 a.m. on the 24th of May, entrained at the Union Station and proceeded to Woodstock, where they were welcomed with the greatest enthusiasm by the military corps and by the citizens. Proceeding to the park, manoeuvres were gone through, the colour trooped, and afterwards various games were enjoyed. The Pipe Band was the recipient of much praise from the people, many of them of Highland descent, with the love for the music and traditions of the Highlands strong in them. A thoroughly enjoyable day was spent, every form of entertainment being suitable to the occasion, and the trip will be long green in the memory of the officers and men who participated in it. The conduct of the men, as always, was above reproach.

At the conclusion of the spring drill season Lieut.-Col. Davidson issued this order: "The officer commanding desires to express his high appreciation of the faithful work done throughout by all ranks. He, also, refers, with much satisfaction to the parade on the 24th May, and the excellent conduct of the members of the regiment on that occasion."

Mr. Charles Allen Hugh Maclean s appointment as lieutenant dates from the 18th of May this year. His connection with the regiment being somewhat exceptional, it may be briefly referred to. His father, Maclean of Pennycross, one of the oldest cadet houses of the Clan Maclean, visited Canada in 1893, and was much impressed with the excellent organization and efficiency of the 48th Highlanders. The military traditions of his family coincided with a military career for his son, and he decided that his preliminary training for the British Army should be through the Forty-Eighth and the Canadian military schools. Accordingly, Mr. Charles Maclean came to Canada, and joined the Forty-Eighth on November 3rd, 1893, as second lieutenant provisionally. On February 2oth, 1894, his rank was confirmed, on a 1st Class R.S.I, certificate. He proceeded to the Royal Military College, Kingston, and took a brilliant course, qualifying for a commission in the British Army, and received an appointment to the 2nd battalion of the Argyle and Sutherland Highlanders, which regiment he joined in India.

The Annual Scottish Games, under the auspices of the regiment, were held on the Rosedale grounds on the i5th September, 1894. The weather was unsettled, and the cloudy sky of the forenoon was uninviting. Consequently the number of spectators was considerably less than that of the previous year. But the programme was quite as interesting and enjoyable. Many prominent Scotchmen from places outside of Toronto were present, as on the previous occasion, and from the city there was a fair representation. Major Macdonald was director of the proceedings, and was assisted in the Highland events dress, dancing and bagpipe competitions by Mr. Alexander Eraser, Toronto. A feature was a piobaireachd competition, in which written essays on that music were handed in by the competitors, the prizes for which were donated by the Gaelic Society of Toronto. While the financial success was not such as to encourage a continuance of Highland sports by the regiment largely because of the weather every one present could but feel that excellent sport had been provided, and that the regiment did itself credit by the excellent manner in which all the arrangements were carried out. Major Macdonald, Captains Robert son, Hendrie and Michie were specially instrumental in carrying through the arrangements for the day to a successful close.

The fall drill began early on the 3ist of August and continued without interruption to the close of the season, on the 22ncl of November.

An interesting ceremony which intervened was the unveiling of the statue of Sir John A. Macdonald on the 13th of October, at which a voluntary parade from the Forty- Eighth was permitted. A guard of honour was furnished, consisting of 100 officers and men, with the Band. Capt. and Bt.-Major Henderson was in command, with Lieut. C. A. H. Maclean and 2nd Lieut. Campbell and 2nd Lieut. Rainsbath (regimental colour).

Capt. Hunter resigned his company on the 2nd November, 1894, and was succeeded in command by Lieut. J. F. Ramsay.

That year a beautiful shooting trophy was presented to the regiment by the Caledonian Society of Toronto, in the form of a Border Tup's head, heavily mounted in silver, with snuff mull on top. The presentation was made by a deputation consisting of Mr. William Simpson, president; Capt. Robertson, vice-president; Robert Barron, George Vair, Wm. Campbell and Alexander Fraser, members of the committee.

With the fall of 1894 the three year term for which non-commissioned officers and men had enlisted in 1891 came to an end, and it must have been gratifying to the officers and friends of the regiment that few of the original members, the veterans, then retired. A "long service" badge was promised to those who would re-enlist in the service of the regiment, and at the opening of the season of 1895 the number of those who won the badge was large. Physical drill bulked largely in the duties of the regiment during the spring of 1895, and the routine work was uneventful but highly satisfactory.

The standing committees for the year 1895, were: Regimental: Major Macdonald, Captain Michie, and Lieut. Scott; Mess: Captain Donald, Dr. Dame, and Lieutenant H. C. MacLean; Rifle: Major Macdonald, Major Henderson, and Lieutenant Mitchell; Band Committee, Major Cosby, Capt. Robertson, and Lieut.
Hamilton. Captain Orchard was appointed Musketry Instructor for the year.

Quarters having been assigned to the regiment in the new Armories, the old Upper Canada College buildings were abandoned. Steps were taken to furnish the officers and the sergeants mess in the Armories, where since 1895 the regiment has had its home, and where many pleasant gatherings of friends of the regiment have been held.

The Queen s birthday, 1895, was spent at Windsor, Ont. The invitation had been most cordial, and although the journey was long and the visit extended, the parade was a large one. This trip is probably the most notable made by the regiment on a Queen s birthday outing. The journey was begun at nine o clock p.m., on the 23rd of May, by train from the Union Station. Early next day the regiment detrained at Windsor, marched from the railway to the camping ground, outside the city boundary, and camp was at once formed. It took but a short time to get the tents pitched and to serve breakfast. The daily routine of the camp was: 6 a.m., Reveille; 6.30 a.m., Guard Mounting; 8a .m., Breakfast; 8.40 a.m., Sick Parade; 9 a.m., Orderly Room; 10 a.m., Forenoon Parade; 12.30 p.m., Dinner; 1.45 p.m., Afternoon Parade; 5 p.m., Tea; 6.30 p.m., Guard Mounting; 7.30pm., Retreat; 10.30 p.m., Tattoo, First Post; 11 p.m., Last Post; 11.15 p.m. Lights Out. The commanding officer impressed upon all ranks the necessity for the maintenance of discipline and good behaviour, and the importance of upholding the reputation of the regiment on and off parade. His wishes were most thoroughly respected; and it is stated to be the fact that there was no reported absence from camp without leave, nor was there an instance of any breach of discipline. Camped as the regiment was on the border of the United States, with the attractions of the city of Detroit so near, there was some apprehension as to a mishap, but none occurred. The men

freely crossed the river to the American side, and they were most kindly received by the citizens there. The St. Andrew s Society of Detroit not only sent a deputation to Camp, to welcome the regiment, but kept their rooms and hall open all day long for the use of any Highlander who might choose to "drop in" for rest or refreshment, and in the evenings Scottish entertainments were improvised for the benefit of the visitors. The officers were feted by clubs, societies and by individuals, and on every side the hospitalities were unbounded. The camp continued on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, the regiment arriving home on Monday morning. On Friday afternoon a review was held in which regiments from neighbouring counties took part.

The concourse of people who witnessed the manoeuvres was vast. Thousands crossed from Detroit, and special trains ran from London and Chatham. People travelled from points as far away as Kincardine, Lucknow, Stratford, and St. Thomas, and from Scotch centres in the State of Michigan. It was a gala day, and the evening was given over to public rejoicing. On Saturday the regiment visited Walkerville, on the invitation of Mr. Hiram Walker, whose works and ware houses were inspected. A photograph of the regiment was taken on the lawn in front of the Company s offices. The officers and men were entertained at luncheon, and the officers and a number of friends had a sail on the river in Mr. Walker s steam yacht. On Sunday there was a parade for Divine Service, and in the evening camp was struck and the regiment entrained for Toronto, concluding a trip, the pleasures of which have been seldom equalled in connection with regimental holiday outings.

As an instance of the interest taken in the regiment, an incident may be related. An old man from a city in Michigan was observed to follow the movements of the men with the keenest attention keeping always well to the front. When an opportunity presented itself he said to one of the staff-sergeants: "I have not seen Highland soldiers for many a long year, and I have come far to see your regiment. The sight of the kilts, the sweet sound of the pipes and the sleeping memories which they have awakened, have brought the tears I could not restrain from my eyes to-day." Different, but equally characteristic, was an incident of the Woodstock outing of the year before. An aged piper, who wore a humane society s medal on his breast for bravery, was much in demand for bagpipe music, outside the lines. The saying "Probair an aona phort" is a familiar one: here was a veritable instance. Taking a breathing spell in a quiet corner, he was espied by a few cronies who insisted that he should play to them another tune. "I'll do nothing of the kind; do you think that I can endure to play all day long?" emphatically declared the son of Tubal. "Just another tune, only one more," pleaded the Zorra boy in a coaxing tone suggestive of the mellifluent Gaelic. "Well, well, then, you must have your way," said the vanquished piper, who, shouldering his pipes, played "A man's a man for a that," with great vigour. "O well," said the man from Zorra, speaking half apologetically to a non-com, who was standing by, "he is not what you would call a bad piper, now; but he has only that one tune whatever." But the piper played
with a piper's pride, unconscious of the sly criticism.

The regimental orders issued after the Windsor Camp contain the following paragraph: "The officer commanding the regiment cannot allow this occasion to pass without expressing in the most unqualified terms his appreciation of the conduct of the members of the regiment during the Windsor Camp period. The discipline and esprit de corps exhibited by all ranks merits the highest commendation."

On the 30th of May, the 48th were called upon to furnish the guard of honour to His Excellency the Earl of Aberdeen, Governor-General of Canada, on the occasion of the laying of the foundation stone of the Foresters Temple, Toronto, erected by the Independent Order of Foresters.

Piper MacSwayed succeeded Mr. Robert Ireland as Pipe-Major of the regiment.

Fall drill commenced on the 30th of August. The recruit classes were well attended and the drill for the season elicited the commendation of the Inspecting Officers. Towards the end of the season the commanding officer authorized the wearing of a Long Service Badge by all non commissioned officers and men (Staff Sergeants excepted) whose term of service had expired, and who had engaged for a further term. The badge was of the following device: The Scottish Lion Rampant, encircled by a tressure in reel on a shield of yellow 1 3/8 inches broad; to be worn on the right arm, below the elbow, and immediately above the good attendance badges.

The regimental best shot, winning the Gold Cross Guns and Crown this year, was Lance Corporal H. Kerr, "C" Co.

The year 1896 was begun by the appointment of the following Standing Committees: Regimental: Major Macdonald, Captain Michie and Lieutenant Scott; Band : Major Cosby, Captain Robertson and Captain Hendrie; Rifle: Major Macdonald, Captain Orchard, and Lieutenant Mitchell; Mess: Captain Donald, Lieutenant Hamilton and Lieutenant Cosby. At the annual meeting of the officers, Colonel Davidson suggested that shell jackets should be obtained for the regiment; also, that an entertainment be given to those who had patronized the regiment by subscribing to the funds. A committee composed of Major Cosby, Captain Robertson and Captain Michie, was appointed to raise funds for the shell jackets, with power, if successful, to purchase them. The committee succeeded beyond their expectations, many of the ladies of Toronto being among the subscribers, and the shell jackets were thus purchased soon after, and the regiment paraded in them on the 8th of May following.

On the 27th of February, 1896, this tribute is met in Orders: "It is with regret that the Commanding Officer draws attention to the loss the regiment has sustained by the death of the Chaplain, the Rev. D. J. Macdonnell, who has been enthusiastically identified with the regiment from its inception."

For the second time since its inception the regiment spent the Queen s birthday at Hamilton, the guests of the Thirteenth Battalion. The regiment paraded nearly 450 strong on Saturday evening, the 23rd of May, 1896, and proceeded by train to Hamilton, where, on arrival, they took up quarters in Dundurn Park. They were quietly, but cordially received by the officers of the Thirteenth and a few representative citizens. Camp was continued over Sunday and Monday. On Sunday a church parade took place, the Thirteenth, the Hamilton Field Battery, and the Forty-Eighth taking part. The brigade was commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Gibson, the senior officer present, and numbered about 877 officers and men. Thereafter, the day was quietly spent, and the rest was greatly enjoyed. On Monday a great field day was held at the grounds of the Jockey Club, the feature being a sham battle. The Seventh Fusiliers, of London, the Thirteenth, the Thirty-Eighth, Brantford, the Forty-Eighth, Toronto, and the Hamilton Field Battery took part. The opposing brigades were: the attacking force, under Lieut.-Colonel Moore, consisting of the Seventh Fusiliers under Major Beattie. the Thirteenth under Major McLaren, and two guns of the Field Battery under Lieutenant Alexander Duncan; and the defence, under Lieut.-Colonel Davidson, consisting of the Forty-Eighth, Thirty-Eighth, and two guns from the Field Battery, commanded by Major Hendrie. The movements were well executed, and the forces carried out the programme, which had been arranged in advance, with great accuracy. After the sham fight, the Forty-Eighth trooped the colours, winning the applause of the spectators. The evening was given over to a combined band concert at Dundurn Park, but before its completion the rain began to fall in torrents and the concert had to be stopped. This second visit was much enjoyed by the officers and men, and the good-will and friendship existing between the Forty- Eighth and the Thirteenth ever since the formation of the former was deepened and strengthened.

With the Queen's Own Rifles and the Royal Grenadiers, the Forty-Eighth paraded on Saturday, June 27th, for the unveiling of the monument to the North-West volunteers, in Queen s Park, Toronto, and the turnout was large.

Out of a total possible of 150 marks in the comparative efficiency of the companies, on June 1st, 1896, the regimental average was 99.84, the highest being 110.10, made by "B" Company.

On the 28th of August, 1896, Captain Dugald MacGillivray was gazetted Paymaster, with honorary rank of Captain, and was succeeded in the Adjutancy by Captain Duncan Donald, whose place was filled by Lieutenant H. C. MacLean, promoted to be Captain.

Orderly-Sergeant Alexander Rose was promoted on September 25th, 1896, to be Sergeant-Major, in the place of Alfred G. Robertson, who had occupied that position since the organization of the battalion.

In the marching and firing competitions on the 10th of October, 1896, the Forty-Eighth won the Gascoigne cup, with a score of 93 out of a possible 160 points, the next in order of merit being the Royal Grenadiers, with 85 points. This success, in a hard competition, in which eight veteran regimental teams were engaged, brought distinguished honour to the young regiment. Interest in the rifle practice rose to a high pitch this Fall, and as one result a beautifully-mounted dirk was presented as a trophy by John Wanless & Son; the conditions of contesting for it was left to the commanding officer, who decided that the dirk should be regimental property, and granted the privilege of wearing it, in lieu of that usually worn, to the officer commanding the company obtaining the first place in the Regiment at the Annual Inspection.

The regimental drill was concluded on the 26th of November, Thanksgiving Day, by a practice in field manoeuvres.

The Standing Committees for 1897 were: Regimental: Major Macdonald, Captain Michie, and 2nd Lieutenant Harbottle; Band Committee: Major Cosby, Captains Robertson and Hendrie; Rifle Committee: Major Macdonald, Lieutenant Mitchell, and 2nd Lieutenant McDougall ; Mess Committee, Captain Donald, Lieutenant Brooke, and 2nd Lieutenants Burnside and Cosby.

In the spring of this year (1897) the Regiment was equipped with Lee-Enfield rifles, and that arm was used in the rifle practice for the season.

An invitation from the Thirty-Eighth Batt., backed up enthusiastically by the citizens, to spend Queen's Birthday at Brantford was accepted. The regiment paraded on Saturday evening, the 2 2nd, at eight o clock, and took train to Brantford, and camp continued until the evening of the Monday following. On arrival at Brantford, officers of the Thirty-Eighth were in attendance to extend a welcome and to escort the regiment to the camp prepared before-hand by Captain H. C. MacLean and his advance contingent.

An event which will go down in the annals of the Forty-Eighth Highlanders is the victory of the regimental team at the Islington Royal Military Tournament. The tournament, which is a military function of the highest importance, took place in June, 1897, and a team from the Forty-Eighth decided to cross the ocean to take part. It was a bold venture, but Sergt. Williams and his men felt confident that they would win honour for the Regiment. Great public interest was aroused by the event. The citizens of Toronto, the City Council, and the Ontario Government subscribed handsomely to the fund required to cover the expenses of the trip. The ten members of the team were: Sergt.-Instructor Williams, "H" Co., in command, Pte. Rankin and Pte. McCheyne, "A" Co., Pte. Campbell and Pte. Rae, "E" Co., Pte. Wallbridge and Pte. DeLisle, "G" Co., Pte. Stewart, Pte. I. McLean and Pte. Wasson, "H" Co. The team was accompanied by Major Wilbur Henderson, "H" Co. The contests were with bayonets, and though the Highlanders were in excellent form, few Canadians expected the victory would have been so complete and glorious. The Highlanders won in three contests.

First event: The Colonial Individual Competition. Here four men were put against four men, and the Forty- Eighth men engaged were Williams, Wasson, McLean and Stewart. Their opponents were Australian volunteers, who had a number of teams represented. They were all beaten by the Forty-Eighth men, the result being : Stewart won first prize, Wasson 2nd, Williams defaulting to Stewart (his pupil) in the third round. The winner in the Colonial event had to fight off against the winner in the Regulars and in the Volunteers for the Championship of the Empire.

Second event: The Regulars and the London Volunteers fought individually, and their first prize men had to fight with the Colonial s first prize men in the first contest. The first prize man of the Regulars was Col.-Sergt. Daniels, West York shire Regiment, and of the London Volunteers, Pte. Hobbins, 12th Middlesex. With them Stewart had to fight. They drew for places and Stewart got the bye, leaving the first bout for the championship to be between Daniels and Hobbins. But Hobbins defaulted and Daniels and Stewart fought, Stewart winning the championship, Third event : A special match contest between (1) mixed teams from the London Regulars Brigaded Guards 1st and 2nd Life Guards, Grenadier Guards, Coldstream Guards and Scots Guards; (2) mixed teams from the different London Volunteer Corps; (3) and the 48th Highlanders team. The London Volunteer Corps team and that of the Brigaded Guards fought first. Corporal Fencing-Instructor E. Elliott was in charge of the Regulars and Pte. Hobbins of the Volunteers. The Regulars won by 5 to 4 points. The Regulars then fought the 48th Highlanders team, which was led by Sergt.-Instructor Williams, and the 48th Highlanders defeated the Regulars by a score of 5 to 4 points, securing a hard won victory.

Thus private George Stewart won the Championship, and Privates Rankin and Wasson also did brilliant work, while Sergt. Williams discharged his duty most creditably. Throughout military circles in Great Britain the success of the Canadian team was hailed as a sign of the growing importance of the premier colony, and coming as it did, almost at the same time as the Queen's Jubilee celebration in London, in which the Canadian contingent took a distinguished part, it obtained considerable public attention. Canada was proud of her Highland soldiers. In Toronto the news of Stewart's splendid victory was extremely well received. A Citizen's Reception Committee was formed, and on the arrival home of the team it was met on the train some distance from the city by a deputation of citizens and escorted in triumph to Toronto. A military and civic parade was formed, and, amid the deafening cheers of thousands, a procession took place to the Queen's Park where purses of gold, gold medals, and copies of an illuminated address of welcome were presented to the members of the team. To this reception men and women travelled from Hamilton and other places near the city, and some of these visitors, the members of the Citizens Committee and others were entertained at the Forty-Eighth Officers Mess after the proceedings had been concluded. Among those who had the honour of being invited were : His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, the Mayor of Toronto, the members of the City Council, the contributors to the team fund, the officers of Stanley Barracks, R.C.D. and R. R. C. I., officers of the city corps, members of the Citizens Committee, Lieut.-Colonel R. R. MacLennan, M.P. Lieut.-Colonel Moore, and a number of officers from Hamilton, accompanied by the famous band of the Thirteenth Batt., joined in the welcome.

On the 22nd of June, 1897, Canada, in common with other parts of Her Majesty s dominions, expressed its joy on the occasion of the Queen s Diamond Jubilee. Toronto did nobly; and a feature of the day s celebration was a grand military display. The Forty-Eighth bore a conspicuous part in the proceedings, the street parade and in the movements at the Exhibition Grounds.

The regimental entertainment took place on October 22iid, 1897, when an immense success was attained.

In the marching and firing competition this Fall (1897) the second team of the Forty-Eighth took second place with only four points below the winning team, and with a better score than last year when they won first place.

The annual field manoeuvres took place on Thanksgiving Day, the 25th of November, and in the work of the day the Forty-Eighth did their part extremely well.

The spring of 1898 ushered in an event of more than usual importance to the Forty-Eighth, viz., the retirement under the service limit of its first Commanding Officer, Lieut. -Colonel Davidson. His retirement and appointment in his place of Major A. M. Cosby are dated the 16th of March. The Regimental Orders following that date contain the following farewell from Lieut.-Colonel Davidson:

"Lieut.-Colonel Davidson, in retiring from the command of the 48th Highlanders, desires to acknowledge the burden he is under to all those, both members of the Regiment (especially to the Adjutant, Captain Donald) and otherwise, who since the organization was authorized, have by their united efforts and hearty co-operation enabled him to accomplish the task allotted to him by the military authorities, and without which his best efforts must have been unavailing. The officers, non-commissioned officers and men who have by their untiring exertions, unwearied support, and uniform adherence to duty and discipline aided him in bringing the Regiment up to the high state of efficiency which it now occupies, would he have bear in mind that only in strict attention to duty, engendering that esprit dc corps so essential, can there be success, and it rests with them to see that the same self-sacrificing devotion to the interests of the Regiment which has existed since the beginning is maintained and strengthened.

"Lieut.-Colonel Davidson bespeaks for his successor a continuance of the implicit confidence and support which has been extended to him; and with these few admonitions and acknowledgments he makes his farewell to the 48th Highlanders with every expression of gratitude for the past, well knowing they will continue in the path which they have carved out for themselves; that they will be loyal and true sons of Canada and of the majestic Empire of which we form a part; worthy of the time-honoured uniform they wear, and of their motto, "Dileas Gu Brath."

The splendid condition in which Lieut.-Colonel Davidson handed over the Forty-Eighth to his successor may be gathered from the following remarks by the

Inspector of Infantry at the time: "Physique, excellent; drill, very good; clothing and accoutrements, excellent ; arms, excellent; books, excellent; discipline, very good; general, a very efficient battalion, short in officers to the number of seven; over-strength in non-coms, and men; an excellent band, with a very good bugle and drum corps; also efficient bearers and stretchers."

Lieut.-Colonel Davidson s connection with the Forty-Eighth has been retained as Honorary Lieut.-Colonel.

Lieut.-Colonel Cosby, who now assumed command of the regiment, was, as has been stated previously, an active promoter of the regiment and an officer from the beginning. He took a deep interest in everything pertaining to its welfare, a course he pursued during the tenure of his command. The vacancy in the Majority, caused by Major Macdonald s promotion to be senior Major, was filled by the appointment of Captain D. M. Robertson to be junior Major.

A regimental entertainment was held on the 15th of April, 1898, in the Grand Opera House. At the Military Tournament held in the Armories same month, the Forty-Eighth took a fair share of the honours.

The Queen's Birthday trip, this year, was to Galt, where a cordial welcome awaited them. The manoeuvres were the source of pleasure to a large number of Scotsmen who travelled to see the Forty-Eighth from the surrounding counties. Train for Toronto was taken in the evening of the same day, the outing being briefer than on any previous occasion.

The impetus caused by the success at Islington to physical drill and bayonet exercise resulted in the formation of a large class, of which Sergt. Alf. Williams was at the beginning of fall drill this year appointed Sergeant Instructor of Gymnastics. It is to be noted that the state of the parade shows excellent attendance at drill and at the rifle practices this fall. The Thanksgiving Day manoeuvres were held on the 24th of November, the Thirteenth battalion taking part with the Toronto regiments. The Forty-Eighth was brigaded with the Queen's Own Rifles, under Lieut.-Colonel Delamere, and acted their part very creditably in the field exercises of the day.

The retirement of Lieut.-Colonel Davidson was marked by the presentation to him of three valuable pieces of sterling silver plate in the form of loving cups, from the officers, non-coms., and men. The engravings were of chaste and beautiful de sign, the crest and motto of the Regiment being conspicuous. At the close of drill parade the Regiment was drawn up, forming three sides of a square, and Lieut.- Colonel Cosby made the presentation on behalf of the Highlanders, and alluded to the personal popularity of Lieut.-Colonel Davidson, and to his indefatigable energy in organizing and developing the Regiment. Honorary Lieut.-Colonel Davidson replied in terms of deep feeling. Thereafter a reception was held in the officers mess, at which, among others, the following were present: Lady Kirkpatrick, Mrs. Cosby, Mrs. Davidson, Mrs. Macdonald, Mr. Wyld, and Dr. Daniel Clark.

In Regimental Orders the following letter appeared:

"11th Nov., 1898.

My Dear Col. Cosby :

Would you kindly have conveyed to the officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of the 48th Highlanders, my deep appreciation of their kind thoughtfulness in presenting to me such a beautiful testimonial. I will ever cherish it in memory of six happy years spent with the Regiment, and will hand it down to my family with pride.

Yours very truly,

Hon. Lieut. -Colonel 48th Highlanders."

At the close of 1898, the condition of the Regiment was very gratifying. The general officer commanding the Canadian militia had inspected them, and made this flattering report: "General remarks 48th Highlanders; in excellent order. Remarks: Physique, excellent; clothing and accoutrements, very good; drill, very good; books, very good order; arms, excellent; discipline, very steady and quiet on parade. General: a very reliable and efficient battalion; complete in officers, and somewhat over strength in men; very keen and enthusiastic in all duties; an excellent band, with a very good bugle corps, as well as pipers; efficient bearer and pioneer corps."

The Standing Committees for 1898 were: Regimental, Captain and Bt.-Major Henderson, Captain Michie and Lieutenant Catto; Band Committee, Major Cosby, Captain Robertson and Captain Hendrie; Rifle Committee, Major Macdonald, Captain Mitchell and 2nd Lieutenant Harbottle; Mess Committee, Captain Donald, Lieutenant N. W. Cosby, and 2nd Lieutenant Taylor; Athletic Committee, Major Henderson, Lieutenant Perry and Lieutenant Brooks.

The annual meeting of the officers, held on the ;,rd of February, 1899, fore shadowed an active spring in detail of regimental work. The various departments of the Regiment were well reported upon, and arrangements made for prosecuting the duties vigorously. The leading branches were placed under the following Standing Committees: Regimental, Major Henderson, Captain Michie, and Lieutenant Catto ; Band, Major Robertson, Captain Hendrie, Lieutenant McDougall; Rifle, Major Macdonald, Captain Michie, Lieutenant Harbottle; Mess, Major Orchard, 2nd Lieutenant Woodbridge, Assistant-Surgeon Smith ; Athletic, Captain and Bt.- Major Henderson, Lieutenant McDougall, 2nd Lieutenant Darling.

An event of interest in the history of this year was the encampment of the battalion at Niagara during the 30th of June and the 1st and 2nd of July. The Regiment paraded at 5.45 a.m., on the 30th of June, in Review Order, and proceeded to Niagara by steamer, returning therefrom on the evening of the 2nd of July. During camp the duties devolving in the Regiment were calculated to be a useful experience, not as readily gained by the usual drill, and in the discharge of these the Forty-Eighth compared favourably with the other regiments forming the brigade.

At the Dominion Rifle Meeting, the Forty-Eighth were well represented, and its crack shots succeeded in making a brilliant showing, winning the British Challenge Shield, the Gzowski Cup, and the Gillespie Challenge Trophy; a list to be proud of, surely.

Thanksgiving Day, 1899, was observed fully a month earlier than usual, the date falling on the 19th of October. The sham fight was participated in by the Queen s Own Rifles, the Royal Grenadiers, the Thirteenth Battalion, the Forty-Eighth Highlanders, the 1st Prince of Wales Fusiliers, Montreal, the Royal Canadian Dragoons, and the 9th Field Battery. Lieut. -Colonel Henry McLaren commanded the attacking, and Lieut.-Colonel Delamere the defending force. The manoeuvres exemplified quite a number of interesting tactics, and the Forty-Eighth maintained its reputation for reliability.

On the 15th of October the battalion attended divine service in St. Andrew's church, when the Rev. Dr. Armstrong Black preached for the first time as Chaplain of the Regiment.

The interest aroused by the South African war was felt nowhere deeper than in Toronto, ever loyal to the British crown and to its imperial interests. As a matter of course, when permission was given to send a Canadian contingent to take part in the war, the Forty-Eighth Highlanders responded with a will. Many applications were made for places on the contingent, but the number being restricted, the following only were taken :

"A" Company, Colour-Sergeant A. R. MacGregor, Corporal J. A. Smith, Privates Whitehead, Weller, Mitchell and Macpherson.

"B" Company, Private J. D. Spence.

"C" Company, Privates G. M. Smith and Hornibrook.

"D" Company, Privates A. C. McKenzie and McNish.

"E" Company, Sergeant W. H. Grant.

"G" Company, Color-Sergeant Lorsch, Privates Dunham and F. K. Blain.

"H" Company, Corporals Hopeson and Banton, and Ptes. Baldwin and Morley.

Captain J. F. Ramsay, who had held the rank of Lieutenant and Captain in the Regiment, and had retired on leaving the limits, travelled from the Western States to Toronto in time to offer his services as a private in the contingent, and to be accepted. Captain F. L. Cosby and Lieutenant N. W. Cosby also went later, the former as an officer in the Canadian Mounted Rifles, and the latter as a private in the Canadian Field Artillery Corps. Lieutenant Temple went in connection with the Company from London, Ontario.

This year, 1900, opened auspiciously. The Regiment was in excellent condition,
and the enthusiasm of all ranks boded well for the year. The committees struck on
the 2nd of February were : Regimental, Captain and Bt.- Major Henderson, Captain
Michie, Lieutenant Catto; Band, Major Robertson, Captain Hendrie, 2nd Lieutenant
Mackenzie; Rifle, Major Macdonald, Captain Mitchell, Lieutenant Harbottle; Mess,
Captain MacLean, Surgeon- Lieutenant Smith and 2nd Lieutenant Woodbridge;
Athletic, Captain Mitchell, Lieutenant Harbottle, 2nd Lieutenants Woodbridge and

Early in the year, 1900, the Regiment was supplied with the "Oliver" equipment. In regimental orders of the 20th of April reference is made to the fact that Private Hornibrook, "C" Company, had been specially mentioned in the report of the officer commanding the 2nd (Special Service) Battalion, Royal Canadian Regiment, at Paardeberg. Col. Otter in his report said: "Another incident of coolness and pluck was that of No. 7347 Private Hornibrook, who, at daylight on the morning of the 19th instant, was clown to the extreme right of the lines occupied by the enemy the previous day. He was unarmed and came suddenly upon an armed Boer looking for a stray horse. With great presence of mind, Hornibrook pretended to be armed with a revolver and called upon imaginary assistance, at the same time demanding the man s surrender. The Boer at once submitted, and on being "brought in proved to be one of General Cronje's adjutants and a most important officer."

On the 11th of May, Major Macdonald assumed the command of the Forty- Eighth, owing to the illness of Lieut.-Colonel Cosby, and on the 12th of that month Lieut. -Colonel Cosby succumbed to that illness, at the comparatively young age of 62 years, to the deep regret of the officers and men and of the community by which he was highly esteemed. The regimental tribute reads: "It is with regret that the  death is announced of Lieut. Colonel Cosby, the late commanding officer of the Regiment, which took place on Saturday, the 12th inst. (May). Lieut.-Colonel Cosby had been actively connected with the Regiment since its organization, and took a deep interest in all matters pertaining to its welfare. As a mark of respect to his memory, officers will wear the usual mourning badge for a period of thirty days."

The spring season closed by the Forty-Eighth taking part in a garrison parade on the 24th of May, when it trooped the colours in honour of the Queen s Birthday, and subsequently in the garrison parade and review. His Excellency, Lord Minto, the Governor-General, was present, and, himself a veteran soldier, he expressed his entire satisfaction with the excellent arrangements made for the celebration of Her Majesty s birthday at Toronto, and his appreciation of the very smart appearance of the troops on parade.

On the 7th of June, 1900, Major Macdonald was appointed Lieut.-Colonel of the Forty-Eighth, and in his hands it is safe to say the honourable record set down in these pages will be more than fully maintained. 

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